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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659208/-intoxication-with-new-psychoactive-substances-drug-unknown-but-complications-are-still-treatable
#1
M N Boersma, J J Nugteren-van Lonkhuyzen, E M van Maarseveen, H A H Kaasjager, A J H P van Riel, D Dekker
Abuse of new psychoactive substances (NPS) and the number of patients presenting to the ER with intoxication are increasing. Treatment may at first sight seem complicated because of limited knowledge of the substance involved, but should be based on a general supportive approach recognising the relatively predictable spectrum of symptoms caused by adrenergic, serotonergic and dopaminergic stimulation. In this article, we discuss the vital elements of this approach and possible complications of NPS intoxication...
2017: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643397/experimental-study-on-the-postmortem-redistribution-of-the-substituted-phenethylamine-25b-nbome
#2
Kaori Shintani-Ishida, Kanju Saka, Mami Nakamura, Ken-Ichi Yoshida, Hiroshi Ikegaya
2-(4-Bromo-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-N-(2-methoxybenzyl)ethanamine (25B-NBOMe) is a substituted phenethylamine, which has become highly prevalent worldwide since 2014. Recently, in an autopsy case involving fatal 25B-NBOMe intoxication, we found the postmortem increase of 25B-NBOMe concentration in the cardiac blood approximately 2 days after death. The aim of this study was to investigate the distribution of 25B-NBOMe and reproduce the postmortem redistribution using a rat model. Sprague-Dawley rats were killed 30 min after intraperitoneal injection of 25B-NBOMe (0...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635119/the-detection-and-prevention-of-unintentional-consumption-of-dox-and-25x-nbome-at-portugal-s-boom-festival
#3
Daniel Martins, Monica J Barratt, Cristiana Vale Pires, Helena Carvalho, Mireia Ventura, Iván Fornís, Helena Valente
OBJECTIVE: This paper describes the misrepresentation of LSD at Portugal's Boom Festival 2014 and the prevention of unintentional consumption of DOx and 25x-NBOMe among LSD consumers attending a drug-checking service. METHODS: Two hundred forty-five drug samples expected to contain LSD were submitted to the drug-checking service for chemical analysis. One hundred ten post-test questionnaires were successfully matched with test results. RESULTS: About 67...
June 21, 2017: Human Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566118/nbome-hallucinogenic-drug-exposures-reported-to-the-danish-poison-information-centre
#4
Gorm Roager Madsen, Tonny Studsgaard Petersen, Kim Peder Dalhoff
INTRODUCTION: N-benzylmethoxy (NBOMe) is a new class of hallucinogenic designer drugs sold on cheap blotter papers. They are potent 5-hydroxytryptamine-2A-receptor agonists, and since their recent entry into the drug market there have been worldwide reports of severe intoxications and even fatalities. This study reviews suspected NBOMe drug exposures reported to the Danish Poison Information Centre (DPIC). METHODS: Data from the DPIC database were extracted, including all enquiries with NBOMe exposures reported from 1 January 2013 to 30 June 2016...
June 2017: Danish Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537942/locomotor-and-discriminative-stimulus-effects-of-four-novel-hallucinogens-in-rodents
#5
Michael B Gatch, Sean B Dolan, Michael J Forster
There has been increasing use of novel synthetic hallucinogenic compounds, 2-(4-bromo-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-N-(2-methoxybenzyl)ethanamine hydrochloride (25B-NBOMe), 2-(4-chloro-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-N-(2-methoxybenzyl)ethanamine hydrochloride (25C-NBOMe), 2-(4-iodo-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-N-(2-methoxybenzyl)ethanamine hydrochloride (25I-NBOMe), and N,N-diallyl-5-methoxy tryptamine (5-MeO-DALT), which have been associated with severe toxicities. These four compounds were tested for discriminative stimulus effects similar to a prototypical hallucinogen (-)-2,5-dimethoxy-4-methylamphetamine (DOM) and the entactogen (±)-3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA)...
