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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528355/increased-retinol-free-rbp4-contributes-to-insulin-resistance-in-gestational-diabetes-mellitus
#1
Yanmin Chen, Ping Lv, Mengkai Du, Zhaoxia Liang, Menglin Zhou, Danqing Chen
PURPOSE: Retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) is a circulating retinol transporter that is strongly associated with insulin resistance. The aim of this study was to evaluate the RBP4 and retinol level in rat model of gestational diabetes mellitus and the relationship between retinol-free RBP4 (apo-RBP4), retinol-bound RBP4 (holo-RBP4) and insulin resistance. METHODS: Pregnant rats were administered streptozotocin to induce diabetes. The RBP4 and retinol levels were evaluated in GDM and normal pregnant rats...
May 20, 2017: Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527955/neuroprotective-effect-of-the-alpha-7-nicotinic-receptor-agonist-pha-543613-in-an-in-vivo-excitotoxic-adult-rat-model
#2
Laura Foucault-Fruchard, Aurélie Doméné, Guylène Page, Marguerite Windsor, Patrick Emond, Nuno Rodrigues, Frédéric Dollé, Annelaure Damont, Frédéric Buron, Sylvain Routier, Sylvie Chalon, Daniel Antier
Neuroinflammation is a key component of the pathophysiology of neurodegenerative diseases. The link between nicotine intake and positive outcome has been established, suggesting a role played by nicotinic receptors (nAChRs), especially α7nAChRs. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential dose effects of PHA 543613 on neuron survival and striatal microglial activation in a rat model of brain excitotoxicity. A preliminary study was performed in vitro to confirm PHA 543613 agonist properties on α7nAChRs...
May 17, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527857/novel-immunologic-approaches-to-melanoma-treatment
#3
I Escandell, J M Martín, E Jordá
Approaches to treating melanoma have changed radically since the introduction of immunotherapy, and survival figures are now higher than possible with earlier therapies. The immunomodulators currently available mainly block CTLA-4 (cytotoxicT lymphocyte-associated molecule-4) and PD-1 (programed cell death protein 1) translocated to the cell surface, where they inhibit the antitumor immune response. Treatments blocking these molecules are being more widely used. Research now seeks new molecular targets, the best combinations of available drugs, and biomarkers that can identify ideal candidates for each one...
May 17, 2017: Actas Dermo-sifiliográficas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527256/-stat3-activation-by-hypoxia-in-in-vitro-models-of-cervix-cancer-and-endothelial-cells
#4
Óscar Ortega, Alejandro Ondo-Méndez, Ruth Garzón
INTRODUCTION: The biological behavior of cancer cells is influenced by the tumor microenvironment in which they develop. In this context, stressor stimuli such as hypoxia are considered critical for tumor development and therapeutic management. Cellular response to various stimuli is evidenced in the activation of intracellular signaling pathways such as JAK/STAT, which is one of the most important for its effects in differentiation and cell proliferation. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the condition of the JAK/STAT pathway through the expression/activation of the STAT3 protein in cervix cancer cells (HeLa) and endothelial cells (EA...
January 24, 2017: Biomédica: Revista del Instituto Nacional de Salud
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526927/sodium-thiosulphate-attenuates-brain-inflammation-induced-by-systemic-lipopolysaccharide-administration-in-c57bl-6j-mice
#5
Gonzalo Acero, Miryam Nava Catorce, Ricardo González-Mendoza, Marco Antonio Meraz-Rodríguez, Luis Fernando Hernández-Zimbron, Roberto González-Salinas, Goar Gevorkian
It has been demonstrated that peripheral infections accompanied by neuroinflammation may modify brain development or affect normal brain aging and represent major risk factors for the development of neurological disorders. A wide range of synthetic and natural compounds with anti-inflammatory properties have been evaluated in animal models of neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration as an adjuvant therapeutic strategy. In the present study we have demonstrated for the first time that sodium thiosulphate (STS), a known antidote approved for treatment of certain medical conditions, is capable of reducing brain inflammation caused by systemic LPS administration...
