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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261791/drug-recognition-evaluation-and-chemical-confirmation-of-a-25c-nbome-impaired-driver
#1
James W Rajotte, Jean-Paul F P Palmentier, Helena Rachelle Wallage
This case report details an individual arrested for drug-impaired driving after leaving the scene of multiple motor vehicle collisions and evading police. The driver was examined by a drug recognition expert and failed the drug recognition evaluation. The driver admitted to using cocaine, marijuana, an antidepressant medication and "N-bomb," a novel psychoactive substance that possesses hallucinogenic properties. Toxicological analyses at the Centre of Forensic Sciences' Toronto laboratory revealed only the substance 2-[4-chloro-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl]-N-[(2-methoxyphenyl)methyl]ethanamine (25C-NBOMe) in the accused's urine...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161577/motivations-for-new-psychoactive-substance-use-among-regular-psychostimulant-users-in-australia
#2
Rachel Sutherland, Raimondo Bruno, Amy Peacock, Simon Lenton, Allison Matthews, Caroline Salom, Paul Dietze, Kerryn Butler, Lucinda Burns, Monica J Barratt
BACKGROUND: Examine the motivations for new psychoactive substance (NPS) use amongst a sample of regular psychostimulant users (RPU) in Australia, and determine whether motivations differ across substances. METHOD: Data were obtained from 419 RPU interviewed for the 2014 Ecstasy and related Drugs Reporting System who reported lifetime NPS use. Based on the most recent NPS used, motivations for use were rated on an 11-point scale (0 'no influence'-10 'maximum influence')...
February 2, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28133938/characterisation-of-hallucinogenic-phenethylamines-using-high-resolution-mass-spectrometry-for-non-targeted-screening-purposes
#3
Daniel Pasin, Adam Cawley, Sergei Bidny, Shanlin Fu
Hallucinogenic phenethylamines such as 2,5-dimethoxyphenethylamines (2C-X) and their N-(2-methoxybenzyl) derivatives (25X-NBOMe) has seen an increase in novel analogues in recent years. These rapidly changing analogues make it difficult for laboratories to rely on traditional targeted screening methods to detect unknown new psychoactive substances (NPS). In this study, twelve 2C-X, six 2,5-dimethoxyamphetamines (DOX) and fourteen 25X-NBOMe derivatives, including two deuterated derivatives (2C-B-d6 and 25I-NBOMe-d9 ), were analysed using ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTOF-MS)...
January 29, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097528/pharmacology-and-toxicology-of-n-benzylphenethylamine-nbome-hallucinogens
#4
Adam L Halberstadt
Serotonergic hallucinogens induce profound changes in perception and cognition. The characteristic effects of hallucinogens are mediated by 5-HT2A receptor activation. One class of hallucinogens are 2,5-dimethoxy-substituted phenethylamines, such as the so-called 2C-X compounds 2,5-dimethoxy-4-bromophenethylamine (2C-B) and 2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenethylamine (2C-I). Addition of an N-benzyl group to phenethylamine hallucinogens produces a marked increase in 5-HT2A-binding affinity and hallucinogenic potency...
January 18, 2017: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059498/rapid-screening-method-for-new-psychoactive-substances-of-forensic-interest-electrochemistry-and-analytical-determination-of-phenethylamines-derivatives-nbome-via-cyclic-and-differential-pulse-voltammetry
#5
Ana Flávia B Andrade, Samuel Kasahun Mamo, Jose Gonzalez-Rodriguez
The NBOMe derivatives are phenethylamines derived from the 2C class of hallucinogens. Only a few human pharmacologic studies have been conducted on these drugs, and several cases of intoxication and deaths have been reported. Presently, NBOMe are not a part of the routine drugs-of-abuse screening procedure for many police forces, and there are no rapid immunoassay screening tests that can detect the presence of those compounds. In this Article, the voltammetric behavior of 25B NBOMe and 25I NBOMe were investigated and their electroanalytical characteristics determined for the first time...
