keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

NBOME

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284546/medical-emergencies-related-to-ethanol-and-illicit-drugs-at-an-annual-nocturnal-indoor-electronic-dance-music-event
#1
Paul Calle, Nora Sundahl, Kristof Maudens, Sarah Mr Wille, Diederik Van Sassenbroeck, Koen De Graeve, Stefan Gogaert, Peter De Paepe, Dieter Devriese, Geert Arno, Peter Blanckaert
Introduction Medical problems are frequently encountered during electronic dance music (EDM) events. Problem There are uncertainties about the frequencies and severity of intoxications with different types of recreational drugs: ethanol, "classical" illicit party drugs, and new psychoactive substances (NPS). METHODS: Statistical data on the medical problems encountered during two editions of an indoor electronic dance event with around 30,000 attendants were retrieved from the Belgian Red Cross (Mechelen, Belgium) database...
December 29, 2017: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277574/human-cytochrome-p450-kinetic-studies-on-six-n-2-methoxybenzyl-nbome-derived-new-psychoactive-substances-using-the-substrate-depletion-approach
#2
Achim T Caspar, Markus R Meyer, Hans H Maurer
A huge number of new chemical derivatives of known drugs of abuse, so-called new psychoactive substances (NPS), are sold and consumed without prior preclinical and clinical testing. For assessing the elimination behaviors, determination of the kinetic constants Km and Vmax of the cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoforms involved in the hepatic metabolism of NPS could help to predict their contributions to hepatic clearance, drug-drug interactions and polymorphisms. Therefore, the aims of the present study were to determine the Km and Vmax values for CYP isoforms using the substrate depletion approach for the six N-2-methoxybenzyl (NBOMe)-derived NPS 25B-NBOMe, 25C-NBOMe, 25I-NBOMe, 3,4-DMA-NBOMe, 4-EA-NBOMe, and 4-MMA-NBOMe...
December 22, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189143/retrospective-demonstration-of-25i-nbome-acute-poisoning-using-hair-analysis
#3
Alice Ameline, Audrey Farrugia, Jean-Sebastien Raul, Pascal Kintz
BACKGROUND: The abuse of new psychoactive substances or NPS has been dramatically increasing all around the world since the late 2000s and has become a serious public health problem. NPS are a challenge for the worldwide forensic community due to the difficulties to accurately document the cases. The N-benzylmethoxy (NBOMe) group is a new class of hallucinogenic designer drugs and has gained importance in the recent years. 25I-NBOMe (2-(4-iodo-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-N-[(2-methoxyphenyl)methyl]ethanamine) is an analog of the 2C series of psychedelic phenethylamine drugs that contain an N-methoxybenzyl substituent, which significantly affects their pharmacological activities...
November 29, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117432/gas-chromatography-mass-spectrometry-gc-ms-for-identification-of-designer-stimulants-including-2c-amines-nbome-compounds-and-cathinones-in-urine
#4
Hemamalini Ketha, Milad Webb, Larry Clayton, Sean Li
Phenethylamine derivatives are being increasingly exploited for recreational use as "designer" stimulants designed to mimic psychostimulant properties of amphetamine or other illicit substances like 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA [ecstasy]). Clandestine operations meticulously design phenethylamines so the user can bypass legal action when detected, as many of these are yet to be regulated by government authorities. Substituted phenethylamines or 2C amines, N-methoxybenzyl derivatives of the corresponding 2C amines commonly known as NBOMe compounds, and cathinones are among the most commonly abused phenethylamines...
November 8, 2017: Current Protocols in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097307/effect-fingerprinting-of-new-psychoactive-substances-nps-what-can-we-learn-from-in-vitro-data
#5
REVIEW
Laura Hondebrink, Anne Zwartsen, Remco H S Westerink
The use of new psychoactive substances (NPS) is increasing and currently >600 NPS have been reported. However, limited information on neuropharmacological and toxicological effects of NPS is available, hampering risk characterization. We reviewed the literature on the in vitro neuronal modes of action to obtain effect fingerprints of different classes of illicit drugs and NPS. The most frequently reported NPS were selected for review: cathinones (MDPV, α-PVP, mephedrone, 4-MEC, pentedrone, methylone), cannabinoids (JWH-018), (hallucinogenic) phenethylamines (4-fluoroamphetamine, benzofurans (5-APB, 6-APB), 2C-B, NBOMes (25B-NBOMe, 25C-NBOMe, 25I-NBOMe)), arylcyclohexylamines (methoxetamine) and piperazine derivatives (mCCP, TFMPP, BZP)...