May 19, 2017: Inflammopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526321/effects-of-dehp-and-its-metabolite-mehp-on-insulin-signalling-and-proteins-involved-in-glut4-translocation-in-cultured-l6-myotubes
#6
Mangala Priya Viswanathan, Vigneswari Mullainadhan, Mayilvanan Chinnaiyan, Balasubramanian Karundevi
Di-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) is the plasticizer used in variety of medical and consumer products to impart structural flexibility. DEHP and its primary metabolite mono-(2-ethyl hexyl)phthalate (MEHP) posed a considerable interest because of their contribution to insulin resistance, type-2 diabetes and obesity. Experimental and epidemiological data have shown that DEHP affects blood glucose homeostasis. However, direct effect of DEHP and its metabolite MEHP on insulin signal transduction and glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) translocation remain obscure...
May 16, 2017: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525970/the-immunoregulatory-role-of-alpha-enolase-in-dendritic-cell-function-during-chlamydia-infection
#7
Khamia Ryans, Yusuf Omosun, Danielle N McKeithen, Tankya Simoneaux, Camilla C Mills, Nathan Bowen, Francis O Eko, Carolyn M Black, Joseph U Igietseme, Qing He
BACKGROUND: We have previously reported that interleukin-10 (IL-10) deficient dendritic cells (DCs) are potent antigen presenting cells that induced elevated protective immunity against Chlamydia. To further investigate the molecular and biochemical mechanism underlying the superior immunostimulatory property of IL-10 deficient DCs we performed proteomic analysis on protein profiles from Chlamydia-pulsed wild-type (WT) and IL-10(-/-) DCs to identify differentially expressed proteins with immunomodulatory properties...
May 19, 2017: BMC Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525901/direct-inhibition-of-stat-signaling-by-platinum-drugs-contributes-to-their-anti-cancer-activity
#8
Stanleyson V Hato, Carl G Figdor, Susumu Takahashi, Anja E Pen, Altuna Halilovic, Kalijn F Bol, Angela Vasaturo, Yukie Inoue, Nienke de Haas, Dagmar Verweij, Carla M L Van Herpen, Johannes H Kaanders, Johan H J M van Krieken, Hanneke W M Van Laarhoven, Gerrit K J Hooijer, Cornelis J A Punt, Akira Asai, I Jolanda M de Vries, W Joost Lesterhuis
Platinum-based chemotherapeutics are amongst the most powerful anti-cancer drugs. Although their exact mechanism of action is not well understood, it is thought to be mediated through covalent DNA binding. We investigated the effect of platinum-based chemotherapeutics on signaling through signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) proteins, which are involved in many oncogenic signaling pathways. We performed in vitro experiments in various cancer cell lines, investigating the effects of platinum chemotherapeutics on STAT phosphorylation and nuclear translocation, the expression of STAT-modulating proteins and downstream signaling pathways...
May 7, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525305/clinical-impact-of-the-cell-of-origin-classification-and-the-myc-bcl2-dual-expresser-status-in-diffuse-large-b-cell-lymphoma-treated-within-prospective-clinical-trials-of-the-german-high-grade-non-hodgkin-s-lymphoma-study-group
#9
Annette M Staiger, Marita Ziepert, Heike Horn, David W Scott, Thomas F E Barth, Heinz-Wolfram Bernd, Alfred C Feller, Wolfram Klapper, Monika Szczepanowski, Michael Hummel, Harald Stein, Dido Lenze, Martin-Leo Hansmann, Sylvia Hartmann, Peter Möller, Sergio Cogliatti, Georg Lenz, Lorenz Trümper, Markus Löffler, Norbert Schmitz, Michael Pfreundschuh, Andreas Rosenwald, German Ott
Purpose To explore the prognostic impact and interdependence of the cell-of-origin (COO) classification, dual expression (DE) of MYC and BCL2 proteins, and MYC, BCL2, and BCL6 translocations in two prospectively randomized clinical trials of patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Patients and Methods Overall, 452 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded samples from two prospective, randomized DLBCL trials (RICOVER-60, prospective, randomized study for patients > 60 years, all IPI groups; and R-MegaCHOEP, prospective, randomized study for patients ≤ 60 years with age-adjusted IPI 2,3) of the German High-Grade Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Study Group were analyzed with the Lymph2Cx assay for COO classification, with immunohistochemistry for MYC and BCL2, and with fluorescent in situ hybridization for MYC, BCL2, and BCL6 rearrangements...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524723/l1-retrotransposition-is-activated-by-ten-eleven-translocation-protein-1-and-repressed-by-methyl-cpg-binding-proteins
#10
Peng Zhang, Anne K Ludwig, Florian D Hastert, Cathia Rausch, Anne Lehmkuhl, Ines Hellmann, Martha Smets, Heinrich Leonhardt, M Cristina Cardoso
One of the major functions of DNA methylation is the repression of transposable elements, such as the long-interspersed nuclear element 1 (L1). The underlying mechanism(s), however, are unclear. Here, we addressed how retrotransposon activation and mobilization are regulated by methyl-cytosine modifying ten-eleven-translocation (Tet) proteins and how this is modulated by methyl-CpG binding domain (MBD) proteins. We show that Tet1 activates both, endogenous and engineered L1 retrotransposons. Furthermore, we found that Mecp2 and Mbd2 repress Tet1-mediated activation of L1 by preventing 5hmC formation at the L1 promoter...