February 7, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992785/identification-of-novel-psychoactive-substances-25b-nbome-and-4-cmc-in-biological-material-using-hplc-q-tof-ms-and-their-quantification-in-blood-using-uplc-ms-ms-in-case-of-severe-intoxications
#6
Marek Wiergowski, Justyna Aszyk, Michał Kaliszan, Kamila Wilczewska, Jacek Sein Anand, Agata Kot-Wasik, Zbigniew Jankowski
This paper describes cases of poisoning caused by new psychoactive substances such as: 25B-NBOMe (2-(4-bromo-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-N-[(2-methoxyphenyl)methyl]ethanamine) and 4-CMC (1-(4-chlorophenyl)-2-(methylamino)-1-propanone). The analytical procedure includes rapid and selective method for the extraction and determination of 4-CMC and 25B-NBOMe in blood samples using UPLC-MS/MS technique. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report, that involves a fully validated method for quantification of new-designer drug - 4-CMC in postmortem blood samples...
January 15, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915193/metabolic-fate-and-detectability-of-the-new-psychoactive-substances-2-4-bromo-2-5-dimethoxyphenyl-n-2-methoxyphenyl-methyl-ethanamine-25b-nbome-and-2-4-chloro-2-5-dimethoxyphenyl-n-2-methoxyphenyl-methyl-ethanamine-25c-nbome-in-human-and-rat-urine-by-gc-ms
#7
Achim T Caspar, Simon D Brandt, Andreas E Stoever, Markus R Meyer, Hans H Maurer
25B-NBOMe and 25C-NBOMe are potent 5-HT2A receptor agonists that have been associated with inducing hallucinogenic effects in drug users and severe intoxications. This paper describes the identification of their metabolites in rat and human urine by liquid chromatography (LC)-high resolution (HR)-MS/MS, the comparison of metabolite formation in vitro and in vivo and in different species, the general involvement of human cytochrome-P450 (CYP) isoenzymes on their metabolism steps, and their detectability by standard urine screening approaches (SUSAs) using GC-MS, LC-MS(n), or LC-HR-MS/MS...
February 5, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814952/liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry-determination-of-synthetic-cathinones-and-phenethylamines-in-influent-wastewater-of-eight-european-cities
#8
Richard Bade, Lubertus Bijlsma, Juan V Sancho, Jose A Baz-Lomba, Sara Castiglioni, Erika Castrignanò, Ana Causanilles, Emma Gracia-Lor, Barbara Kasprzyk-Hordern, Juliet Kinyua, Ann-Kathrin McCall, Alexander L N van Nuijs, Christoph Ort, Benedek G Plósz, Pedram Ramin, Nikolaos I Rousis, Yeonsuk Ryu, Kevin V Thomas, Pim de Voogt, Ettore Zuccato, Félix Hernández
The popularity of new psychoactive substances (NPS) has grown in recent years, with certain NPS commonly and preferentially consumed even following the introduction of preventative legislation. With the objective to improve the knowledge on the use of NPS, a rapid and very sensitive method was developed for the determination of ten priority NPS (N-ethylcathinone, methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV), methylone, butylone, methedrone, mephedrone, naphyrone, 25-C-NBOMe, 25-I-NBOMe and 25-B-NBOMe) in influent wastewater...
February 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27726316/schedules-of-controlled-substances-placement-of-three-synthetic-phenethylamines-into-schedule-i-final-rule
#9
(no author information available yet)
With the issuance of this final rule, the Administrator of the Drug Enforcement Administration places three synthetic phenethylamines: 2-(4-iodo-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-N-(2-methoxybenzyl)ethanamine (25I-NBOMe; 2C-I-NBOMe; 25I; Cimbi-5), 2-(4-chloro-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-N- (2-methoxybenzyl)ethanamine (25C-NBOMe; 2C-C-NBOMe; 25C; Cimbi-82), and 2-(4-bromo-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-N-(2-methoxybenzyl)ethanamine (25B- NBOMe; 2C-B-NBOMe; 25B; Cimbi-36), including their optical, positional, and geometric isomers, salts and salts of isomers, whenever the existence of such salts, isomers, and salts of isomers is possible, into schedule I of the Controlled Substances Act...
September 27, 2016: Federal Register
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27723094/blunt-craniofacial-trauma-as-a-manifestation-of-excited-delirium-caused-by-new-psychoactive-substances
#10
Roger W Byard, Matthew Cox, Peter Stockham
The body of a 19-year-old male was found apparently concealed underneath bushes with recent head and facial trauma, and multiple superficial abrasions. Subsequently, it was discovered that the decedent had been running into objects and buildings following the ingestion the evening before of what was thought to be lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD). Blood staining of a nearby wall close to where the body was lying was in keeping with the described behavior. Toxicology revealed 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (Ecstasy), in addition to two only recently available drugs 2-(4-bromo-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-N-[(2-methoxyphenyl)methyl]ethanamine, (25B-NBOMe), and 1-(3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl)-2-(1-pyrrolidinyl)-1-butanone, (MDPBP)...