October 30, 2017: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985394/a-validated-method-for-the-detection-of-32-bath-salts-in-oral-fluid
#6
Michelle Williams, Jennifer Martin, Peter Galettis
Workplace drug testing in Australia is usually adherent to one of two standards, AS/NZS 4308:2008 for urine or AS 4760:2006 for oral fluid. These standards prescribe the drugs tested, devices used and testing methodology followed by the testing agency. However, they are not comprehensive and for many years workers have been able to consume novel psychoactive substances to avoid detection and without consequences. Here, we present a validated method for the detection of 32 Synthetic Stimulant and Hallucogenic drugs, commonly sold as bath salts, in oral fluid...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28948056/could-hallucinogens-induce-permanent-pupillary-changes-in-ab-users-a-case-report-from-new-zealand
#7
Ahmed Al-Imam
An eighteen-year-old female patient of the Caucasian ethnicity from Australasia presented with a persistently dilated pupil causing her discomfort and occasional burning sensation when she is outdoors due to oversensitivity to sunlight. However, her pupillary reaction to light (pupillary light reflex) was intact. The patient is a known user of psychedelic substances (entheogens) including LSD, NBOMe, psilocybin, and DMT. The condition affects both eyes to the same extent. Thorough medical, neurological, and radiological examinations, including an EEG and an MRI of the head and neck region, were completely normal...
2017: Case Reports in Neurological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937933/what-s-in-a-name-correlates-of-ecstasy-users-knowing-or-agreeing-that-molly-is-ecstasy-mdma
#8
Joseph J Palamar
Ecstasy (MDMA) has regained popularity in powder and crystalline form, known as Molly. However, it is unknown whether all Molly users are aware that Molly is ecstasy. A total of 1045 nightclub/festival-attending adults in New York City were surveyed about ecstasy/MDMA/Molly use in 2016. Users were asked if they agreed that "Molly is (or is supposed to be) ecstasy/MDMA." Of the 43.5% reporting lifetime use, 84.6% agreed that Molly is ecstasy, 9.5% disagreed, and 5.9% reported not knowing that Molly is ecstasy...
September 22, 2017: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917801/development-of-a-quantitative-approach-in-blood-plasma-for-low-dosed-hallucinogens-and-opioids-using-lc-high-resolution-mass-spectrometry
#9
Achim T Caspar, Andreas B Kollas, Hans H Maurer, Markus R Meyer
The WHO annually reports an increasing abuse of new psychoactive substances (NPS), which are a heterogeneous group of synthetic drugs and are consumed as substitute for controlled drugs of abuse. In this work, we focused on highly potent derivatives such those of phenethylamine (2C), N-2-methoxybenzyl phenethylamine (NBOMes), lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), and fentanyl. Severe to fatal intoxications were described due to their high potency. Therefore, they have to be taken at very low doses resulting in low blood concentration in the low ng/mL range, which is a challenge for reliable analytical detection and quantification...
January 1, 2018: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910664/the-analysis-of-132-novel-psychoactive-substances-in-human-hair-using-a-single-step-extraction-by-tandem-lc-ms
#10
Vassiliki A Boumba, Matthew Di Rago, Melissa Peka, Olaf H Drummer, Dimitri Gerostamoulos
A rapid LC-MS/MS method for the targeted screening of 132 NPS in hair is described. Drugs include cathinones and synthetic cannabinoids, as well as amphetamine-type stimulants, piperazines and other hallucinogenic compounds. This method utilizes hair pulverization in acidified methanol followed by analysis using liquid chromatography coupled with tandem MS. The limit of detection varied from 0.001 to 0.1ng/mg hair among the various analytes. The method was validated in terms of sensitivity, selectivity, repeatability and stability...
