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Alison E Casey, Ankit Sinha, Rajat Singhania, Julie Livingstone, Paul Waterhouse, Pirashaanthy Tharmapalan, Jennifer Cruickshank, Mona Shehata, Erik Drysdale, Hui Fang, Hyeyeon Kim, Ruth Isserlin, Swneke Bailey, Tiago Medina, Genevieve Deblois, Yu-Jia Shiah, Dalia Barsyte-Lovejoy, Stefan Hofer, Gary Bader, Mathieu Lupien, Cheryl Arrowsmith, Stefan Knapp, Daniel De Carvalho, Hal Berman, Paul C Boutros, Thomas Kislinger, Rama Khokha
The mammary epithelium depends on specific lineages and their stem and progenitor function to accommodate hormone-triggered physiological demands in the adult female. Perturbations of these lineages underpin breast cancer risk, yet our understanding of normal mammary cell composition is incomplete. Here, we build a multimodal resource for the adult gland through comprehensive profiling of primary cell epigenomes, transcriptomes, and proteomes. We define systems-level relationships between chromatin-DNA-RNA-protein states, identify lineage-specific DNA methylation of transcription factor binding sites, and pinpoint proteins underlying progesterone responsiveness...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Cell Biology
Preet G S Makker, José Manuel Matamala, Susanna B Park, Justin G Lees, Matthew C Kiernan, David Burke, Gila Moalem-Taylor, James Howells
Non-invasive nerve excitability techniques have provided valuable insight into the understanding of neurological disorders. The widespread use of mice in translational research on peripheral nerve disorders and by pharmaceutical companies during drug development requires valid and reliable models that can be compared to humans. This study established a novel experimental protocol that enables comparative assessment of the excitability properties of motor and sensory axons at the same site in mouse caudal nerve, compared the mouse data to data for motor and sensory axons in human median nerve at the wrist, and constructed a mathematical model of the excitability of mouse axons...
June 19, 2018: Journal of the Peripheral Nervous System: JPNS
Patrick Schober, Thomas R Vetter
Anesthesia, critical care, perioperative, and pain research often involves study designs in which the same outcome variable is repeatedly measured or observed over time on the same patients. Such repeatedly measured data are referred to as longitudinal data, and longitudinal study designs are commonly used to investigate changes in an outcome over time and to compare these changes among treatment groups. From a statistical perspective, longitudinal studies usually increase the precision of estimated treatment effects, thus increasing the power to detect such effects...
June 12, 2018: Anesthesia and Analgesia
Jay M Bhatt, Anil Kumar Challa
Genetic analysis in model systems can provide a rich context for conceptual understanding of gene structure, regulation, and function. With an intent to create a rich learning experience in molecular genetics, we developed a semester-long course-based undergraduate research experience (CURE) using the CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing system to disrupt specific genes in the zebrafish. The course was offered to freshman students; nine students worked in four groups (two to three members per group) to design, synthesize, and test the nuclease activity of the CRISPR (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats)/sgRNAs for targeted disruption of specific genes in the zebrafish...
2018: Journal of Microbiology & Biology Education: JMBE
Ray Collier, James G Thomson, Roger Thilmony
Biotechnology provides a means for the rapid genetic improvement of plants. Although single genes have been important in engineering herbicide and pest tolerance traits in crops, future improvements of complex traits like yield and nutritional quality will likely require the introduction of multiple genes. This research reports a system (GAANTRY; Gene Assembly in Agrobacterium by Nucleic acid Transfer using Recombinase technologY) for the flexible, in vivo stacking of multiple genes within an Agrobacterium virulence plasmid Transfer-DNA (T-DNA)...
June 14, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Monireh Feizabadi, Ebrahim Jafarzadehpur, Majid Akrami
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown a correlation between reading problems and binocular function, but few studies have assessed visual skills in dyslexic students, particularly in Iranian Farsi-language students. This study is aimed to determine some of the binocular functions of dyslexic children and compare it with a group of age, sex, and social class-matched control children. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a case-control study on 27 dyslexic children and 40 age, sex, and social class-matched control children (all between 7 and 13 years old) in grades one to six...
