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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453972/exposure-to-ambient-pm2-5-associated-with-overall-and-domain-specific-disability-among-adults-in-six-low-and-middle-income-countries
#1
Hualiang Lin, Yanfei Guo, Yang Zheng, Xing Zhao, Zheng Cao, Steven E Rigdon, Hong Xian, Xing Li, Tao Liu, Jianpeng Xiao, Weilin Zeng, Nancy L Weaver, ZhengminMin Qian, Wenjun Ma, Fan Wu
BACKGROUND: Exposure to particulate matter pollution is associated with various cardiopulmonary diseases, which are closely related with disability. The direct relationship between air pollution and disability, however, has not been fully explored. METHODS: We used data from 45,625 participants in the Study on global AGEing and adult health in six low- and middle-income countries. The 12-item version of the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule (WHODAS 2...
April 25, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453817/epidemiology-of-sudden-cardiac-death-in-cameroon-the-first-population-based-cohort-survey-in-sub-saharan-africa
#2
Aimé Bonny, Kemi Tibazarwa, Samuel Mbouh, Jonas Wa, Réné Fonga, Cecile Saka, Marcus Ngantcha
Background: Incidence estimates of sudden cardiac death (SCD) in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) are unknown. Method: Over 12 months, the household administrative office and health community committee within neighbourhoods in two health areas of Douala, Cameroon, registered all deaths among 86 188 inhabitants aged >18 years. As part of an extended multi-source surveillance system, the Emergency Medical Service (EMS), local medical examiners and district hospital mortuaries were also surveyed...
April 26, 2017: International Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453793/impact-of-gender-on-long-term-outcomes-after-surgical-repair-for-acute-stanford-a-aortic-dissection-a-propensity-score-matched-analysis%C3%A2
#3
Anton Sabashnikov, Stephanie Heinen, Antje Christin Deppe, Mohamed Zeriouh, Alexander Weymann, Ingo Slottosch, Kaveh Eghbalzadeh, Aron-Frederik Popov, Oliver Liakopoulos, Parwis B Rahmanian, Navid Madershahian, Axel Kroener, Yeong-Hoon Choi, Ferdinand Kuhn-Régnier, André R Simon, Thorsten Wahlers, Jens Wippermann
OBJECTIVES: Previous research suggests that female gender is associated with increased mortality rates after surgery for Stanford A acute aortic dissection (AAD). However, women with AAD usually present with different clinical symptoms that may bias outcomes. Moreover, there is a lack of long-term results regarding overall mortality and freedom from major cerebrovascular events. We analysed the impact of gender on long-term outcomes after surgery for Stanford A AAD by comparing genders with similar risk profiles using propensity score matching...
May 1, 2017: Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453658/androgen-receptor-agonists-increase-lean-mass-improve-cardiopulmonary-functions-and-extend-survival-in-preclinical-models-of-duchenne-muscular-dystrophy
#4
Suriyan Ponnusamy, Ryan D Sullivan, Dahui You, Nadeem Zafar, Chuan He Yang, Thirumagal Thiyagarajan, Daniel L Johnson, Maron L Barrett, Nikki J Koehler, Mayra Star, Erin J Stephenson, Dave Bridges, Stephania A Cormier, Lawrence M Pfeffer, Ramesh Narayanan
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a neuromuscular disease that predominantly affects boys as a result of mutation(s) in the dystrophin gene. DMD is characterized by musculoskeletal and cardiopulmonary complications, resulting in shorter life-span. Boys afflicted by DMD typically exhibit symptoms within 3-5 years of age and declining physical functions before attaining puberty. We hypothesized that rapidly deteriorating health of pre-pubertal boys with DMD could be due to diminished anabolic actions of androgens in muscle, and that intervention with an androgen receptor (AR) agonist will reverse musculoskeletal complications and extend survival...
