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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454157/nanofibrous-plga-electrospun-scaffolds-modified-with-type-i-collagen-influence-hepatocyte-function-and-support-viability-in-vitro
#1
Jessica H Brown, Prativa Das, Michael D DiVito, David Ivancic, Lay Poh Tan, Jason A Wertheim
A major challenge of maintaining primary hepatocytes in vitro is progressive loss of hepatocyte-specific functions, such as protein synthesis and cytochrome P450 (CYP450) catalytic activity. We developed a three-dimensional (3D) nanofibrous scaffold made from poly(L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) polymer using a newlyoptimizedwet electrospinning techniquethat resulted in a highly porous structure that accommodated inclusion of primary human hepatocytes. Extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins (type I collagen or fibronectin) at varying concentrations were chemically linked to electrospun PLGA using amine coupling to develop an in vitro culture system containing the minimal essential ECM components of the liver micro-environment that preserve hepatocyte function in vitro...
February 14, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453841/beyond-cost-benefit-analysis-in-the-governance-of-synthetic-biology
#2
Wendell Wallach, Marc Saner, Gary Marchant
For many innovations, oversight fits nicely within existing governance mechanisms; nevertheless, others pose unique public health, environmental, and ethical challenges. Synthetic artemisinin, for example, has many precursors in laboratory-developed drugs that emulate natural forms of the same drug. The policy challenges posed by synthetic artemisinin do not differ significantly in kind from other laboratory-formulated drugs. Synthetic biofuels and gene drives, however, fit less clearly into existing governance structures...
January 2018: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451645/intragastric-balloons-in-high-risk-obese-patients-in-a-brazilian-center-initial-experience
#3
Alana Costa Borges, Paulo César Almeida, Stella M T Furlani, Marcelo DE Sousa Cury, Shantanu Gaur
OBJECTIVE: to assess the short-term efficacy, tolerance and complications in high-risk morbidly obese patients treated with an intragastric balloon as a bridge for surgery. METHODS: we conducted a post-hoc analysis study in a Brazilian teaching hospital from 2010 to 2014, with 23 adult patients with a BMI of 48kg/m2, who received a single intragastric air or liquid balloon. We defined efficacy as 10% excess weight loss, and complications, as adverse events consequent to the intragastric balloon diagnosed after the initial accommodative period...
2018: Revista do Colégio Brasileiro de Cirurgiões
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450383/eyesight-quality-and-computer-vision-syndrome
#4
Camelia Margareta Bogdănici, Diana Elena Săndulache, Corina Andreea Nechita
The aim of the study was to analyze the effects that gadgets have on eyesight quality. A prospective observational study was conducted from January to July 2016, on 60 people who were divided into two groups: Group 1 - 30 middle school pupils with a mean age of 11.9 ± 1.86 and Group 2 - 30 patients evaluated in the Ophthalmology Clinic, "Sf. Spiridon" Hospital, Iași, with a mean age of 21.36 ± 7.16 years. The clinical parameters observed were the following: visual acuity (VA), objective refraction, binocular vision (BV), fusional amplitude (FA), Schirmer's test...
April 2017: Romanian Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448297/anticoagulant-preferences-and-concerns-among-venous-thromboembolism-patients
#5
Pamela L Lutsey, Keith J Horvath, Lisa Fullam, Stephan Moll, Mary R Rooney, Mary Cushman, Neil A Zakai
BACKGROUND: Warfarin and direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) are used for the initial treatment and secondary prevention of venous thromboembolism (VTE), and have similar efficacy. Patient concerns and preferences are important considerations when selecting an anticoagulant, yet these are not well studied. METHODS: VTE patients ( n = 519) were surveyed from online sources (clotconnect.org, stoptheclot.org and National Blood Clot Alliance Facebook followers [ n = 495]) and a haematology clinic in Vermont ( n = 24)...
February 15, 2018: Thrombosis and Haemostasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434191/actin-nucleator-spire-1-is-a-regulator-of-ectoplasmic-specialization-in-the-testis
#6
Qing Wen, Nan Li, Xiang Xiao, Wing-Yee Lui, Darren S Chu, Chris K C Wong, Qingquan Lian, Renshan Ge, Will M Lee, Bruno Silvestrini, C Yan Cheng
Germ cell differentiation during the epithelial cycle of spermatogenesis is accompanied by extensive remodeling at the Sertoli cell-cell and Sertoli cell-spermatid interface to accommodate the transport of preleptotene spermatocytes and developing spermatids across the blood-testis barrier (BTB) and the adluminal compartment of the seminiferous epithelium, respectively. The unique cell junction in the testis is the actin-rich ectoplasmic specialization (ES) designated basal ES at the Sertoli cell-cell interface, and the apical ES at the Sertoli-spermatid interface...
