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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534826/atp-driven-contraction-of-phage-t3-capsids-with-dna-incompletely-packaged-in-vivo
#1
Philip Serwer, Elena T Wright
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) cleavage powers packaging of a double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) molecule in a pre-assembled capsid of phages that include T3. Several observations constitute a challenge to the conventional view that the shell of the capsid is energetically inert during packaging. Here, we test this challenge by analyzing the in vitro effects of ATP on the shells of capsids generated by DNA packaging in vivo. These capsids retain incompletely packaged DNA (ipDNA) and are called ipDNA-capsids; the ipDNA-capsids are assumed to be products of premature genome maturation-cleavage...
May 19, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530803/red-phosphorus-nano-dots-on-reduced-graphene-oxide-as-a-flexible-and-ultra-fast-anode-for-sodium-ion-batteries
#2
Yihang Liu, Anyi Zhang, Chenfei Shen, Qingzhou Liu, Xuan Cao, Yuqiang Ma, Liang Chen, Christian Lau, Tian-Chi Chen, Fei Wei, Chongwu Zhou
Sodium-ion batteries offer an attractive option for potential low cost and large scale energy storage due to the earth abundance of sodium. Red phosphorus is considered as a high capacity anode for sodium-ion batteries with a theoretical capacity of 2596 mAh/g. However, similar to silicon in lithium-ion batteries, several limitations such as large volume expansion upon sodiation/de-sodiation and low electronic conductance have severely limited the performance of red phosphorus anodes. In order to address the above challenges, we have developed a method to deposit red phosphorus nano-dots densely and uniformly onto reduced graphene oxide sheets (P@RGO) to minimize the sodium ion diffusion length and the sodiation/de-sodiation stresses, and the RGO network also serves as electron pathway and creates free space to accommodate the volume variation of phosphorus particles...
May 22, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528415/oxidative-stress-in-shellfish-sinonovacula-constricta-exposed-to-the-water-accommodated-fraction-of-zero-sulfur-diesel-oil-and-pinghu-crude-oil
#3
Mei Jiang, Lei Li, Yingren Li, Gongming Shen, Xinqiang Shen
This study investigated the oxidative stress of the water accommodated fraction (WAF) of zero sulfur diesel oil and Pinghu crude oil on Sinonovacula constricta, respectively. The oxidative stress of oil pollutants on organisms was measured by typical antioxidases, such as SOD, CAT, GST, and POD. Toxicity was quantitatively evaluated by combining IBR (integrated biomarker responses). Results demonstrated that different concentrations of oil caused different degrees of induction to the four antioxidases. Compared with the control group, all test groups presented enzyme induction or inhibition during exposure period...
May 20, 2017: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523607/carotenoid-to-bacteriochlorophyll-energy-transfer-through-vibronic-coupling-in-lh2-from-phaeosprillum-molischianum
#4
Erling Thyrhaug, Craig N Lincoln, Federico Branchi, Giulio Cerullo, Václav Perlík, František Šanda, Heiko Lokstein, Jürgen Hauer
The peripheral light-harvesting antenna complex (LH2) of purple photosynthetic bacteria is an ideal testing ground for models of structure-function relationships due to its well-determined molecular structure and ultrafast energy deactivation. It has been the target for numerous studies in both theory and ultrafast spectroscopy; nevertheless, certain aspects of the convoluted relaxation network of LH2 lack a satisfactory explanation by conventional theories. For example, the initial carotenoid-to-bacteriochlorophyll energy transfer step necessary on visible light excitation was long considered to follow the Förster mechanism, even though transfer times as short as 40 femtoseconds (fs) have been observed...
May 18, 2017: Photosynthesis Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515041/multidisciplinary-evaluation-of-interstitial-lung-diseases-current-insights-number-1-in-the-series-radiology-edited-by-nicola-sverzellati-and-sujal-desai
#5
Simon L F Walsh
Multidisciplinary team (MDT) diagnosis is regarded as the diagnostic reference standard for interstitial lung disease (ILD). Several studies have reported that MDT diagnosis is associated with higher levels of diagnostic confidence and better interobserver agreement when compared to the individual components of the MDT in isolation. Although this recommendation is widely accepted, no guideline statement specifies what constitutes an MDT meeting and how its participants should govern it. Furthermore, the precise role of an MDT meeting in the setting of ILD may vary from one group to another...