November 2016: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27665567/new-psychoactive-substances-an-overview-on-recent-publications-on-their-toxicodynamics-and-toxicokinetics
#11
REVIEW
Markus R Meyer
This review article covers English-written and PubMed-listed review articles and original studies published between January 2015 and April 2016 dealing with the toxicodynamics and toxicokinetics of new psychoactive substances. Compounds covered include stimulants and entactogens, synthetic cannabinoids, tryptamines, NBOMes, phencyclidine-like drugs, benzodiazepines, and opioids. First, an overview and discussion is provided on timely review articles followed by an overview and discussion on recent original studies...
October 2016: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27572638/the-detection-of-nbome-designer-drugs-on-blotter-paper-by-high-resolution-time-of-flight-mass-spectrometry-tofms-with-and-without-chromatography
#12
Sabra Botch-Jones, Jamie Foss, David Barajas, Frank Kero, Craig Young, Jason Weisenseel
New psychoactive substances (NPS) have been associated with fatalities and severe injuries in a number of cases in the United States and have led investigators to rethink traditional drug monitoring protocols. Of particular interest are the variable phenethylamine chemical structures known as 'NBOMes', which pose an emerging threat to public health with incidence steadily growing over the past decade. In this study, direct sample analysis (DSA)-time of flight mass spectrometry was employed to leverage rapid and sensitive ambient ionization mass spectrometry without chromatographic separation as verified with an authentic case sample...
October 2016: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27564969/5-ht2a-5-ht2c-receptor-pharmacology-and-intrinsic-clearance-of-n-benzylphenethylamines-modified-at-the-primary-site-of-metabolism
#13
Sebastian Leth-Petersen, Ida N Petersen, Anders A Jensen, Christoffer Bundgaard, Mathias Bæk, Jan Kehler, Jesper L Kristensen
The toxic hallucinogen 25B-NBOMe is very rapidly degraded by human liver microsomes and has low oral bioavailability. Herein we report on the synthesis, microsomal stability, and 5-HT2A/5-HT2C receptor profile of novel analogues of 25B-NBOMe modified at the primary site of metabolism. Although microsomal stability could be increased while maintaining potent 5-HT2 receptor agonist properties, all analogues had an intrinsic clearance above 1.3 L/kg/h predictive of high first-pass metabolism.
November 16, 2016: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27448631/25c-nbome-and-25i-nbome-metabolite-studies-in-human-hepatocytes-in-vivo-mouse-and-human-urine-with-high-resolution-mass-spectrometry
#14
Ariane Wohlfarth, Markus Roman, Mikael Andersson, Fredrik C Kugelberg, Xingxing Diao, Jeremy Carlier, Caroline Eriksson, Xiongyu Wu, Peter Konradsson, Martin Josefsson, Marilyn A Huestis, Robert Kronstrand
25C-NBOMe and 25I-NBOMe are potent hallucinogenic drugs that recently emerged as new psychoactive substances. To date, a few metabolism studies were conducted for 25I-NBOMe, whereas 25C-NBOMe metabolism data are scarce. Therefore, we investigated the metabolic profile of these compounds in human hepatocytes, an in vivo mouse model and authentic human urine samples from forensic cases. Cryopreserved human hepatocytes were incubated for 3 h with 10 μM 25C-NBOMe and 25I-NBOMe; samples were analyzed by liquid chromatography high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS) on an Accucore C18 column with a Thermo QExactive; data analysis was performed with Compound Discoverer software (Thermo Scientific)...
July 23, 2016: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27419383/correlates-of-new-psychoactive-substance-use-among-a-self-selected-sample-of-nightclub-attendees-in-the-united-states
#15
Joseph J Palamar, Monica J Barratt, Jason A Ferris, Adam R Winstock
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Although new psychoactive substances (NPS) continue to emerge at a rapid rate, US national surveys only measure the use of non-specific categories of NPS and are not designed to access high-risk populations. In this paper we report lifetime use of specific NPS (of 58) and examine correlates of use among a high-risk population: nightlife attendees. METHODS: The self-selected sample from the Global Drug Survey (2013) consisted of 2,282 respondents in the US, aged 16-60 years, who reported nightclub attendance in the last year...
