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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105908/degreecox-a-network-based-regularization-method-for-survival-analysis
#1
André Veríssimo, Arlindo Limede Oliveira, Marie-France Sagot, Susana Vinga
BACKGROUND: Modeling survival oncological data has become a major challenge as the increase in the amount of molecular information nowadays available means that the number of features greatly exceeds the number of observations. One possible solution to cope with this dimensionality problem is the use of additional constraints in the cost function optimization. LASSO and other sparsity methods have thus already been successfully applied with such idea. Although this leads to more interpretable models, these methods still do not fully profit from the relations between the features, specially when these can be represented through graphs...
December 13, 2016: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105529/upper-gi-disorders-pathophysiology-and-current-therapeutic-approaches
#2
Henry P Parkman
Symptoms referable to the upper digestive tract are associated with abnormalities of upper gastric neuromuscular function including abnormalities of motility, sensation, and absorption. Of the upper digestive tract, the stomach is of particular importance in its role in symptom generation, and is highlighted in this chapter. Gastric symptoms can be associated with alterations in the rates of gastric emptying, impaired accommodation, heightened gastric sensation, or alterations in gastric myoelectrical activity and contractility...
January 20, 2017: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103613/tissue-based-next-generation-sequencing-application-in-a-universal-healthcare-system
#3
REVIEW
Seán O Hynes, Brendan Pang, Jacqueline A James, Perry Maxwell, Manuel Salto-Tellez
In the context of solid tumours, the evolution of cancer therapies to more targeted and nuanced approaches has led to the impetus for personalised medicine. The targets for these therapies are largely based on the driving genetic mutations of the tumours. To track these multiple driving mutations the use of next generation sequencing (NGS) coupled with a morphomolecular approach to tumours, has the potential to deliver on the promises of personalised medicine. A review of NGS and its application in a universal healthcare (UHC) setting is undertaken as the technology has a wide appeal and utility in diagnostic, clinical trial and research paradigms...
January 19, 2017: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102411/defect-driven-shapes-in-nematic-droplets-analogies-with-cell-division
#4
Marco Leoni, Oksana V Manyuhina, Mark J Bowick, M Cristina Marchetti
Building on the striking similarity between the structure of the spindle during mitosis in living cells and nematic textures in confined liquid crystals, we use a continuum model of two-dimensional nematic liquid crystal droplets to examine the physical aspects of cell division. The model investigates the interplay between bulk elasticity of the microtubule assembly, described as a nematic liquid crystal, and surface elasticity of the cell cortex, modeled as a bounding flexible membrane, in controlling cell shape and division...
January 19, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098275/the-initial-stages-of-melting-of-graphene-between-4000-k-and-6000-k
#5
Eric Ganz, Ariel B Ganz, Li-Ming Yang, Matthew Dornfeld
Graphene and its analogues have some of the highest predicted melting points of any materials. Previous work estimated the melting temperature for freestanding graphene to be a remarkable 4510 K. However, this work relied on theoretical methods that do not accurately account for the role of bond breaking or complex bonding configurations in the melting process. Furthermore, experiments to verify these high melting points have been challenging. Practical applications of graphene and carbon nanotubes at high temperatures will require a detailed understanding of the behavior of these materials under these conditions...
January 18, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095087/binocular-and-accommodative-characteristics-in-a-normal-population
#6
AbbasAli Yekta, Mehdi Khabazkhoob, Hassan Hashemi, Hadi Ostadimoghaddam, Somayeh Ghasemi-Moghaddam, Javad Heravian, Asgar Doostdar, Payam Nabovati
PURPOSE: To study binocular and accommodative characteristics and their associations with age and gender in an Iranian young adult population. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, multistage cluster sampling was done from the students of Mashhad University of Medical Sciences. All participants had visual acuity, refraction, and cover tests followed by measurements of the near point of convergence (NPC), amplitude of accommodation (AA), monocular and binocular accommodative facility (MAF and BAF) using ±2...
January 17, 2017: Strabismus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094231/improving-efficiency-using-time-driven-activity-based-costing%C3%A2-methodology
#7
Laura C Tibor, Stacy R Schultz, Ronald Menaker, Bradley D Weber, Jay Ness, Paula Smith, Phillip M Young
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to increase efficiency in MR enterography using a time-driven activity-based costing methodology. METHODS: In February 2015, a multidisciplinary team was formed to identify the personnel, equipment, space, and supply costs of providing outpatient MR enterography. The team mapped the current state, completed observations, performed timings, and calculated costs associated with each element of the process. The team used Pareto charts to understand the highest cost and most time-consuming activities, brainstormed opportunities, and assessed impact...
