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Sławomir Kujawski, Agnieszka Kujawska, Małgorzata Gajos, Jacek J Klawe, Małgorzata Tafil-Klawe, Katarzyna Mądra-Gackowska, Błażej Stankiewicz, Julia L Newton, Kornelia Kędziora-Kornatowska, Paweł Zalewski
BACKGROUND: Arterial stiffness (AS) is a reduction in the ability of large arteries to readily accommodate the increase in blood ejected from the heart during systole related with aging. Physical exercise is associated with AS reduction. However, it remains controversial as to which modality and intensity (resistance vs aerobic, high vs low) would be the most effective. The aim of these studies is to examine the effects of 3-months sitting callisthenic balance (SCB) and resistance exercise (RET) on aerobic capacity, aortic stiffness and body composition in older participants...
April 12, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
Odd G Brakstad, Trond R Størseth, Marianne U Rønsberg, Bjørn Henrik Hansen
Hydrocarbon biodegradation may be slower in cold Arctic than in temperate seawater, and this will affect the toxicity time window of the hydrocarbons. In this study, the acute toxicities of water-soluble phases of 1,3-dimethylnaphthalene, phenanthrene, fluoranthene, and low energy water-accommodated fractions (LE-WAFs) of an evaporated (200 °C+) crude oil, were screened by a Microtox bioassay during biodegradation in cold seawater (4-5 °C). The water-solubility of fluoranthene was too low to provoke a toxic response at any time, whereas the toxicity of 1,3-dimethylnaphthalene and phenanthrene decreased over time in relation to biotransformation of these compounds...
April 6, 2018: Chemosphere
Claudia S de Waard, Antonius J Poot, Wendy P J den Elzen, Annet W Wind, Monique A A Caljouw, Jacobijn Gussekloo
OBJECTIVE: Understanding patient satisfaction from the perspective of older adults is important to improve quality of their care. Since patient and care variables which can be influenced are of specific interest, this study examines the relation between patient satisfaction and the perceived doctor-patient relationship in older persons and their general practitioners (GPs). DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey. SUBJECTS AND SETTING: Older persons (n = 653, median age 87 years; 69...
April 12, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Primary Health Care
Paula Bernal-Molina, José J Esteve-Taboada, Teresa Ferrer-Blasco, Robert Montés-Micó
PURPOSE: To assess the changes in the accommodative response of the eye while reading a text under different contrast polarity conditions: black letters on white background (BoW condition) and white letters on black background (WoB condition). METHODS: Eighteen subjects with ages ranging from 21 to 41 years participated in this experimental study. The accommodative response (AR) of the eye while reading a text with BoW or WoB contrast polarity was obtained objectively with an adaptive optics system that corrected all aberrations but subject's own...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Optometry
Kritika M Garg, Balaji Chattopadhyay, Peter R Wilton, Dewi Malia Prawiradilaga, Frank E Rheindt
Cyclical periods of global cooling have been important drivers of biotic differentiation throughout the Quaternary. Ice age-induced sea level fluctuations can lead to changing patterns of land connections, both facilitating and disrupting gene flow. In this study, we test if species with differing life histories are differentially affected by Quaternary land connections. We used genome-wide SNPs in combination with mitochondrial gene sequences to analyse levels of divergence and gene flow between two songbird complexes across two Wallacean islands that have been repeatedly connected during glaciations...
April 3, 2018: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Eric J Daza
Many of an individual's historically recorded personal measurements vary over time, thereby forming a time series (e.g., wearable-device data, self-tracked fitness or nutrition measurements, regularly monitored clinical events or chronic conditions). Statistical analyses of such n-of-1 (i.e., single-subject) observational studies (N1OSs) can be used to discover possible cause-effect relationships to then self-test in an n-of-1 randomized trial (N1RT). However, a principled way of determining how and when to interpret an N1OS association as a causal effect (e...
February 2018: Methods of Information in Medicine
Stephen Wroe, William C H Parr, Justin A Ledogar, Jason Bourke, Samuel P Evans, Luca Fiorenza, Stefano Benazzi, Jean-Jacques Hublin, Chris Stringer, Ottmar Kullmer, Michael Curry, Todd C Rae, Todd R Yokley
Three adaptive hypotheses have been forwarded to explain the distinctive Neanderthal face: (i) an improved ability to accommodate high anterior bite forces, (ii) more effective conditioning of cold and/or dry air and, (iii) adaptation to facilitate greater ventilatory demands. We test these hypotheses using three-dimensional models of Neanderthals, modern humans, and a close outgroup ( Homo heidelbergensis ), applying finite-element analysis (FEA) and computational fluid dynamics (CFD). This is the most comprehensive application of either approach applied to date and the first to include both...
