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With the issuance of this final rule, the Administrator of the Drug Enforcement Administration places three synthetic phenethylamines: 2-(4-iodo-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-N-(2-methoxybenzyl)ethanamine (25I-NBOMe; 2C-I-NBOMe; 25I; Cimbi-5), 2-(4-chloro-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-N- (2-methoxybenzyl)ethanamine (25C-NBOMe; 2C-C-NBOMe; 25C; Cimbi-82), and 2-(4-bromo-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-N-(2-methoxybenzyl)ethanamine (25B- NBOMe; 2C-B-NBOMe; 25B; Cimbi-36), including their optical, positional, and geometric isomers, salts and salts of isomers, whenever the existence of such salts, isomers, and salts of isomers is possible, into schedule I of the Controlled Substances Act...
September 27, 2016: Federal Register
Roger W Byard, Matthew Cox, Peter Stockham
The body of a 19-year-old male was found apparently concealed underneath bushes with recent head and facial trauma, and multiple superficial abrasions. Subsequently, it was discovered that the decedent had been running into objects and buildings following the ingestion the evening before of what was thought to be lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD). Blood staining of a nearby wall close to where the body was lying was in keeping with the described behavior. Toxicology revealed 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (Ecstasy), in addition to two only recently available drugs 2-(4-bromo-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-N-[(2-methoxyphenyl)methyl]ethanamine, (25B-NBOMe), and 1-(3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl)-2-(1-pyrrolidinyl)-1-butanone, (MDPBP)...
October 10, 2016: Journal of Forensic Sciences
Markus R Meyer
This review article covers English-written and PubMed-listed review articles and original studies published between January 2015 and April 2016 dealing with the toxicodynamics and toxicokinetics of new psychoactive substances. Compounds covered include stimulants and entactogens, synthetic cannabinoids, tryptamines, NBOMes, phencyclidine-like drugs, benzodiazepines, and opioids. First, an overview and discussion is provided on timely review articles followed by an overview and discussion on recent original studies...
October 2016: Archives of Toxicology
Sabra Botch-Jones, Jamie Foss, David Barajas, Frank Kero, Craig Young, Jason Weisenseel
New psychoactive substances (NPS) have been associated with fatalities and severe injuries in a number of cases in the United States and have led investigators to rethink traditional drug monitoring protocols. Of particular interest are the variable phenethylamine chemical structures known as 'NBOMes', which pose an emerging threat to public health with incidence steadily growing over the past decade. In this study, direct sample analysis (DSA)-time of flight mass spectrometry was employed to leverage rapid and sensitive ambient ionization mass spectrometry without chromatographic separation as verified with an authentic case sample...
October 2016: Forensic Science International
Sebastian Leth-Petersen, Ida Nymann Petersen, Anders A Jensen, Christoffer Bundgaard, Mathias Bæk, Jan Kehler, Jesper L Kristensen
The toxic hallucinogen 25B-NBOMe is very rapidly degraded by human liver microsomes and has low oral bioavailability. Herein we report on the synthesis, microsomal stability and 5-HT2A/5-HT2C receptor profile of novel analogs of 25B-NBOMe modified at the primary site of metabolism. Although microsomal stability could be increased while maintaining potent 5-HT2 receptor agonist properties, all analogs had an intrinsic clearance above 1.3 L/kg/h predictive of high first-pass metabolism.
August 26, 2016: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
Ariane Wohlfarth, Markus Roman, Mikael Andersson, Fredrik C Kugelberg, Xingxing Diao, Jeremy Carlier, Caroline Eriksson, Xiongyu Wu, Peter Konradsson, Martin Josefsson, Marilyn A Huestis, Robert Kronstrand
25C-NBOMe and 25I-NBOMe are potent hallucinogenic drugs that recently emerged as new psychoactive substances. To date, a few metabolism studies were conducted for 25I-NBOMe, whereas 25C-NBOMe metabolism data are scarce. Therefore, we investigated the metabolic profile of these compounds in human hepatocytes, an in vivo mouse model and authentic human urine samples from forensic cases. Cryopreserved human hepatocytes were incubated for 3 h with 10 μM 25C-NBOMe and 25I-NBOMe; samples were analyzed by liquid chromatography high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS) on an Accucore C18 column with a Thermo QExactive; data analysis was performed with Compound Discoverer software (Thermo Scientific)...
July 23, 2016: Drug Testing and Analysis
Joseph J Palamar, Monica J Barratt, Jason A Ferris, Adam R Winstock
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Although new psychoactive substances (NPS) continue to emerge at a rapid rate, US national surveys only measure the use of non-specific categories of NPS and are not designed to access high-risk populations. In this paper we report lifetime use of specific NPS (of 58) and examine correlates of use among a high-risk population: nightlife attendees. METHODS: The self-selected sample from the Global Drug Survey (2013) consisted of 2,282 respondents in the US, aged 16-60 years, who reported nightclub attendance in the last year...