February 12, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432684/highly-stretchable-and-wearable-strain-sensor-based-on-printable-carbon-nanotube-layers-polydimethylsiloxane-composites-with-adjustable-sensitivity
#7
Xin Wang, Jinfeng Li, Haonan Song, Helen Huang, Jan Gou
Strain sensors that are capable of monitoring complex human motions with high accuracy are highly desirable for developing wearable electronics. This paper reports the fabrication of highly stretchable and sensitive multi-directional strain sensors with tunable strain gauge factors by employing a digitally controlled printer to incorporate carbon nanotube (CNT) layers into polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrate. The fabricated sensors exhibit a high stretchability (up to 45%) and sensitivity with a gauge factor of 35...
February 12, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415282/delivering-intensive-rehabilitation-in-stroke-factors-influencing-implementation
#8
Louise A Connell, Tara D Klassen, Jessie Janssen, Clare Thetford, Janice J Eng
Background: The evidence-base for stroke rehabilitation recommends intensive and repetitive task-specific practice, as well as aerobic exercise. However, translating these evidence-based interventions from research into clinical practice remains a major challenge. Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate factors influencing implementation of higher intensity activity in stroke rehabilitation settings. Design: This qualitative study used a cross-sectional design...
February 5, 2018: Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414988/laboratory-and-community-based-health-outcomes-in-people-with-transtibial-amputation-using-crossover-and-energy-storing-prosthetic-feet-a-randomized-crossover-trial
#9
Sara J Morgan, Cody L McDonald, Elizabeth G Halsne, Sarah M Cheever, Rana Salem, Patricia A Kramer, Brian J Hafner
Contemporary prosthetic feet are generally optimized for either daily or high-level activities. Prosthesis users, therefore, often require multiple prostheses to participate in activities that span a range of mobility. Crossover feet (XF) are designed to increase the range of activities that can be performed with a single prosthesis. However, little evidence exists to guide clinical prescription of XF relative to traditional energy storing feet (ESF). The objective of this study was to assess the effects of XF and ESF on health outcomes in people with transtibial amputation...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29410625/three-dimensional-in-vitro-cell-culture-models-in-drug-discovery-and-drug-repositioning
#10
REVIEW
Sigrid A Langhans
Drug development is a lengthy and costly process that proceeds through several stages from target identification to lead discovery and optimization, preclinical validation and clinical trials culminating in approval for clinical use. An important step in this process is high-throughput screening (HTS) of small compound libraries for lead identification. Currently, the majority of cell-based HTS is being carried out on cultured cells propagated in two-dimensions (2D) on plastic surfaces optimized for tissue culture...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29402170/residual-limb-fluid-volume-change-and-volume-accommodation-relationships-to-activity-and-self-report-outcomes-in-people-with-trans-tibial-amputation
#11
Joan E Sanders, Robert T Youngblood, Brian J Hafner, Marcia A Ciol, Katheryn J Allyn, David Gardner, John C Cagle, Christian B Redd, Colin R Dietrich
BACKGROUND: Fluctuations in limb volume degrade prosthesis fit and require users to accommodate changes using management strategies, such as donning and doffing prosthetic socks. OBJECTIVES: To examine how activities and self-report outcomes relate to daily changes in residual limb fluid volume and volume accommodation. STUDY DESIGN: Standardized, two-part laboratory protocol with an interim observational period. METHODS: Participants were classified as "accommodators" or "non-accommodators," based on self-report prosthetic sock use...
February 1, 2018: Prosthetics and Orthotics International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29402037/wavefront-control-in-adaptive-microscopy-using-shack-hartmann-sensors-with-arbitrarily-shaped-pupils
#12
Bing Dong, Martin J Booth
In adaptive optical microscopy of thick biological tissue, strong scattering and aberrations can change the effective pupil shape by rendering some Shack-Hartmann spots unusable. The change of pupil shape leads to a change of wavefront reconstruction or control matrix that should be updated accordingly. Modified slope and modal wavefront control methods based on measurements of a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor are proposed to accommodate an arbitrarily shaped pupil. Furthermore, we present partial wavefront control methods that remove specific aberration modes like tip, tilt and defocus from the control loop...
January 22, 2018: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29397514/toxicity-comparison-of-the-shoreline-cleaners-accell-clean%C3%A2-and-pes-51%C3%A2-in-two-life-stages-of-the-grass-shrimp-palaemonetes-pugio
#13
Sarah-Marie E Baxter, Marie E DeLorenzo, Peter B Key, Katy W Chung, Emily Pisarski, Barbara Beckingham, Michael H Fulton
Oil spills are a significant source of coastal pollution. Shoreline cleaners, used to remove oil from surfaces during spill response and remediation, may also act as toxins. Adult and larval grass shrimp, Palaemonetes pugio, were tested for lethal and sublethal impacts from two shoreline cleaners, Accell Clean SWA® and PES-51®, alone and in combination with crude oil using Chemically Enhanced Water Accommodated Fractions (CEWAFs). Median lethal toxicity values determined for the individual cleaners were similar...