April 11, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Tsukasa Satou, Misae Ito, Yuma Shinomiya, Yoshiaki Takahashi, Naoto Hara, Takahiro Niida
PURPOSE: To investigate differences in the stimulus accommodative convergence/accommodation (AC/A) ratio using various techniques and accommodative stimuli, and to describe a method for determining the stimulus AC/A ratio. METHODS: A total of 81 subjects with a mean age of 21 years (range, 20-23 years) were enrolled. The relationship between ocular deviation and accommodation was assessed using two methods. Ocular deviation was measured by varying the accommodative requirement using spherical plus/minus lenses to create an accommodative stimulus of 10...
April 4, 2018: Strabismus
Mark Sullivan, Dale J Langford, Pamela Stitzlein Davies, Christine Tran, Roger Vilardaga, Gifford Cheung, Daisy Yoo, Justin McReynolds, William B Lober, David Tauben, Kevin E Vowles
The objective of this study was to develop and pilot test a chronic pain empowerment and self-management platform, derived from Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) in a pain specialty setting. A controlled, sequential, non-randomized study design was used to accommodate intervention development and to test the efficacy of the PainTracker Self-Manager intervention (web-based educational modules and outcome tracking combined with tailored patient coaching sessions and provider guidance). Generalized estimating equations (GEE) evaluated changes over time (baseline, 3 months, 6 months) in pain self-efficacy (primary outcome), chronic pain acceptance (activity engagement and pain willingness), perceived efficacy in patient-provider interactions, pain intensity and interference, and overall satisfaction with pain treatment (secondary outcomes) between intervention (n=48) and usual care control groups (n=51)...
March 29, 2018: Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society
Jiajia Zhang, Timothy Hanson, Haiming Zhou
A super model that includes proportional hazards, proportional odds, accelerated failure time, accelerated hazards, and extended hazards models, as well as the model proposed in Diao et al. (Biometrics 69(4):840-849, 2013) accounting for crossed survival as special cases is proposed for the purpose of testing and choosing among these popular semiparametric models. Efficient methods for fitting and computing fast, approximate Bayes factors are developed using a nonparametric baseline survival function based on a transformed Bernstein polynomial...
March 30, 2018: Lifetime Data Analysis
Irina Smirnova, Vladimir Kasho, Xiaoxu Jiang, Hong-Ming Chen, Stephen G Withers, H Ronald Kaback
Binding kinetics of α-galactopyranoside homologs with fluorescent aglycones of different sizes and shapes were determined with the lactose permease (LacY) of Escherichia coli by FRET from Trp151 in the binding site of LacY to the fluorophores. Fast binding was observed with LacY stabilized in an outward-open conformation ( k on = 4-20 μM-1 ·s-1 ), indicating unobstructed access to the binding site even for ligands that are much larger than lactose. Dissociation rate constants ( k off ) increase with the size of the aglycone so that K d values also increase but remain in the micromolar range for each homolog...
March 30, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Antonio J Del Águila-Carrasco, Francisco Lara, Paula Bernal-Molina, Resurrección Riquelme-Nicolás, Iván Marín-Franch, José J Esteve-Taboada, Robert Montés-Micó, Philip B Kruger, Norberto López-Gil
PURPOSE: We tested the hypothesis that changes in accommodation after instillation of Phenylephrine Hydrochloride (PHCl) observed in some studies could be caused by changes in optics. METHODS: We performed two experiments to test the effects of PHCl on static and on dynamic accommodation in 8 and 6 subjects, respectively. Objective wavefront measurements were recorded of the static accommodation response to a stimulus at different distances or dynamic accommodation response to a sinusoidally moving stimulus (between 1 and 3 D of accommodative demand at 0...
March 27, 2018: Journal of Optometry
Barry Tannen, Kalynn Good, Kenneth J Ciuffreda, Kelsey J Moore
PURPOSE: To assess the prevalence of esophoria at near in concussed patients in a neuro-optometric private practice setting. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed involving a chart review in a neuro-optometric, private practice setting of consecutive patients with a medical diagnosis of concussion from January 1st 2016 to December 31st 2016. A total of 71 patients were included in the analysis. All received a comprehensive vision examination, with a near vision emphasis...
March 27, 2018: Journal of Optometry
Steven A Giannos, Edward R Kraft, Zhen-Yang Zhao, Kevin H Merkley, Jiyang Cai
PURPOSE: Permeation studies, with near infrared (NIR) light and anti-aggregation antibody formulation, were used to investigate the in vitro permeation of bevacizumab, ranibizumab and aflibercept through human sclera. METHODS: A vertical, spherical Franz cell diffusion apparatus was used for this scleral tissue permeation model. A photokinetic ocular drug delivery (PODD) testing device accommodated the placement of NIR LEDs above the donor chambers. An adjustable LED driver/square wave generator provided electrical energy with a variable pulse rate and pulse width modulation (duty cycle)...