August 2017: Behavioural Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28517235/new-psychoactive-substances-purchasing-and-supply-patterns-in-australia
#6
Rachel Sutherland, Raimondo Bruno, Amy Peacock, Paul Dietze, Courtney Breen, Lucinda Burns, Monica J Barratt
OBJECTIVE: To examine the purchasing and supply patterns of new psychoactive substance (NPS) consumers in Australia. METHOD: Data were obtained from a self-selected sample of 296 past-year NPS consumers, with comparisons made across dimethyltryptamine (n = 104), 2C-x (n = 59), NBOMe (n = 27), and synthetic cannabinoid (n = 22) users. RESULTS: Most consumers (58%) nominated a friend as their main NPS source, and almost half (46%) reported that they had supplied NPS to others in the past year (predominantly "social supply")...
May 18, 2017: Human Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506818/measuring-inhibition-of-monoamine-reuptake-transporters-by-new-psychoactive-substances-nps-in-real-time-using-a-high-throughput-fluorescence-based-assay
#7
Anne Zwartsen, Anouk H A Verboven, Regina G D M van Kleef, Fiona M J Wijnolts, Remco H S Westerink, Laura Hondebrink
The prevalence and use of new psychoactive substances (NPS) is increasing and currently over 600 NPS exist. Many illicit drugs and NPS increase brain monoamine levels by inhibition and/or reversal of monoamine reuptake transporters (DAT, NET and SERT). This is often investigated using labor-intensive, radiometric endpoint measurements. We investigated the applicability of a novel and innovative assay that is based on a fluorescent monoamine mimicking substrate. DAT, NET or SERT-expressing human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells were exposed to common drugs (cocaine, dl-amphetamine or MDMA), NPS (4-fluoroamphetamine, PMMA, α-PVP, 5-APB, 2C-B, 25B-NBOMe, 25I-NBOMe or methoxetamine) or the antidepressant fluoxetine...
May 12, 2017: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485987/assessing-self-reported-use-of-new-psychoactive-substances-the-impact-of-gate-questions
#8
Joseph J Palamar, Patricia Acosta, Fermín Fernández Calderón, Scott Sherman, Charles M Cleland
BACKGROUND: New psychoactive substances (NPS) continue to emerge; however, few surveys of substance use ask about NPS use. Research is needed to determine how to most effectively query use of NPS and other uncommon drugs. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether prevalence of self-reported lifetime and past-year use differs depending on whether or not queries about NPS use are preceded by "gate questions." Gate questions utilize skip-logic, such that only a "yes" response to the use of specific drug class is followed by more extensive queries of drug use in that drug class...
September 2017: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472731/online-test-purchased-new-psychoactive-substances-in-5-different-european-countries-a-snapshot-study-of-chemical-composition-and-price
#9
Tibor Markus Brunt, Amanda Marie Atkinson, Thomas Nefau, Magali Martinez, Emmanuel Lahaie, Artur Malzcewski, Martin Pazitny, Vendula Belackova, Simon D Brandt
BACKGROUND: New psychoactive substances (NPS) are on offer worldwide online, in order to shed light on the purity and price of these substances in the European Union, a research collaboration was set up involving France, United Kingdom (UK), the Netherlands, Czech Republic and Poland. METHODS: Per country, around 10 different NPS were test purchased from different webshops. Then, chemical analysis of NPS was done with according reference standards to identify and quantify the contents...
June 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472358/metabolic-profile-determination-of-nbome-compounds-using-human-liver-microsomes-and-comparison-with-findings-in-authentic-human-blood-and-urine
#10
Keith-Dane H Temporal, Karen S Scott, Amanda L A Mohr, Barry K Logan
The emergence of novel psychoactive substances (NPS) such as hallucinogenic NBOMes (N-methoxybenzyl derivatives of 2C phenethylamines) in the past few years into the recreational drug market has introduced various challenges in forensic analytical toxicology in regard to adequate and timely detection of these compounds. This is especially true in samples from individuals who have experienced severe and fatal intoxications. The aim of this research was to identify the major Phase I metabolites of selected NBOMe compounds to generate a predicted human metabolic pathway of these substances...
May 3, 2017: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471280/bad-trip-due-to-25i-nbome-a-case-report-from-the-eu-project-spice-ii-plus
#11
Maren Hermanns-Clausen, Verena Angerer, Josephine Kithinji, Christina Grumann, Volker Auwärter
OBJECTIVE: The potent hallucinogenic drug 25I-NBOMe has recently emerged on the drug market. We present a case with analytically confirmed 25I-NBOMe intoxication from the prospective study "SPICE II Plus". CASE REPORT: Because of a severe headache a 42-year-old man took one sip of a pediatric analgesic syrup, which had been refilled with a self-made solution of 25I-NBOMe in ethanol. Thirty minutes later restlessness occurred. On arrival in the emergency department mydriasis, strong sweating, disorientation, and agitation were noticed...