January 11, 2017: Journal of the American College of Radiology: JACR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092968/effect-of-suture-caliber-and-number-of-core-strands-on-repair-of-acute-achilles-ruptures
#8
Jonathon D Backus, Daniel Cole Marchetti, Erik L Slette, Kimi D Dahl, Travis Lee Turnbull, Thomas O Clanton
BACKGROUND: Controversy exists regarding the ideal Achilles rupture treatment; however, operative treatment is considered for athletes and active patients. The ideal repair construct is evolving, and the effect of suture caliber or number of core strands has not been studied. METHODS: Simulated mid-substance Achilles ruptures were performed in 24 cadavers. Specimens were randomized to three 6-core-strand style repair constructs: (1) 4 No. 2 sutures and two 2-mm tapes (2T); (2) 2 No...
January 1, 2017: Foot & Ankle International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092065/impact-of-celecoxib-on-inflammation-during-cancer-surgery-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#9
Jonathan G Hiller, Shienny Sampurno, Rosemary Millen, Niketh Kuruvilla, Kwok M Ho, Rob Ramsay, Bernhard Riedel
PURPOSE: During cancer surgery, prostaglandin-mediated inflammation may promote and activate micrometastatic disease with a consequent increase in long-term cancer recurrence. Cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors, known to have anti-proliferative properties, may offset such perioperative perturbation. We investigated the effectiveness of these agents to minimize inflammatory changes during cancer surgery. METHODS: Following ethics approval, 32 patients who were to undergo major intracavity cancer surgery were enrolled in this prospective, randomized, clinical trial...
January 13, 2017: Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia, Journal Canadien D'anesthésie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086906/physical-activity-and-nutrition-behaviour-outcomes-of-a-cluster-randomized-controlled-trial-for-adults-with-metabolic-syndrome-in-vietnam
#10
Van Dinh Tran, Andy H Lee, Jonine Jancey, Anthony P James, Peter Howat, Le Thi Phuong Mai
BACKGROUND: Metabolic syndrome is prevalent among Vietnamese adults, especially those aged 50-65 years. This study evaluated the effectiveness of a 6 month community-based lifestyle intervention to increase physical activity levels and improve dietary behaviours for adults with metabolic syndrome in Vietnam. METHODS: Ten communes, involving participants aged 50-65 years with metabolic syndrome, were recruited from Hanam province in northern Vietnam. The communes were randomly allocated to either the intervention (five communes, n = 214) or the control group (five communes, n = 203)...
January 13, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076989/improvement-of-patient-eligibility-with-the-use-of-new-generation-endografts-for-the-treatment-of-abdominal-aortic-aneurysms-a-comparison-study-among-currently-used-endografts-and-literature-review
#11
Nikolaos Kontopodis, George Papadopoulos, Nikolaos Galanakis, Dimitrios Tsetis, Christos V Ioannou
BACKGROUND: Newer generation devices have attempted to accommodate a wider range of aortoiliac anatomies offering endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) to more patients with abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs). We aim to examine the anatomic suitability for the ultra-low profile Ovation endograft in our AAA patients and to compare them with other contemporary devices. METHODS: 158 consecutive AAA patients treated with EVAR or open surgical repair (OSR) were tested for EVAR eligibility according to the most commonly used endografts' instructions for use...
January 19, 2017: Expert Review of Medical Devices
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066528/psychometric-evaluation-of-the-hill-assessment-index-hai-and-stair-assessment-index-sai-in-high-functioning-transfemoral-amputees
#12
M Jason Highsmith, Jason T Kahle, Brian Kaluf, Rebecca M Miro, Larry J Mengelkoch, Tyler D Klenow
The hill assessment index (HAI) and stair assessment index (SAI) were developed to objectively evaluate ramp and stair gait. This study's purpose was to determine the validity and reliability of these tests in a sample of persons with unilateral transfemoral amputation (TFA) using microprocessor prosthetic knee systems. All subjects were fit with a microprocessor knee system. After accommodation, subjects performed three trials ascending and descending a 5° ramp and a flight of stairs while being recorded on video...
September 2016: Technology and Innovation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066526/comparative-effectiveness-of-an-adjustable-transfemoral-prosthetic-interface-accommodating-volume-fluctuation-case-study
#13
Jason T Kahle, Tyler D Klenow, M Jason Highsmith
The socket-limb interface is vital for functionality and provides stability and mobility for the amputee. Volume fluctuation can lead to compromised fit and function. Current socket technology does not accommodate for volume fluctuation. An adjustable interface may improve function and comfort by filling this technology gap. The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of the standard of care (SOC) ischial ramus containment to an adjustable transfemoral prosthetic interface socket in the accommodation of volume fluctuation...
September 2016: Technology and Innovation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066524/bioenergetic-differences-during-walking-and-running-in-transfemoral-amputee-runners-using-articulating-and-non-articulating-knee-prostheses
#14
M Jason Highsmith, Jason T Kahle, Rebecca M Miro, Larry J Mengelkoch
Transfemoral amputation (TFA) patients require considerably more energy to walk and run than non-amputees. The purpose of this study was to examine potential bioenergetic differences (oxygen uptake (VO2), heart rate (HR), and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE)) for TFA patients utilizing a conventional running prosthesis with an articulating knee mechanism versus a running prosthesis with a non-articulating knee joint. Four trained TFA runners (n = 4) were accommodated to and tested with both conditions. VO2 and HR were significantly lower (p ≤ 0...