April 27, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453621/prevalence-of-malignant-arrhythmia-and-sudden-cardiac-death-in-takotsubo-syndrome-and-its-management
#5
Ibrahim El-Battrawy, Siegfried Lang, Uzair Ansari, Erol Tülümen, Katja Schramm, Christian Fastner, Xiaobo Zhou, Ursula Hoffmann, Martin Borggrefe, Ibrahim Akin
Aims: Recent studies have highlighted that takotsubo syndrome (TTS) is associated with a poor clinical outcome. Our study was conducted to determine the short- and long-term prevalence, recurrence rate and impact of life-threatening arrhythmias (LTA) on the clinical outcome of TTS. Methods and results: Our institutional database constituted a collective of 114 patients diagnosed with TTS between 2003 and 2015. The patient groups, divided according to the presence (n = 13, 11...
April 26, 2017: Europace: European Pacing, Arrhythmias, and Cardiac Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449506/surgical-resection-of-right-ventricular-rhabdomyoma-under-the-guidance-of-transesophageal-echocardiography-on-a-beating-heart
#6
Xueguang Han, Haibo Song, Li Zhou, Chunling Jiang
Cardiac rhabdomyoma, a type of benign myocardial tumor, is regarded as the most common fetal cardiac tumor. Rhabdomyomas are usually found before birth or during the first year of life. It is widely accepted that rhabdomyomas are strongly associated with tuberous sclerosis, and tend to regress spontaneously without surgical excision. However, if the tumor has caused significant obstruction or refractory arrhythmias, the surgery should be advocated. Most of the surgeries for pediatric cardiac tumors are performed under cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) with cardioplegia...
March 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449487/performance-in-the-shuttle-walk-test-is-associated-with-cardiopulmonary-complications-after-lung-resections
#7
Joseph Fennelly, Lauren Potter, Cecilia Pompili, Alessandro Brunelli
BACKGROUND: The current functional guidelines recommend the shuttle walk test (SWT) as an initial screening tool to identify candidates for lung resection without requiring cardiopulmonary exercise testing. This study aims to: (I) assess the use of the SWT in predicting postoperative cardiopulmonary complications; and (II) determine whether the recommended 400 m cut-off is an appropriate distance. METHODS: We retrospectively analysed 101 patients that had performed a SWT prior to surgery...
March 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449483/epicardial-left-atrial-appendage-closure-comparison-of-surgical-techniques-in-an-ex-vivo-model
#8
Nikolas Mirow, Sebastian Vogt, Marc Irqsusi, Rainer Moosdorf, Andreas Kirschbaum
BACKGROUND: Formation of clots in the left atrial appendage (LAA) may lead to embolism and consecutive cerebral stroke. This risk is reduced by closure and resection. To address the efficacy of surgical LAA closure, resilience to pneumatic pressure was studied. Different surgical techniques were compared in an experimental model. METHODS: From freshly slaughtered pigs cardiopulmonary preparations were taken. The left atrium was clamped airtight and the LAA was cannulated...
March 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449482/retrospective-analysis-of-stereotactic-ablative-radiotherapy-sabr-for-metastatic-lung-lesions-mlls-in-comparison-with-a-contemporaneous-cohort-of-primary-lung-lesions-plls
#9
Feras Oskan, Yvonne Dzierma, Stefan Wagenpfeil, Christian Rübe, Jochen Fleckenstein
BACKGROUND: The net benefit from local ablative therapy for pulmonary oligometastases remains unknown. The outcomes of stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) for metastatic lung lesions (MLLs) were analyzed retrospectively and compared with those of SABR for primary lung lesions (PLLs). METHODS: Medical records of patients treated with lung SABR between 2011 and 2014 were retrospectively reviewed. Basic patient, lesion and treatment characteristics were compared using the Pearson chi-square test for categorical and Mann-Whitney U test for continuous variables...