January 2018: Middle East African Journal of Ophthalmology
Can Wang, Huakang Liu, Zizhao Liu, Yufeng Gao, Bin Wu, Heng Xu
Agrocybe cylindracea substrate-Fe3 O4 (ACS-Fe3 O4 ), a Fe3 O4 nanoparticle-coated biomaterial derived from agriculture waste from mushroom cultivation, was developed to remove hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) from liquid. After modification, material surface became uneven with polyporous and crinkly structure which improved Cr-accommodation ability in a sound manner. Optimized by the Taguchi method, Cr(VI) removal percentage was up to 73.88 at 240 min, 40°C, pH 3, Cr(VI) concentration 200 mg l-1 , dosage 12 g l-1 , rpm 200...
May 2018: Royal Society Open Science
José J Esteve-Taboada, Robert Montés-Micó, Teresa Ferrer-Blasco
A simplified version of the human eye is known as a schematic eye model. Since the first attempts in the middle of the 19th century, numerous approaches describing new schematic eye models have been introduced. Some are able to describe the accommodation ability of the human eye. Accommodated schematic eyes could be of great interest because they explain the functionality of the human eye and they are easy to use for research purposes. Purposes include the design and testing of multifocal ophthalmic intraocular lenses, the evaluation of the effect of optical aberrations on retinal image quality, and the study of the optical performance of the eye at different distances after some refractive surgical procedures...
May 2018: Journal of Cataract and Refractive Surgery
Tess Garretty
Convergence excess esotropia describes a heterophoria with binocular single vision (BSV) on distance viewing that becomes esotropic on accommodation upon near fixation. Prism adaptation test (PAT) is a procedure routinely used to reveal the maximum angle of deviation preoperatively for many types of strabismus and has been shown to improve surgical outcomes; however, it is not conventionally used for convergence excess esotropia. AIM: This study compares the angle of deviation at 1/3 m and 6 m before and after prism adaptation in subjects with convergence excess esotropia to determine if a masked distance angle of deviation can be demonstrated similar to the masked near angle of deviation in some intermittent exotropes...
June 11, 2018: Strabismus
Alexander Schwenger, Tomasz P Jurkowski, Clemens Richert
The encapsulation of folded proteins in stabilizing matrices is one of the challenges of soft-matter materials science. Capturing such fragile bio-macromolecules from aqueous solution, and embedding them in a lattice that stabilizes them against denaturation and decomposition is difficult. Here, we report that tetrahedral oligonucleotide hybrids as branching elements, and connecting DNA duplexes with sticky ends can assemble into materials. The material-forming property was used to capture DNA-binding proteins selectively from aqueous protein mixtures...
June 10, 2018: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
Sara M Nardinger, Thuy D Tran, Tiffinee Swanson, Lacey Ellingson, Courtney Solberg, Michael K O'Connor, Carrie B Hruska
Molecular breast imaging (MBI) is a nuclear medicine test that uses dedicated gamma cameras designed for imaging of the breast. Despite growing adoption of MBI, there is currently a lack of guidance on appropriate quality control procedures for MBI systems. Tests designed for conventional gamma cameras either do not apply or must be modified for dedicated detectors. Our objective was to provide practical guidance for physics testing of MBI systems by adapting existing quality control procedures for conventional systems...
June 8, 2018: Journal of Nuclear Medicine Technology
Valery A Petrenko
The development of phage engineering technology has led to the construction of a novel type of phage display library-a collection of nanofiber materials with diverse molecular landscapes accommodated on the surface of phage particles. These new nanomaterials, called the "landscape phage", serve as a huge resource of diagnostic/detection probes and versatile construction materials for the preparation of phage-functionalized biosensors and phage-targeted nanomedicines. Landscape-phage-derived probes interact with biological threat agents and generate detectable signals as a part of robust and inexpensive molecular recognition interfaces introduced in mobile detection devices...
June 7, 2018: Viruses
Xian Li, Samantha Pustulka, Scott Pedu, Thomas Close, Yuan Xue, Christiaan Richter, Patricia Taboada-Serrano
Highly ordered titanium dioxide nanotubes (TiO₂ NTs) were fabricated through anodization and tested for their applicability as model electrodes in electrosorption studies. The crystalline structure of the TiO₂ NTs was changed without modifying the nanostructure of the surface. Electrosorption capacity, charging rate, and electrochemical active surface area of TiO₂ NTs with two different crystalline structures, anatase and amorphous, were investigated via chronoamperometry, cyclic voltammetry, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy...