August 2016: American Journal on Addictions
Boris Duffau, Cristian Camargo, Marcelo Kogan, Edwar Fuentes, Bruce Kennedy Cassels
Use of unauthorized synthetic drugs is a serious, forensic, regulatory and public health issue. In this scenario, consumption of drug-impregnated blotters is very frequent. For decades, blotters have been generally impregnated with the potent hallucinogen known as lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD); however, since 2013 blotter stamps with N-2 methoxybenzyl-substituted phenylethylamine hallucinogen designated as "NBOMes" have been seized in Chile. To address this issue with readily accessible laboratory equipment, we have developed and validated a new HPTLC method for the identification and quantitation of 25-C-NBOMe in seized blotters and its confirmation by GC-MS...
August 2016: Journal of Chromatographic Science
Line Marie Nielsen, Niels Bjerre Holm, Sebastian Leth-Petersen, Jesper Langgaard Kristensen, Lars Olsen, Kristian Linnet
The dimethoxyphenyl-N-((2-methoxyphenyl)methyl)ethanamine (NBOMe) compounds are potent serotonin 5-HT2A receptor agonists and have recently been subject to recreational use due to their hallucinogenic effects. Use of NBOMe compounds has been known since 2011, and several non-fatal and fatal intoxication cases have been reported in the scientific literature. The aim of this study was to determine the importance of the different cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYP) involved in the metabolism of 2-(4-iodo-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-N-(2methoxybenzyl)ethanamine (25I-NBOMe) and 2-[[2-(4-iodo-2,5dimethoxyphenyl)ethylamino]methyl]phenol (25I-NBOH) and to characterize the metabolites...
July 12, 2016: Drug Testing and Analysis
Vadim Shevyrin, Olga Kupriyanova, Albert T Lebedev, Vladimir Melkozerov, Oleg Eltsov, Yuri Shafran, Yuri Morzherin, Raziya Sadykova
Emergence of new psychoactive substances (NPS), hallucinogenic phenethylamines in particular, in illicit market is a serious threat to human health in global scale. We have detected and identified N-(2-methoxybenzyl)-2-(2,4,6-trimethoxyphenyl)ethanamine (2,4,6-TMPEA-NBOMe), a new compound in NBOMe series. Identification was achieved by means of gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), including high resolution mass spectrometry with tandem experiments (GC/HRMS and GC/HRMS(2) ), ultra-high performance liquid chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry with tandem experiments (UHPLC/HRMS and UHPLC/HRMS(2) ), and (1) H and (13) C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR)...
July 8, 2016: Journal of Mass Spectrometry: JMS
Joseph J Palamar, Patricia Acosta, Scott Sherman, Danielle C Ompad, Charles M Cleland
BACKGROUND: Novel psychoactive substances (NPSs) continue to emerge in the United States and worldwide. Few epidemiological studies have examined the prevalence and correlates of use. OBJECTIVE: We examined the extent of NPS use in a high-risk population-attendees of electronic dance music (EDM) parties at nightclubs and festivals. METHODS: We surveyed 682 adults (age 18-25) entering EDM events at nightclubs and festivals in New York City (NYC) in 2015...
June 17, 2016: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
John J Kristofic, Jeffrey D Chmiel, George F Jackson, Shawn P Vorce, Justin M Holler, Stephen L Robinson, Thomas Z Bosy
An accidental death associated with the use of the designer drug, 2-(4-chloro-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-N-(2-methoxybenzyl)ethanamine (25C-NBOMe), is reported. A 23-year-old Caucasian male experienced severe respiratory distress and died after being subdued by military law enforcement. At autopsy, remarkable findings upon internal examination included mild to moderate coronary atherosclerosis, biventricular dilation, mild right ventricular hypertrophy and bilateral pulmonary edema and congestion. The decedent's blood contained no drugs, ethanol or other volatile compounds...
July 2016: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Benjamin J Tscharke, Chang Chen, Jacobus P Gerber, Jason M White
Analysis of municipal wastewater for drug metabolites can reveal the scale of drug use within communities. An Australian city with a population of 1.2million inhabitants was assessed for 4 stimulants: cocaine, methamphetamine, 3.4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and amphetamine; 6 opioids: codeine, morphine, heroin, fentanyl, oxycodone and methadone; 11 new psychoactive substances (NPS); benzylpiperazine (BZP), trifluoromethylphenylpiperazine (TFMPP), methcathinone, methylone, mephedrone, methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV), alpha pyrrolidinopentiophenone (alpha-PVP), paramethoxyamphetamine (PMA), 25C-NBOMe, 25B-NBOMe, 25I-NBOMe; and cannabis, for up to four years between December 2011 and December 2015...