June 30, 2017: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511638/screening-for-tuberculosis-in-an-urban-shelter-for-homeless-in-switzerland-a-prospective-study
#6
Jean-Paul Janssens, Timothee Wuillemin, Dan Adler, Yves Jackson
BACKGROUND: Whereas high risk groups such as asylum seekers are systematically screened for active tuberculosis (TB) upon entry in Switzerland, this strategy does not apply to homeless persons despite a reported high risk. Geneva health and social authorities implemented an intersectoral project to screen for active TB in homeless persons. We aimed to assess acceptability of this program and prevalence of active TB in this group. METHODS: This prospective study targeted all homeless adults registering for shelter accommodation in Geneva during winter 2015...
May 16, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510438/complex-effects-of-24-1-sphingolipids-in-membranes-containing-dioleoyl-phosphatidylcholine-and-cholesterol
#7
Aritz B Garcia-Arribas, Emilio J Gonzalez-Ramirez, Jesús Sot, Itziar Areso, Alicia Alonso, Felix M Goni
The effects of C24:1 sphingolipids have been tested in phospholipid bilayers containing cholesterol. Confocal microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and atomic force microscopy imaging and force curves have been used. More precisely, the effects of C24:1 ceramide (nervonoyl ceramide, nCer) were evaluated and compared to those of C16:0 ceramide (palmitoyl ceramide, pCer) in bilayers composed basically of dioleoyl phosphatidylcholine, sphingomyelin (either C24:1, nSM or C16:0, pSM) and cholesterol. Combination of equimolecular amounts of C24:1 and C16:0 sphingolipids were also studied under the same conditions...
May 16, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509591/current-practice-constraints-in-the-uptake-and-use-of-intensive-upper-extremity-training-a-canadian-perspective
#8
Keiko Shikako-Thomas, Darcy Fehlings, Manon Germain, Andrew M Gordon, Doug Maynard, Annette Majnemer
BACKGROUND: Intensive upper extremity training (IUET) has demonstrated efficacy in clinical and functioning outcomes in children with hemiplegia. However, implementation in the clinical context requires novel service models and knowledge translation. AIMS: To map implementation of IUET in Canada, to identify factors associated with the implementation and best practices for implementation. METHODS: Mixed-methods design; descriptive statistics, chi-square tests...
May 16, 2017: Physical & Occupational Therapy in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508678/past-is-prologue-how-to-advance-caregiver-interventions
#9
Steven H Zarit
OBJECTIVES: Research on caregiving interventions has increased substantially in recent years. Although many promising approaches have been tested, results are often modest. The goal of this paper is to identify conceptual and methodological issues that could lead to better treatment outcome. METHOD: A critical review of the literature on interventions for caregivers of persons with dementia. RESULTS: A fundamental issue in caregiver interventions is what are appropriate goals for treatment and what outcome measures should be used to address those goals...
May 16, 2017: Aging & Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497568/neuropsychological-phenotypes-of-76-individuals-with-joubert-syndrome-evaluated-at-a-single-center
#10
Angela C Summers, Joseph Snow, Edythe Wiggs, Alexander G Liu, Camilo Toro, Andrea Poretti, Wadih M Zein, Brian P Brooks, Melissa A Parisi, Sara Inati, Dan Doherty, Meghana Vemulapalli, Jim C Mullikin, Thierry Vilboux, William A Gahl, Meral Gunay-Aygun
Joubert syndrome (JS) is a genetically heterogeneous ciliopathy characterized by hypo-dysplasia of the cerebellar vermis, a distinct hindbrain/midbrain malformation (molar tooth sign), and intellectual disability. We evaluated the neuropsychological profiles of 76 participants with JS in the context of molecular genetics and clinical covariates. Evaluations included neuropsychological testing, structured parental interviews, DNA sequencing, brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), electroencephalography (EEG), ophthalmologic examination, and assessment for renal and hepatic disease...