February 4, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29387819/adsorption-and-photocatalytic-performance-of-bentonite-titanium-dioxide-composites-for-methylene-blue-and-rhodamine-b-decoloration
#14
Livy Laysandra, Meri Winda Masnona Kartika Sari, Felycia Edi Soetaredjo, Kuncoro Foe, Jindrayani Nyoo Putro, Alfin Kurniawan, Yi-Hsu Ju, Suryadi Ismadji
Bentonite - TiO2 composites were prepared by impregnation of TiO2 and bentonite, followed by microwave irradiation processes. The composites were characterized using FTIR, SEM, XRD, and nitrogen sorption methods. Anatase phase of TiO2 in all composites are observed through XRD diffraction peaks and surface morphology of the composites. The adsorption and photocatalytic capabilities of the composites were tested in liquid phase adsorption of methylene blue and Rhodamine B. The adsorption and photocatalytic degradation experiments were conducted in the presence or absence of UV light irradiation...
December 2017: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29386651/axial-elongation-measured-by-long-scan-depth-optical-coherence-tomography-during-pilocarpine-induced-accommodation-in-intraocular-lens-implanted-eyes
#15
Yilei Shao, Qiuruo Jiang, Di Hu, Lingmin Zhang, Meixiao Shen, Shenghai Huang, Lin Leng, Yimin Yuan, Qi Chen, Dexi Zhu, Jianhua Wang, Fan Lu
We used an ultra-long scan depth optical coherence tomography (UL-OCT) system to investigate changes in axial biometry of pseudophakic eyes during pilocarpine- induced accommodation. The right eyes from 25 healthy subjects (age range 49 to 84 years) with an intraocular lens (IOL) were imaged twice in the non-accommodative and the accommodative states. A custom-built UL-OCT instrument imaged the whole eye. Then accommodation was induced by two drops of 0.5% pilocarpine hydrochloride separated by a 5-minute interval...
January 31, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29385811/applying-strengths-model-principles-to-build-a-rural-community-based-mental-health-support-service-and-achieve-recovery-outcomes
#16
Debra Dunstan, Donnah Anderson
INTRODUCTION: The Personal Helpers and Mentors (PHaMs) service is a non-clinical, community-based Australian Government initiative aimed at increasing opportunities for recovery for people whose lives are severely affected by mental illness. Using a strengths-based recovery model, PHaMs caseworkers support and mentor people 'at risk of falling through the gaps' between state funded clinical treatment services and federally funded social services (such as supported housing, education and employment)...
February 2018: Rural and Remote Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29380660/validity-of-brief-cognitive-assessment-tool-modifications-for-older-adults-with-visual-and-motor-limitations
#17
Ryan A Mace, William E Mansbach
INTRODUCTION: The prevalence of cognitive, sensory, and physical impairments is expected to grow alongside increasing life expectancy. These chronic conditions pose challenges for geriatric assessment. We examined whether Brief Cognitive Assessment Tool (BCAT) modifications to accommodate visual and motor limitations would retain strong validity for identifying mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia. METHOD: Psychometric analyses were performed on archival data (N = 458) from community-dwelling older adults and residents of assisted living facilities and nursing homes in Maryland, USA (age ≥ 50 years)...
January 30, 2018: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29379831/translating-a-us-early-palliative-care-model-for-turkey-and-singapore
#18
REVIEW
Imatullah Akyar, James N Dionne-Odom, Grace Meijuan Yang, Marie A Bakitas
The field of palliative care is growing in acceptance and sophistication globally. No longer considered just for patients at end-of-life, palliative care is now being incorporated early in the disease trajectory. Despite professional guidelines supporting early palliative care, there are few models that have been created that can be translated into practice cross-culturally. In the United States, the Educate, Nurture, Advise, Before, Life Ends (ENABLE) early palliative care telehealth model has demonstrated effectiveness in improving quality of life, mood, symptom relief, and survival for patients with cancer and is now being tested in patients with heart failure...
January 2018: Asia-Pacific Journal of Oncology Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29376767/re-examination-of-release-from-pi-phenomena-recall-accuracy-does-not-recover-after-a-semantic-switch
#19
Nicholas A Hubbard, Travis P Weaver, Monroe P Turner, Bart Rypma
Recall accuracy decreases over successive memory trials using similar memoranda. This effect reflects proactive interference (PI) - the tendency for previously studied information to reduce recall of new information. However, recall improves if memoranda for a subsequent trial are semantically dissimilar from the previous trials. This improvement is thought to reflect a release from PI. We tested whether PI is reduced or released from the semantic category for which it had been induced by employing paradigms which featured inducement, semantic switch, and then return-to-original category epochs...
January 29, 2018: Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29371010/the-discrepancy-between-subjective-and-objective-measures-of-convergence-insufficiency-in-whiplash-associated-disorder-versus-control-participants
#20
Hadas Stiebel-Kalish, Amir Amitai, Michael Mimouni, Michael Bach, Tal Saban, Michelle Cahn, Liat Gantz
PURPOSE: Motor vehicle accidents (MVAs) are a pandemic associated with human suffering and a burden to national economies. Whiplash-associated disorders (WADs) after MVAs are associated commonly with disability claims, many of which are related to vision. Convergence insufficiency (CI) leads to visual disability associated with symptoms of ocular discomfort. We examined the incidence of symptoms and findings consistent with CI in a cohort of patients after MVA-related WAD compared with age-matched control participants...
January 19, 2018: Ophthalmology
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