September 2016: Technology and Innovation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062219/is-one-trial-enough-for-repeated-testing-same-day-assessments-of-walking-mobility-and-fine-hand-use-in-people-with-myotonic-dystrophy-type-1
#15
Marie Kierkegaard, Emilie Petitclerc, Luc J Hébert, Cynthia Gagnon
Performance-based assessments of physical function are essential in people with myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) to monitor disease progression and evaluate interventions. Commonly used are the six-minute walk test, the 10 m-walk test, the timed up-and-go test, the timed-stands test, grip strength tests and the nine-hole peg test. The number of trials needed on a same-day test occasion and whether the first, best or average of trials should be reported as result is unknown. Thus, the aim was to describe and explore differences between trials in these measures of walking, mobility and fine hand use in 70 adults with DM1...
December 5, 2016: Neuromuscular Disorders: NMD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056713/three-dimensional-printed-bone-scaffolds-the-role-of-nano-micro-hydroxyapatite-particles-on-the-adhesion-and-differentiation-of-human-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#16
Marco Domingos, Antonio Gloria, Jorge Coelho, Paulo Bartolo, Joaquim Ciurana
Bone tissue engineering is strongly dependent on the use of three-dimensional scaffolds that can act as templates to accommodate cells and support tissue ingrowth. Despite its wide application in tissue engineering research, polycaprolactone presents a very limited ability to induce adhesion, proliferation and osteogenic cell differentiation. To overcome some of these limitations, different calcium phosphates, such as hydroxyapatite and tricalcium phosphate, have been employed with relative success. This work investigates the influence of nano-hydroxyapatite and micro-hydroxyapatite (nHA and mHA, respectively) particles on the in vitro biomechanical performance of polycaprolactone/hydroxyapatite scaffolds...
December 1, 2016: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050972/registration-of-mri-to-intraoperative-radiographs-for-target-localization-in-spinal-interventions
#17
T De Silva, A Uneri, M D Ketcha, S Reaungamornrat, J Goerres, M W Jacobson, S Vogt, G Kleinszig, A J Khanna, J-P Wolinsky, J H Siewerdsen
Decision support to assist in target vertebra localization could provide a useful aid to safe and effective spine surgery. Previous solutions have shown 3D-2D registration of preoperative CT to intraoperative radiographs to reliably annotate vertebral labels for assistance during level localization. We present an algorithm (referred to as MR-LevelCheck) to perform 3D-2D registration based on a preoperative MRI to accommodate the increasingly common clinical scenario in which MRI is used instead of CT for preoperative planning...
January 4, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049459/can-psychosocial-and-socio-demographic-questions-help-identify-sexual-risk-among-heterosexually-active-women-of-reproductive-age-evidence-from-britain-s-third-national-survey-of-sexual-attitudes-and-lifestyles-natsal-3
#18
Natalie Edelman, Jackie A Cassell, Richard de Visser, Philip Prah, Catherine H Mercer
BACKGROUND: Contraceptive advice and supply (CAS) and sexually transmitted infection (STI) testing are increasingly provided in primary care. Most risk assessment tools are based on sexual risk behaviours and socio-demographics, for use online or in specialist services. Combining socio-demographic and psychosocial questions (e.g. religious belief and formative experience) may generate an acceptable tool for targeting women in primary care who would benefit from intervention. We aimed to identify psychosocial and socio-demographic factors associated with reporting key sexual risk behaviours among women in the British general population...
January 4, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048260/su-f-p-37-implementation-of-an-end-to-end-qa-test-of-the-radiation-therapy-imaging-planning-and-delivery-process-to-identify-and-correct-possible-sources-of-deviation
#19
F Salinas Aranda, V Suarez, S Arbiser, R Sansogne
PURPOSE: To implement an end-to-end QA test of the radiation therapy imaging, planning and delivery process, aimed to assess the dosimetric agreement accuracy between planned and delivered treatment, in order to identify and correct possible sources of deviation. To establish an internal standard for machine commissioning acceptance. METHODS: A test involving all steps of the radiation therapy: imaging, planning and delivery process was designed. The test includes analysis of point dose and planar dose distributions agreement between TPS calculated and measured dose...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048141/su-f-j-153-acr-mri-phantom-test-on-a-1-5t-mr-simulator-with-flexible-coils-setting-and-performance-comparison-to-volumetric-head-coil-setting
#20
J Yuan, O Wong, K Cheung, S Yu
PURPOSE: To accommodate head-and-neck (HN) RT simulation scan with immobilization, sub-optimized flexible radiofrequency coils have to be used on an MR-sim rather than a volumetric head coil for diagnostic radiological (DR) applications. In this study, we present and compare ACR MRI phantom test with flexible coils setting (RT-setting) and volumetric head coil setting (DR-setting). METHODS: Two 8-channel array coils were wrapped close to an ACR MRI phantom placed on a flat couch-top in RT-setting for acquisition...
June 2016: Medical Physics
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