May 19, 2017: Nucleus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523344/role-of-g3bp1-in-glucocorticoid-receptor-mediated-microrna-15b-and-microrna-23a-biogenesis-in-endothelial-cells
#11
Hoi-Hin Kwok, Po-Ying Poon, Kylie Hin-Man Mak, Lin-Yao Zhang, Pei Liu, Huoming Zhang, Nai-Ki Mak, Patrick Ying-Kit Yue, Ricky Ngok-Shun Wong
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a family of non-coding RNAs that play crucial roles in regulating various normal cellular responses. Recent studies revealed that the canonical miRNA biogenesis pathway is subject to sophisticated regulation. Hormonal control of miRNA biogenesis by androgen and estrogen has been demonstrated, but the direct effects of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) on miRNA biogenesis are unknown. This study revealed the role of GR in miRNA maturation. We showed that two GR agonists, dexamethasone and ginsenoside-Rg1 rapidly suppressed the expression of mature miR-15b, miR-23a, and miR-214 in human endothelial cells...
May 18, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523272/structural-elements-regulating-aaa-protein-quality-control-machines
#12
REVIEW
Chiung-Wen Chang, Sukyeong Lee, Francis T F Tsai
Members of the ATPases Associated with various cellular Activities (AAA+) superfamily participate in essential and diverse cellular pathways in all kingdoms of life by harnessing the energy of ATP binding and hydrolysis to drive their biological functions. Although most AAA+ proteins share a ring-shaped architecture, AAA+ proteins have evolved distinct structural elements that are fine-tuned to their specific functions. A central question in the field is how ATP binding and hydrolysis are coupled to substrate translocation through the central channel of ring-forming AAA+ proteins...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523069/crosstalk-between-aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor-and-glucocorticoid-receptor-in-human-retinal-pigment-epithelial-cells
#13
Hong Lan Jin, Yujin Choi, Kwang Won Jeong
The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is known to mediate the cellular reaction involved in processing environmental contaminants and, ultimately, preventing accumulation of unfavorable extra lipids and proteins. Glucocorticoid receptor (GR) mediates the expression of genes associated with anti-inflammatory properties. Because AHR and GR are closely related in lipid metabolic dysregulation and inflammation, we speculate that AHR and GR may play a crucial role in AMD pathogenesis and focus on their crosstalk in human retinal pigment epithelial cells (ARPE-19)...
2017: International Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523011/the-effects-of-herbicides-targeting-aromatic-and-branched-chain-amino-acid-biosynthesis-support-the-presence-of-functional-pathways-in-broomrape
#14
Evgenia Dor, Shmuel Galili, Evgeny Smirnov, Yael Hacham, Rachel Amir, Joseph Hershenhorn
It is not clear why herbicides targeting aromatic and branched-chain amino acid biosynthesis successfully control broomrapes-obligate parasitic plants that obtain all of their nutritional requirements, including amino acids, from the host. Our objective was to reveal the mode of action of imazapic and glyphosate in controlling the broomrape Phelipanche aegyptiaca and clarify if this obligatory parasite has its own machinery for the amino acids biosynthesis. P. aegyptiaca callus was studied to exclude the indirect influence of the herbicides on the parasite through the host plant...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522963/the-f-actin-binding-protein-cortactin-regulates-the-dynamics-of-the-exocytotic-fusion-pore-through-its-sh3-domain
#15
Arlek M González-Jamett, María J Guerra, María J Olivares, Valentina Haro-Acuña, Ximena Baéz-Matus, Jacqueline Vásquez-Navarrete, Fanny Momboisse, Narcisa Martinez-Quiles, Ana M Cárdenas
Upon cell stimulation, the network of cortical actin filaments is rearranged to facilitate the neurosecretory process. This actin rearrangement includes both disruption of the preexisting actin network and de novo actin polymerization. However, the mechanism by which a Ca(2+) signal elicits the formation of new actin filaments remains uncertain. Cortactin, an actin-binding protein that promotes actin polymerization in synergy with the nucleation promoting factor N-WASP, could play a key role in this mechanism...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522751/targeting-fbw7-as-a-strategy-to-overcome-resistance-to-targeted-therapy-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#16
Mingxiang Ye, Yong Zhang, Xinxin Zhang, Jian-Bin Zhang, Pengyu Jing, Liang Cao, Nan Li, Xia Li, Libo Yao, Jian Zhang, Jian Zhang
Inhibition of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) signaling is highly effective in a subgroup of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with distinct clinicopathological features. However, resistance to EGFR and ALK inhibitors inevitably occurs, and the molecular mechanism underlying resistance is not fully understood. In this study, we report a PI3K/Akt- and MEK/Erk-independent resistance mechanism by which loss of the E3 ubiquitin ligase F-box and WD repeat domain containing 7 (FBW7α) leads to targeted therapy resistance via stabilization of anti-apoptotic protein MCL-1...