October 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893436/death-after-25c-nbome-and-25h-nbome-consumption
#11
Luca Morini, Marzia Bernini, Sara Vezzoli, Mario Restori, Matteo Moretti, Stefano Crenna, Pietro Papa, Carlo Locatelli, Antonio Marco Maria Osculati, Claudia Vignali, Angelo Groppi
A teenager male was found dead in a waterway after he was spotted jumping off into the water stream. The boy looked agitated and confused after a party with friends. At the gathering place, investigators seized packages of blotter papers. A complete autopsy and a histological evaluation of the main tissues were performed; although the death occurred by drowning, the prosecutor requested toxicological exams, in order to evaluate the potential role of drugs of abuse in the episode. Blood (both peripheral and central) and urine samples as well as seized blotter papers were collected and analyzed as follows...
October 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890736/the-psychoactive-drug-25b-nbome-recapitulates-rhabdomyolysis-in-zebrafish-larvae
#12
Genri Kawahara, Hideyuki Maeda, Ruri Kikura-Hanajiri, Ken-Ichi Yoshida, Yukiko K Hayashi
N-Benzyl-substituted 2C class phenethylamines (NBOMes) are psychoactive designer drugs, with strong hallucinogenic and stimulant effects, even at low doses. The designer drug, 2-(4-bromo-2, 5-dimethoxyphenyl)-N-(2-methoxybenzyl) ethanamine (25B-NBOMe) is considered to be one of the most potent agonists of the serotonin-2A (5-HT2A) receptor. Recently, we reported the first lethal case of 25B-NBOMe intoxication with severe rhabdomyolysis, concluded by clinical, pathological and toxicological analyses. There are currently no good animal models that closely recapitulate serotonin receptor-dependent rhabdomyolysis...
2017: Forensic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830123/application-of-a-urine-and-hair-validated-lc-ms-ms-method-to-determine-the-effect-of-hair-color-on-the-incorporation-of-25b-nbome-25c-nbome-and-25i-nbome-into-hair-in-the-rat
#13
Lorna A Nisbet, Rafael Venson, Fiona M Wylie, Karen S Scott
NBOMes are a group of new psychoactive substances derived from phenethylamines. Recreational abuse is thought to have begun in 2010 and they are commonly associated with the "club drug" scene. They are administered in liquid form or as blotters due to their high potency. An LC-MS-MS method was validated using Scientific Working Group for Forensic Toxicology parameters for the detection of 25B-, 25C- and 4-iodo-2,5-dimethoxy-N-[(2-methoxyphenyl)methyl]-benzeneethanamine (25I-NBOMe) using 4-bromo-2,5-dimethoxy-N-[(2-methoxyphenyl)methyl]-benzeneethanamine (25B-NBOMe)-D3 as internal standard for urine and hair...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782580/new-psychoactive-substances-studies-on-the-metabolism-of-xlr-11-ab-pinaca-fub-pb-22-4-methoxy-%C3%AE-pvp-25-i-nbome-and-meclonazepam-using-human-liver-preparations-in-comparison-to-primary-human-hepatocytes-and-human-urine
#14
Lilian H J Richter, Hans H Maurer, Markus R Meyer
New psychoactive substances (NPS) are an increasing problem in clinical and forensic toxicology. The knowledge of their metabolism is important for toxicological risk assessment and for developing toxicological urine screenings. Considering the huge numbers of NPS annually appearing on the market, metabolism studies should be realized in a fast, simple, cost efficient, and reliable way. Primary human hepatocytes (PHH) were recommended to be the gold standard for in vitro metabolism studies as they are expected to contain natural enzyme clusters, co-substrates, and drug transporters...
October 5, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777688/attitudes-and-beliefs-about-new-psychoactive-substance-use-among-electronic-dance-music-party-attendees
#15
Joseph J Palamar, Patricia Acosta, Charles M Cleland
BACKGROUND: Attitudes and beliefs about drug use have been shown to be robust correlates of use of drugs such as alcohol, marijuana, and cocaine; however, little is known regarding attitudes or beliefs about new psychoactive substances (NPS). We sought to examine attitudes and beliefs about NPS and how they relate to self-reported use in a high-risk population-electronic dance music (EDM) party attendees. METHOD: 1,048 individuals (age 18-40) were surveyed entering EDM parties in New York City in 2016...