May 4, 2017: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261791/drug-recognition-evaluation-and-chemical-confirmation-of-a-25c-nbome-impaired-driver
#12
James W Rajotte, Jean-Paul F P Palmentier, Helena Rachelle Wallage
This case report details an individual arrested for drug-impaired driving after leaving the scene of multiple motor vehicle collisions and evading police. The driver was examined by a drug recognition expert and failed the drug recognition evaluation. The driver admitted to using cocaine, marijuana, an antidepressant medication and "N-bomb," a novel psychoactive substance that possesses hallucinogenic properties. Toxicological analyses at the Centre of Forensic Sciences' Toronto laboratory revealed only the substance 2-[4-chloro-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl]-N-[(2-methoxyphenyl)methyl]ethanamine (25C-NBOMe) in the accused's urine...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161577/motivations-for-new-psychoactive-substance-use-among-regular-psychostimulant-users-in-australia
#13
Rachel Sutherland, Raimondo Bruno, Amy Peacock, Simon Lenton, Allison Matthews, Caroline Salom, Paul Dietze, Kerryn Butler, Lucinda Burns, Monica J Barratt
BACKGROUND: Examine the motivations for new psychoactive substance (NPS) use amongst a sample of regular psychostimulant users (RPU) in Australia, and determine whether motivations differ across substances. METHOD: Data were obtained from 419 RPU interviewed for the 2014 Ecstasy and related Drugs Reporting System who reported lifetime NPS use. Based on the most recent NPS used, motivations for use were rated on an 11-point scale (0 'no influence'-10 'maximum influence')...
May 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28133938/characterisation-of-hallucinogenic-phenethylamines-using-high-resolution-mass-spectrometry-for-non-targeted-screening-purposes
#14
Daniel Pasin, Adam Cawley, Sergei Bidny, Shanlin Fu
Hallucinogenic phenethylamines such as 2,5-dimethoxyphenethylamines (2C-X) and their N-(2-methoxybenzyl) derivatives (25X-NBOMe) has seen an increase in novel analogues in recent years. These rapidly changing analogues make it difficult for laboratories to rely on traditional targeted screening methods to detect unknown new psychoactive substances (NPS). In this study, twelve 2C-X, six 2,5-dimethoxyamphetamines (DOX) and fourteen 25X-NBOMe derivatives, including two deuterated derivatives (2C-B-d6 and 25I-NBOMe-d9 ), were analysed using ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTOF-MS)...
January 29, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097528/pharmacology-and-toxicology-of-n-benzylphenethylamine-nbome-hallucinogens
#15
REVIEW
Adam L Halberstadt
Serotonergic hallucinogens induce profound changes in perception and cognition. The characteristic effects of hallucinogens are mediated by 5-HT2A receptor activation. One class of hallucinogens are 2,5-dimethoxy-substituted phenethylamines, such as the so-called 2C-X compounds 2,5-dimethoxy-4-bromophenethylamine (2C-B) and 2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenethylamine (2C-I). Addition of an N-benzyl group to phenethylamine hallucinogens produces a marked increase in 5-HT2A-binding affinity and hallucinogenic potency...
2017: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059498/rapid-screening-method-for-new-psychoactive-substances-of-forensic-interest-electrochemistry-and-analytical-determination-of-phenethylamines-derivatives-nbome-via-cyclic-and-differential-pulse-voltammetry
#16
Ana Flávia B Andrade, Samuel Kasahun Mamo, Jose Gonzalez-Rodriguez
The NBOMe derivatives are phenethylamines derived from the 2C class of hallucinogens. Only a few human pharmacologic studies have been conducted on these drugs, and several cases of intoxication and deaths have been reported. Presently, NBOMe are not a part of the routine drugs-of-abuse screening procedure for many police forces, and there are no rapid immunoassay screening tests that can detect the presence of those compounds. In this Article, the voltammetric behavior of 25B NBOMe and 25I NBOMe were investigated and their electroanalytical characteristics determined for the first time...