August 2016: American Journal on Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27406128/analysis-of-25-c-nbome-in-seized-blotters-by-hptlc-and-gc-ms
#16
Boris Duffau, Cristian Camargo, Marcelo Kogan, Edwar Fuentes, Bruce Kennedy Cassels
Use of unauthorized synthetic drugs is a serious, forensic, regulatory and public health issue. In this scenario, consumption of drug-impregnated blotters is very frequent. For decades, blotters have been generally impregnated with the potent hallucinogen known as lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD); however, since 2013 blotter stamps with N-2 methoxybenzyl-substituted phenylethylamine hallucinogen designated as "NBOMes" have been seized in Chile. To address this issue with readily accessible laboratory equipment, we have developed and validated a new HPTLC method for the identification and quantitation of 25-C-NBOMe in seized blotters and its confirmation by GC-MS...
August 2016: Journal of Chromatographic Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27400739/characterization-of-the-hepatic-cytochrome-p450-enzymes-involved-in-the-metabolism-of-25i-nbome-and-25i-nboh
#17
Line Marie Nielsen, Niels Bjerre Holm, Sebastian Leth-Petersen, Jesper Langgaard Kristensen, Lars Olsen, Kristian Linnet
The dimethoxyphenyl-N-((2-methoxyphenyl)methyl)ethanamine (NBOMe) compounds are potent serotonin 5-HT2A receptor agonists and have recently been subject to recreational use due to their hallucinogenic effects. Use of NBOMe compounds has been known since 2011, and several non-fatal and fatal intoxication cases have been reported in the scientific literature. The aim of this study was to determine the importance of the different cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYP) involved in the metabolism of 2-(4-iodo-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-N-(2methoxybenzyl)ethanamine (25I-NBOMe) and 2-[[2-(4-iodo-2,5dimethoxyphenyl)ethylamino]methyl]phenol (25I-NBOH) and to characterize the metabolites...
July 12, 2016: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27388323/mass-spectrometric-properties-of-n-2-methoxybenzyl-2-2-4-6-trimethoxyphenyl-ethanamine-2-4-6-tmpea-nbome-a-new-representative-of-designer-drugs-of-nbome-series-and-derivatives-thereof
#18
Vadim Shevyrin, Olga Kupriyanova, Albert T Lebedev, Vladimir Melkozerov, Oleg Eltsov, Yuri Shafran, Yuri Morzherin, Raziya Sadykova
Emergence of new psychoactive substances (NPS), hallucinogenic phenethylamines in particular, in illicit market is a serious threat to human health in global scale. We have detected and identified N-(2-methoxybenzyl)-2-(2,4,6-trimethoxyphenyl)ethanamine (2,4,6-TMPEA-NBOMe), a new compound in NBOMe series. Identification was achieved by means of gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), including high resolution mass spectrometry with tandem experiments (GC/HRMS and GC/HRMS(2) ), ultra-high performance liquid chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry with tandem experiments (UHPLC/HRMS and UHPLC/HRMS(2) ), and (1) H and (13) C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR)...
July 8, 2016: Journal of Mass Spectrometry: JMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27315522/self-reported-use-of-novel-psychoactive-substances-among-attendees-of-electronic-dance-music-venues
#19
Joseph J Palamar, Patricia Acosta, Scott Sherman, Danielle C Ompad, Charles M Cleland
BACKGROUND: Novel psychoactive substances (NPSs) continue to emerge in the United States and worldwide. Few epidemiological studies have examined the prevalence and correlates of use. OBJECTIVE: We examined the extent of NPS use in a high-risk population-attendees of electronic dance music (EDM) parties at nightclubs and festivals. METHODS: We surveyed 682 adults (age 18-25) entering EDM events at nightclubs and festivals in New York City (NYC) in 2015...
November 2016: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27206645/detection-of-25c-nbome-in-three-related-cases
#20
John J Kristofic, Jeffrey D Chmiel, George F Jackson, Shawn P Vorce, Justin M Holler, Stephen L Robinson, Thomas Z Bosy
An accidental death associated with the use of the designer drug, 2-(4-chloro-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-N-(2-methoxybenzyl)ethanamine (25C-NBOMe), is reported. A 23-year-old Caucasian male experienced severe respiratory distress and died after being subdued by military law enforcement. At autopsy, remarkable findings upon internal examination included mild to moderate coronary atherosclerosis, biventricular dilation, mild right ventricular hypertrophy and bilateral pulmonary edema and congestion. The decedent's blood contained no drugs, ethanol or other volatile compounds...
July 2016: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
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