August 4, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762065/lc-high-resolution-ms-ms-for-identification-of-69-metabolites-of-the-new-psychoactive-substance-1-4-ethylphenyl-n-2-methoxyphenyl-methyl-propane-2-amine-4-ea-nbome-in-rat-urine-and-human-liver-s9-incubates-and-comparison-of-its-screening-power-with-further
#16
Achim T Caspar, Folker Westphal, Markus R Meyer, Hans H Maurer
4-EA-NBOMe (N-(2-methoxybenzyl)-4-ethylamphetamine, 1-(4-ethylphenyl-)-N-[(2-methoxyphenyl)methyl]propane-2-amine) is an amphetamine-derived new psychoactive substance (NPS) of the N-methoxybenzyl (NBOMe) group first seized by German custom authorities. In contrast to the phenethylamine NBOMes, studies on the pharmacological, toxicological, or metabolic properties are not yet published. The aims of the presented work were the use of LC-HR-MS/MS for identification of the phase I and II metabolites of 4-EA-NBOMe in rat urine and pooled human S9 fraction (pS9) incubations, to compare metabolite formation in both models, to identify involved monooxygenases, and to elucidate its detectability in standard urine screening approaches (SUSAs) using GC-MS, LC-MS(n), and LC-HR-MS/MS...
July 31, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659208/-intoxication-with-new-psychoactive-substances-drug-unknown-but-complications-are-still-treatable
#17
M N Boersma, J J Nugteren-van Lonkhuyzen, E M van Maarseveen, H A H Kaasjager, A J H P van Riel, D Dekker
Abuse of new psychoactive substances (NPS) and the number of patients presenting to the ER with intoxication are increasing. Treatment may at first sight seem complicated because of limited knowledge of the substance involved, but should be based on a general supportive approach recognising the relatively predictable spectrum of symptoms caused by adrenergic, serotonergic and dopaminergic stimulation. In this article, we discuss the vital elements of this approach and possible complications of NPS intoxication...
2017: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643397/experimental-study-on-the-postmortem-redistribution-of-the-substituted-phenethylamine-25b-nbome
#18
Kaori Shintani-Ishida, Kanju Saka, Mami Nakamura, Ken-Ichi Yoshida, Hiroshi Ikegaya
2-(4-Bromo-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-N-(2-methoxybenzyl)ethanamine (25B-NBOMe) is a substituted phenethylamine, which has become highly prevalent worldwide since 2014. Recently, in an autopsy case involving fatal 25B-NBOMe intoxication, we found the postmortem increase of 25B-NBOMe concentration in the cardiac blood approximately 2 days after death. The aim of this study was to investigate the distribution of 25B-NBOMe and reproduce the postmortem redistribution using a rat model. Sprague-Dawley rats were killed 30 min after intraperitoneal injection of 25B-NBOMe (0...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635119/the-detection-and-prevention-of-unintentional-consumption-of-dox-and-25x-nbome-at-portugal-s-boom-festival
#19
Daniel Martins, Monica J Barratt, Cristiana Vale Pires, Helena Carvalho, Mireia Ventura, Iván Fornís, Helena Valente
OBJECTIVE: This paper describes the misrepresentation of LSD at Portugal's Boom Festival 2014 and the prevention of unintentional consumption of DOx and 25x-NBOMe among LSD consumers attending a drug-checking service. METHODS: Two hundred forty-five drug samples expected to contain LSD were submitted to the drug-checking service for chemical analysis. One hundred ten post-test questionnaires were successfully matched with test results. RESULTS: About 67...
June 21, 2017: Human Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566118/nbome-hallucinogenic-drug-exposures-reported-to-the-danish-poison-information-centre
#20
Gorm Roager Madsen, Tonny Studsgaard Petersen, Kim Peder Dalhoff
INTRODUCTION: N-benzylmethoxy (NBOMe) is a new class of hallucinogenic designer drugs sold on cheap blotter papers. They are potent 5-hydroxytryptamine-2A-receptor agonists, and since their recent entry into the drug market there have been worldwide reports of severe intoxications and even fatalities. This study reviews suspected NBOMe drug exposures reported to the Danish Poison Information Centre (DPIC). METHODS: Data from the DPIC database were extracted, including all enquiries with NBOMe exposures reported from 1 January 2013 to 30 June 2016...
June 2017: Danish Medical Journal
keyword
keyword
29893
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"