March 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449477/continuous-administration-of-recombinant-human-b-type-natriuretic-peptide-can-improve-heart-and-renal-function-in-patients-after-cardiopulmonary-bypass-surgery
#10
Shiguan Le, Jian Xiao, Wei Li, Jing Wang, Qing Wang, Wang Xi, Jibin Xu, Zhinong Wang
BACKGROUND: Any cardiac surgery under cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) will induce ischemia-reperfusion injury and systematic inflammatory response, which may lead to exacerbation. Conventional therapy strategy is to use inotropes, diuretics and vasodilator drugs, yet, the therapeutic effects of which need to be improved. Recombinant human B-type natriuretic peptide (rhBNP) has been shown to be efficacious in the treatment of acute decompensated heart failure and acute myocardial infarction...
March 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448378/a-mixed-method-review-of-tobacco-cessation-for-the-cardiopulmonary-rehabilitation-clinician
#11
Ana Mola, Madeleine M Lloyd, Miguel A Villegas-Pantoja
PURPOSE: To systematically survey the literature, describe the current tobacco science, and perform a mixed method review of randomized control trials of tobacco research in the cardiopulmonary population. METHODS: Mixed method review was conducted on major resource databases. Inclusion criteria were English language with a minimum follow-up of 6 months, published between January 1, 2007, and June 30, 2016; adult smokers ≥18 years of age with cardiovascular and/or pulmonary disease; initiation of subject recruitment from hospital or community; tobacco cessation (TC) as the main aim of the study; biometric validation of smoking status; first-line TC medications; and nonpharmacological treatments...
May 2017: Journal of Cardiopulmonary Rehabilitation and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448190/leptin-is-associated-with-heart-rate-recovery-in-chinese-hypertensive-patients
#12
Haibin Chen, Ming Luo, Junling Huang, Huifeng Xu, Nanzi Xie, Huan Zheng
Elevated serum leptin concentrations are closely related to sympathetic nervous system activation in essential hypertension (EH); however, it is not clear whether or not they are associated with parasympathetic nervous system impairment in EH. Heart rate recovery (HRR) is a reproducible method used to assess parasympathetic activity. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between serum leptin and HRR in Chinese untreated EH patients. This was a cross-sectional study enrolling 471 Chinese EH patients (205 men, 266 women; mean age 63...
2017: Clinical and Experimental Hypertension: CHE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447921/the-effectiveness-of-acute-normolvolemic-hemodilution-and-autologous-prime-on-intraoperative-blood-management-during-cardiac-surgery
#13
Alfred H Stammers, Linda B Mongero, Eric Tesdahl, Andrew Stasko, Samuel Weinstein
OBJECTIVE: Intraoperative blood management during cardiac surgery is a multifaceted process incorporating various interventions directed at optimizing oxygen delivery and enhancing hemostasis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of acute normovolemic hemodilution (ANH) and autologous priming (AP) on preserving the hematocrit during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). METHOD: Case records from a national registry of adult patients who underwent cardiac surgery between January and October 2016 were reviewed...
April 1, 2017: Perfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446984/salvage-surgery-after-high-dose-radiotherapy
#14
REVIEW
Annemie Van Breussegem, Jeroen M Hendriks, Patrick Lauwers, Paul E Van Schil
Salvage surgery is a relatively new entity in thoracic surgery and oncology. Salvage resection after radiotherapy refers to surgery as only remaining therapeutic option in patients who were treated with high-dose stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) for early-stage lung cancer or full-dose chemoradiation for locally advanced lung cancer. Indications include locally progressive tumors, recurrent local or locoregional disease, or specific complications after radiotherapy such as lung abscesses or infected, necrotic cavities...
April 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446364/clinical-and-laboratory-diagnosis-of-heparin-induced-thrombocytopenia-an-update
#15
REVIEW
Emmanuel J Favaloro, Georgia McCaughan, Leonardo Pasalic
Heparin remains a commonly used anticoagulant in prophylaxis and treatment of venous and arterial thrombosis, in addition to ensuring patency of artificial blood circuits such as cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Heparin induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is a rare but potentially fatal complication of heparin therapy that results from production of polyclonal antibodies to heparin in complex, usually with platelet factor 4 (PF4). In a proportion of patients, this causes platelet activation and thrombin generation, which may result in thrombosis...