September 15, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Marta Rychert, Chris Wilkins
The problem of defining what psychoactive products and substances should be covered by legislation aimed at controlling new psychoactive substances (NPS; 'legal highs') is central to the current debate on designing new legislative responses to NPS. In New Zealand, implementation of the Psychoactive Substances Act 2013 (PSA) revealed uncertainties about which psychoactive products are covered by the new regime, with important implications for legal penalties. We reviewed five pieces of legislation which can cover substances with psychoactive properties: PSA, Misuse of Drugs Act (MODA), Food Act, Dietary Supplements Regulations and Medicines Act...
August 2016: Drug Testing and Analysis
Cuimei Liu, Wei Jia, Zhenhua Qian, Tao Li, Zhendong Hua
This paper reports analytical properties of five substituted phenethylamine derivatives seized from a clandestine laboratory. These five derivatives include 5-(2-methylaminopropyl)-2,3-dihydrobenzofuran (5-MAPDB, 1), 5-(2-aminoethyl)-2,3-dihydrobenzofuran (5-AEDB, 2), N,2-dimethyl-3-(3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl)propan-1-amine (MDMA methylene homolog, 3), 6-bromo-3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (6-Br-MDMA, 4), and 1-(benzofuran-5-yl)-N-(2-methoxybenzyl)propan-2-amine (5-APB-NBOMe, 5). These compounds were identified by liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-QTOF-MS), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR)...
February 9, 2016: Drug Testing and Analysis
Lysa Remy, Nino Marchi, Juliana Scherer, Tais R Fiorentin, Renata Limberger, Flavio Pechansky, Felix Kessler
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2015: Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria
Paul Gee, Leo J Schep, Berit P Jensen, Grant Moore, Stuart Barrington
Background A new class of hallucinogens called NBOMes has emerged. This class includes analogues 25I-NBOMe, 25C-NBOMe and 25B-NBOMe. Case reports and judicial seizures indicate that 25I-NBOMe and 25C-NBOMe are more prevalently abused. There have been a few confirmed reports of 25B-NBOMe use or toxicity. Report Observational case series. This report describes a series of 10 patients who suffered adverse effects from 25B-NBOMe. Hallucinations and violent agitation predominate along with serotonergic/stimulant signs such as mydriasis, tachycardia, hypertension and hyperthermia...
2016: Clinical Toxicology
Folker Westphal, Ulrich Girreser, Delia Waldmüller
In a seizure of German custom authorities four N-(ortho-methoxybenzyl)amines with amphetamine partial structure were obtained as pure compounds: N-(ortho-methoxybenzyl)-3,4-dimethoxyamphetamine (3,4-DMA-NBOMe (1)), N-(ortho-methoxybenzyl)-4-ethylamphetamine (4-EA-NBOMe (2)), N-(ortho-methoxybenzyl)-4-methylmethamphetamine (4-MMA-NBOMe (3)), and N-(ortho-methoxybenzyl)-5-(2-aminopropyl)benzofuran (5-APB-NBOMe (4)). The compounds have been detected in Germany for the first time and no analytical data had been previously published...
September 2016: Drug Testing and Analysis
(no author information available yet)
The Administrator of the Drug Enforcement Administration is issuing this final order extending the temporary schedule I status for three synthetic phenethylamines into the Controlled Substances Act pursuant to the temporary scheduling provisions of the Act. The substances are: 2-(4-iodo-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-N-(2-methoxybenzyl)ethanamine (25I-NBOMe; 2C-I-NBOMe; 25I; Cimbi-5), 2-(4-chloro-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-N-(2-methoxybenzyl)ethanamine (25C-NBOMe; 2C-C-NBOMe; 25C; Cimbi-82), and 2-(4-bromo-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-N-(2-methoxybenzyl)ethanamine (25B-NBOMe; 2C-B-NBOMe; 25B; Cimbi-36) [hereinafter 25I-NBOMe, 2C-NBOMe, and 25-NBOMe, respectively]...
November 13, 2015: Federal Register
Yacine Boumrah, Luc Humbert, Melodie Phanithavong, Kamel Khimeche, Abdallah Dahmani, Delphine Allorge
One of the main challenges posed by the emergence of new psychoactive substances is their identification in human biological samples. Trying to detect the parent drug could lead to false-negative results when the delay between consumption and sampling has been too long. The identification of their metabolites could then improve their detection window in biological matrices. Oxidative metabolism by cytochromes P450 and glucuronidation are two major detoxification pathways in humans. In order to characterize possible CYP- and UGT-dependent metabolites of the 2-(4-bromo-2,5-dimethoxy-phenyl)-N-[(2-methoxyphenyl)methyl]ethanamine (25B-NBOMe), a synthetic psychoactive drug, analyses of human liver microsome (HLM) incubates were performed using an ultra-high performance liquid chromatography system coupled with a quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry detector (UHPLC-Q-TOF/MS)...
February 2016: Drug Testing and Analysis
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