May 18, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522595/human-salivary-peptide-histatin-1-stimulates-epithelial-and-endothelial-cell-adhesion-and-barrier-function
#17
Irene A van Dijk, Maria Laura Ferrando, Anne-Eva van der Wijk, Ron A Hoebe, Kamran Nazmi, Wouter J de Jonge, Przemek M Krawczyk, Jan G M Bolscher, Enno C I Veerman, Jan Stap
Histatins are multifunctional histidine-rich peptides secreted by the salivary glands and exclusively present in the saliva of higher primates, where they play a fundamental role in the protection of the oral cavity. Our previously published results demonstrated that histatin-1 (Hst1) promotes cell-substrate adhesion in various cell types and hinted that it could also be involved in cell-cell adhesion, a process of fundamental importance to epithelial and endothelial barriers. Here we explore the effects of Hst1 on cellular barrier function...
May 18, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522546/the-rxlr-motif-of-the-host-targeting-effector-avr3a-of-phytophthora-infestans-is-cleaved-before-secretion
#18
Stephan Wawra, Franziska Trusch, Anja Matena, Kostis Apostolakis, Uwe Linne, Igor Zhukov, Jan Stanek, Wiktor Koźmiński, Ian Davidson, Chris J Secombes, Peter Bayer, Pieter van West
When plant-pathogenic oomycetes infect their hosts, they employ a large arsenal of effector proteins to establish a successful infection. Some effector proteins are secreted and are destined to be translocated and function inside host cells. The largest group of translocated proteins from oomycetes are the RxLR effectors, defined by their conserved N-terminal Arg-Xaa-Leu-Arg (RxLR) motif. However, the precise role of this motif in the host cell translocation process is unclear. Here detailed biochemical studies of the RxLR effector AVR3a from the potato pathogen Phytophthora infestans are presented...
May 18, 2017: Plant Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522325/generation-of-chromosomal-translocations-that-lead-to-conditional-fusion-protein-expression-using-crispr-cas9-and-homology-directed-repair
#19
Fabio Vanoli, Maria Jasin
Recurrent chromosomal translocations often lead to expression of fusion proteins associated with oncogenic transformation. To study translocations and downstream events, genome editing techniques have been developed to generate chromosomal translocations through non-homologous end joining of DNA double-strand breaks introduced at the two participating endogenous loci. However, the frequencies at which these events occur is usually too low to efficiently clone cells carrying the translocation. This article provides a detailed method using CRISPR-Cas9 technology and homology-directed repair to efficiently isolate cells harboring a chromosomal translocation...
May 15, 2017: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522298/%C3%AE-cyclodextrin-induces-the-differentiation-of-resident-cardiac-stem-cells-to-cardiomyocytes-through-autophagy
#20
Xingxing Shi, Wenjing Li, Honghong Liu, Deling Yin, Jing Zhao
Cardiac stem cells (CSCs) have emerged as promising cell candidates to regenerate damaged hearts, because of the potential in differentiating to cardiomyocytes. However, the differentiation is difficult to trigger without inducers. Here we reported that β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) increased the expression of cardiac transcription factors (Nkx2.5 and GATA4), structural proteins (cardiac Troponin T, cTnt), transcriptional enhancer (Mef2c) and induced GATA4 nucleus translocation in adult resident CSCs, thus β-CD could be used to enhance myogenic transition...
May 15, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
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