March 29, 2018: Pharmaceutical Research
Masakazu Hirota, Takeshi Morimoto, Hiroyuki Kanda, Takao Endo, Tomomitsu Miyoshi, Suguru Miyagawa, Yoko Hirohara, Tatsuo Yamaguchi, Makoto Saika, Takashi Fujikado
Purpose: In this study, we investigated whether an individual's visual fatigue can be evaluated objectively and quantitatively from their ability to maintain binocular fusion. Methods: Binocular fusion maintenance (BFM) was measured using a custom-made binocular open-view Shack-Hartmann wavefront aberrometer equipped with liquid crystal shutters, wherein eye movements and wavefront aberrations were measured simultaneously. Transmittance in the liquid crystal shutter in front of the subject's nondominant eye was reduced linearly, and BFM was determined from the transmittance at the point when binocular fusion was broken and vergence eye movement was induced...
March 2018: Translational Vision Science & Technology
Meredith Stensland, Sara Sanders
Chronic low back pain (CLBP) is older adults' most common pain complaint and is associated with many physical and psychosocial consequences, which have been quantitatively examined. However, little research has qualitatively examined the experience itself of CLBP in later life. Study objective was to understand older adults' lived CLBP experience. Guided by van Manen's phenomenological method, 21 pain clinic patients aged 66 to 83 completed semistructured interviews. Under the main theme "living a life full of pain," results are reflected in four existential subthemes: (a) Corporeality: The pain is relentless and constantly monitored, (b) Temporality: To live with pain is to live by pacing day and night, (c) Relationality: Pain creates limits that can be tested or obeyed, and (d) Spatiality: Manipulating the space around me to accommodate the pain...
March 1, 2018: Qualitative Health Research
Alexander Baker, Fang-Chi Hsu, Scott Gayzik
OBJECTIVE: Area under the receiver operating characteristic (AROC) is commonly used to evaluate an injury metric's ability to discriminate between injury and noninjury cases. However, AROC has limitations and may not handle censored data sets adequately. Survival methodology creates robust estimates of injury risk curves (IRCs) which accommodate censored data. We developed an observation-adjusted ROC (oaROC), an AROC-like statistic calculated from the IRC. METHODS: oaROC uses an observational distribution and an IRC to measure true positive rate (TPR) and false positive rate (FPR)...
February 28, 2018: Traffic Injury Prevention
Zongzhi Yin, Wenzhu He, Yun Li, Dan Li, Hongyan Li, Yuanyuan Yang, Zhaolian Wei, Bing Shen, Xi Wang, Yunxia Cao, Raouf A Khalil
Quiescence of myometrium contractile activity allows uterine expansion to accommodate the growing fetus and prevents preterm labor particularly during excessive uterine stretch in multiple pregnancy. However, the mechanisms regulating uterine response to stretch are unclear. We tested the hypothesis that prolonged uterine stretch is associated with decreased myometrium contractile activity via activation of TWIK-related K+ channel (TREK-1). Pregnant women at different gestational age (preterm and term) and uterine stretch (singleton and twin pregnancy) were studied, and uterine strips were isolated for measurement of contractile activity and TREK-1 channel expression/activity...
March 22, 2018: Biochemical Pharmacology
Mitchell Scheiman, Christopher Chase, Eric Borsting, Gladys Lynn Mitchell, Marjean T Kulp, Susan A Cotter
BACKGROUND: To evaluate the impact of treatment of symptomatic convergence insufficiency using office-based vergence/accommodative therapy on reading skills in children. METHODS: Children (n = 44) ages nine to 17 years with symptomatic convergence insufficiency were administered the following four reading tests: Wechsler Individual Achievement Test II; Test of Word Reading Efficiency; Test of Silent Word Reading Fluency; and the Gray Oral Reading Test, at baseline and eight weeks after completion of a 16-week program of office-based vergence/accommodative therapy...
March 25, 2018: Clinical & Experimental Optometry: Journal of the Australian Optometrical Association
Aditya Khemka, Omar Mograby, Sarah J Lord, Zelda Doyle, Munjed Al Muderis
Background: The concept of femoral neck preservation in total hip replacement (THR) was introduced in 1993. It is postulated that retaining cortical bone of the femoral neck offers triplanar stability, uniform stress distribution, and accommodates physiological anteversion. However, data on safety, efficacy and learning curve are lacking. Materials and Methods: We prospectively assessed all patients who were operated for a THR with a short neck preserving stem (MiniHip) between 2012 and 2014...
March 2018: Indian Journal of Orthopaedics
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