June 5, 2018: Nanomaterials
R Hugosdottir, C D Mørch, O K Andersen, T Helgason, L Arendt-Nielsen
Aims Selective activation of nociceptive fibers is difficult using electrical stimulation as the activation threshold is higher than for non-nociceptive fibers. It remains unclear to what extent accommodation of non-nociceptive fibers during slowly rising electrical pulses can be utilized to reverse this activation order. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of different pulse forms to activate nociceptive fibers with minimal co-activation of non-nociceptive fibers by comparing subjective perception thresholds (PT)...
December 29, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
Guangyu Zhu, Junxia Wu, Ze Du, Yong Zhang, Zongheng Xue, Hongming Xie, Yuan Wei, Long Jing, Huan Jia
The development, performance, and testing of the longitudinal bunch shape monitor, namely, the Fast Faraday Cup (FFC), are presented in this paper. The FFC is an invasive instrument controlled by a stepper motor, and its principle of operation is based on a strip line structure. The longitudinal bunch shape was determined by sampling a small part of the beam hitting the strip line through a 1-mm hole. The rise time of the detector reached 24 ps. To accommodate experiments that utilize high-intensity beams, the materials of the bunch shape monitor were chosen to sustain high temperatures...
May 2018: Review of Scientific Instruments
Nicholas P Calta, Jenny Wang, Andrew M Kiss, Aiden A Martin, Philip J Depond, Gabriel M Guss, Vivek Thampy, Anthony Y Fong, Johanna Nelson Weker, Kevin H Stone, Christopher J Tassone, Matthew J Kramer, Michael F Toney, Anthony Van Buuren, Manyalibo J Matthews
In situ X-ray-based measurements of the laser powder bed fusion (LPBF) additive manufacturing process produce unique data for model validation and improved process understanding. Synchrotron X-ray imaging and diffraction provide high resolution, bulk sensitive information with sufficient sampling rates to probe melt pool dynamics as well as phase and microstructure evolution. Here, we describe a laboratory-scale LPBF test bed designed to accommodate diffraction and imaging experiments at a synchrotron X-ray source during LPBF operation...
May 2018: Review of Scientific Instruments
Sylvana Weiland, Ineke H Smit, Heleen Reinders-Messelink, Lucas H V van der Woude, Klaske van Kammen, Rob den Otter
BACKGROUND: To accommodate training for unilaterally affected patients (e.g. stroke), the Lokomat (a popular robotic exoskeleton-based gait trainer) provides the possibility to set the amount of movement guidance for each leg independently. Given the interlimb couplings, such asymmetrical settings may result in complex effects, in which ipsilateral activity co-depends on the amount of guidance offered to the contralateral leg. To test this idea, the effect of asymmetrical guidance on muscle activity was explored...
2018: PloS One
Isaac A Janson, Vincent Nittoli, Derek White, Kristyn J Tekulve
OBJECTIVE: Care after concussion is important for all patients, although especially critical in children and adolescents because of continued rapid brain growth and maturation. Postconcussion symptoms often lead to impaired school performance. Conflicting data regarding best return-to-learn practices make it difficult for school administrators to develop policies to best accommodate concussed students. We sought to assess high school principals' knowledge of concussion, the personnel responsible for implementing accommodations, and the overall willingness to enact recommended academic accommodations...
May 31, 2018: Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation
Christy Spackman, Gary A Burlingame
Sensory information signaled the acceptability of water for consumption for lay and professional people into the early twentieth century. Yet as the twentieth century progressed, professional efforts to standardize water-testing methods have increasingly excluded aesthetic information, preferring to rely on the objectivity of analytic information. Despite some highly publicized exceptions, consumer complaints remain peripheral to the making and regulating of drinking water. This exclusion is often attributed to the unreliability of the human senses in detecting danger...
June 1, 2018: Social Studies of Science
Crystal M Reynaga, Henry C Astley, Emanuel Azizi
The anuran body plan is defined by morphological features associated with saltatory locomotion, but these specializations may have functional consequences for other modes of locomotion. Several frog species use a quadrupedal walking gait as their primary mode of locomotion, characterized by limbs that move in diagonal pairs. Here, we examine how walking species may deviate from the ancestral body plan and how the kinematics of a quadrupedal gait are modified to accommodate the anuran body plan. We use a comparative analysis of limb lengths to test the hypothesis that quadrupedal anurans shift away from the standard anuran condition defined by short forelimbs and long hindlimbs...
May 30, 2018: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological and Integrative Physiology
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