February 7, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992785/identification-of-novel-psychoactive-substances-25b-nbome-and-4-cmc-in-biological-material-using-hplc-q-tof-ms-and-their-quantification-in-blood-using-uplc-ms-ms-in-case-of-severe-intoxications
#17
Marek Wiergowski, Justyna Aszyk, Michał Kaliszan, Kamila Wilczewska, Jacek Sein Anand, Agata Kot-Wasik, Zbigniew Jankowski
This paper describes cases of poisoning caused by new psychoactive substances such as: 25B-NBOMe (2-(4-bromo-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-N-[(2-methoxyphenyl)methyl]ethanamine) and 4-CMC (1-(4-chlorophenyl)-2-(methylamino)-1-propanone). The analytical procedure includes rapid and selective method for the extraction and determination of 4-CMC and 25B-NBOMe in blood samples using UPLC-MS/MS technique. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report, that involves a fully validated method for quantification of new-designer drug - 4-CMC in postmortem blood samples...
January 15, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915193/metabolic-fate-and-detectability-of-the-new-psychoactive-substances-2-4-bromo-2-5-dimethoxyphenyl-n-2-methoxyphenyl-methyl-ethanamine-25b-nbome-and-2-4-chloro-2-5-dimethoxyphenyl-n-2-methoxyphenyl-methyl-ethanamine-25c-nbome-in-human-and-rat-urine-by-gc-ms
#18
Achim T Caspar, Simon D Brandt, Andreas E Stoever, Markus R Meyer, Hans H Maurer
25B-NBOMe and 25C-NBOMe are potent 5-HT2A receptor agonists that have been associated with inducing hallucinogenic effects in drug users and severe intoxications. This paper describes the identification of their metabolites in rat and human urine by liquid chromatography (LC)-high resolution (HR)-MS/MS, the comparison of metabolite formation in vitro and in vivo and in different species, the general involvement of human cytochrome-P450 (CYP) isoenzymes on their metabolism steps, and their detectability by standard urine screening approaches (SUSAs) using GC-MS, LC-MS(n), or LC-HR-MS/MS...
February 5, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814952/liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry-determination-of-synthetic-cathinones-and-phenethylamines-in-influent-wastewater-of-eight-european-cities
#19
Richard Bade, Lubertus Bijlsma, Juan V Sancho, Jose A Baz-Lomba, Sara Castiglioni, Erika Castrignanò, Ana Causanilles, Emma Gracia-Lor, Barbara Kasprzyk-Hordern, Juliet Kinyua, Ann-Kathrin McCall, Alexander L N van Nuijs, Christoph Ort, Benedek G Plósz, Pedram Ramin, Nikolaos I Rousis, Yeonsuk Ryu, Kevin V Thomas, Pim de Voogt, Ettore Zuccato, Félix Hernández
The popularity of new psychoactive substances (NPS) has grown in recent years, with certain NPS commonly and preferentially consumed even following the introduction of preventative legislation. With the objective to improve the knowledge on the use of NPS, a rapid and very sensitive method was developed for the determination of ten priority NPS (N-ethylcathinone, methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV), methylone, butylone, methedrone, mephedrone, naphyrone, 25-C-NBOMe, 25-I-NBOMe and 25-B-NBOMe) in influent wastewater...
February 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27726316/schedules-of-controlled-substances-placement-of-three-synthetic-phenethylamines-into-schedule-i-final-rule
#20
(no author information available yet)
With the issuance of this final rule, the Administrator of the Drug Enforcement Administration places three synthetic phenethylamines: 2-(4-iodo-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-N-(2-methoxybenzyl)ethanamine (25I-NBOMe; 2C-I-NBOMe; 25I; Cimbi-5), 2-(4-chloro-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-N- (2-methoxybenzyl)ethanamine (25C-NBOMe; 2C-C-NBOMe; 25C; Cimbi-82), and 2-(4-bromo-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-N-(2-methoxybenzyl)ethanamine (25B- NBOMe; 2C-B-NBOMe; 25B; Cimbi-36), including their optical, positional, and geometric isomers, salts and salts of isomers, whenever the existence of such salts, isomers, and salts of isomers is possible, into schedule I of the Controlled Substances Act...
September 27, 2016: Federal Register
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