April 23, 2017: Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445307/alteration-of-serum-high-mobility-group-protein-1-hmgb1-levels-in-children-with-enterovirus-71-induced-hand-foot-and-mouth-disease
#16
Weikun Zheng, Haifan Shi, Yiping Chen, Zhiwei Xu, Jie Chen, Longteng Jin
Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is a common pediatric disease caused by enterovirus infection. It typically presents as a fever along with flat, discolored spots and bumps on the hands, feet, and mouth. Compared with other viruses, enterovirus 71 (EV71)-induced HFMD is more prone to cause severe complications in children, such as brainstem encephalitis, cardiopulmonary disorders, and even death. More in-depth studies are still necessary to understand the characteristics of EV71-induced HFMD, although some related research has been reported so far...
April 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444697/population-pharmacokinetics-of-dexmedetomidine-in-infants
#17
Rachel G Greenberg, Huali Wu, Matthew Laughon, Edmund Capparelli, Stevie Rowe, Kanecia O Zimmerman, P Brian Smith, Michael Cohen-Wolkowiez
Despite limited pharmacokinetic (PK) data, dexmedetomidine is increasingly being used off-label for sedation in infants. We aimed to characterize the developmental PK changes of dexmedetomidine during infancy. In this open-label, single-center PK study of dexmedetomidine in infants receiving dexmedetomidine per clinical care, ≤10 blood samples per infant were collected. A set of structural PK models and residual error models were explored using nonlinear mixed-effects modeling in NONMEM. Covariates including postmenstrual age (PMA), serum creatinine, and recent history of cardiac surgery requiring cardiopulmonary bypass were investigated for their influence on PK parameters...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444178/shortening-cardioplegic-arrest-time-in-patients-undergoing-combined-coronary-and-valve-surgery-results-from-a-multicentre-randomized-controlled-trial-the-scat-trial
#18
Chris A Rogers, Radek Capoun, Lauren J Scott, Jodi Taylor, Anil Jain, Gianni D Angelini, Pradeep Narayan, M-Saadeh Suleiman, Kunal Sarkar, Raimondo Ascione
OBJECTIVES: Combined coronary artery bypass grafting and valve surgery requires a prolonged period of cardioplegic arrest (CA) predisposing to myocardial injury and postoperative cardiac-specific complications. The aim of this trial was to reduce the CA time in patients undergoing combined coronary artery bypass grafting and valve surgery and assess if this was associated with less myocardial injury and related complications. METHODS: Participants were randomized to (i) coronary artery bypass grafting performed on the beating heart with cardiopulmonary bypass support followed by CA for the valve procedure (hybrid) or (ii) both procedures under CA (conventional)...
April 24, 2017: European Journal of Cardio-thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444125/sudden-cardiac-death
#19
Jagdesh Kandala, Clint Oommen, Karl B Kern
Introduction: Sudden cardiac arrest continues to be the leading cause of death in the industrialized world. Sources of data: Original papers, reviews and guidelines. Areas of agreement: Community programs for lay bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and automatic external defibrillation improve outcomes. Post-arrest care, including targeted temperature management (TTM) combined with early coronary angiography and percutaneous coronary intervention, is helpful for those suffering cardiac arrest during an ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction...
April 24, 2017: British Medical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443680/periodic-breathing-during-incremental-exercise
#20
Piergiuseppe Agostoni, Ugo Corrà, Michele Emdin
Periodic breathing during incremental cardiopulmonary exercise testing is a regularly recurring waxing and waning of tidal volume due to oscillations in central respiratory drive. Periodic breathing is a sign of respiratory control system instability, which may occur at rest or during exercise. The possible mechanisms responsible of exertional periodic breathing might be related to any instability of the ventilatory regulation caused by: 1) increased circulatory delay (i.e., circulation time from the lung to the brain and chemoreceptors, due to reduced cardiac index leading to delay in information transfer), 2) increase in controller gain (i...
April 26, 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
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