May 12, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496410/clinical-applications-of-iso-inertial-eccentric-overload-yoyo%C3%A2-resistance-exercise
#11
REVIEW
Per A Tesch, Rodrigo Fernandez-Gonzalo, Tommy R Lundberg
In the quest for a viable non-gravity dependent method to "lift weights" in space, our laboratory introduced iso-inertial resistance (YoYo™) exercise using spinning flywheel(s), more than 25 years ago. After being thoroughly tested in individuals subjected to various established spaceflight analogs, a multi-mode YoYo™ exercise apparatus was eventually installed on the International Space Station in 2009. The method, applicable to any muscle group, provides accommodated resistance and optimal muscle loading through the full range of motion of concentric actions, and brief episodes of eccentric overload...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489257/unsaturated-long-chain-fatty-acids-are-preferred-ferritin-ligands-enhancing-iron-biomineralization
#12
Serena Zanzoni, Katiuscia Pagano, Mariapina D'Onofrio, Michael Assfalg, Silvia Ciambellotti, Caterina Bernacchioni, Paola Turano, Silvio Aime, Laura Ragona, Henriette Molinari
Ferritin is a ubiquitous nanocage protein, which can accommodate up to thousands of iron atoms inside its cavity. Besides its iron storage function, a new role as fatty acid binder has been proposed for this protein. The interaction of apo horse spleen ferritin (HoSF) with a variety of lipids has been here investigated through NMR ligand-based experiments, to provide new insights into the mechanism of ferritin/lipid interactions and the link with iron mineralization. 1D DOSY and STD NMR experiments established a stronger interaction of ferritin with unsaturated fatty acids with respect to saturated fatty acids, detergents and bile acids...
May 10, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486594/apathy-and-impulsivity-in-frontotemporal-lobar-degeneration-syndromes
#13
Claire J Lansdall, Ian T S Coyle-Gilchrist, P Simon Jones, Patricia Vázquez Rodríguez, Alicia Wilcox, Eileen Wehmann, Katrina M Dick, Trevor W Robbins, James B Rowe
Apathy and impulsivity are common and disabling consequences of frontotemporal lobar degeneration. They cause substantial carer distress, but their aetiology remains elusive. There are critical limitations to previous studies in this area including (i) the assessment of either apathy or impulsivity alone, despite their frequent co-existence; (ii) the assessment of behavioural changes within single diagnostic groups; and (iii) the use of limited sets of tasks or questions that relate to just one aspect of these multifactorial constructs...
May 9, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485975/binder-free-n-and-o-rich-carbon-nanofiber-anodes-for-long-cycle-life-k-ion-batteries
#14
Ryan A Adams, Jia-Min Syu, Yunpu Zhao, Chieh-Tsung Lo, Arvind Varma, Vilas G Pol
Carbon nanofibers produced by electrospinning of polyacrylonitrile polymer and subsequent carbonization were tested as freestanding potassium-ion anodes. The effect of oxygen functionalization on K-ion carbon anode performance was tested for the first time via plasma oxidation of prepared carbon nanofibers. The produced materials exhibited exceptional cycling stability through the amorphous carbon structuring and 1-dimensional architecture accommodating significant material expansion upon K+ intercalation, resulting in a stable capacity of 170 mAh g-1 after 1900 cycles at 1C rate for N-rich carbon nanofibers...
May 9, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474772/modelling-individual-response-time-effects-between-and-within-experimental-speed-conditions-a-glmm-approach-for-speeded-tests
#15
Frank Goldhammer, Merle A Steinwascher, Ulf Kroehne, Johannes Naumann
Completing test items under multiple speed conditions avoids the performance measure being confounded with individual differences in the speed-accuracy compromise, and offers insights into the response process, that is, how response time relates to the probability of a correct response. This relation is traditionally represented by two conceptually different functions: the speed-accuracy trade-off function (SATF) across conditions relating the condition average response time to the condition average of accuracy, and the conditional accuracy function (CAF) within a condition describing accuracy conditional on response time...
May 2017: British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474768/a-heteroscedastic-generalized-linear-model-with-a-non-normal-speed-factor-for-responses-and-response-times
#16
Dylan Molenaar, Maria Bolsinova
In generalized linear modelling of responses and response times, the observed response time variables are commonly transformed to make their distribution approximately normal. A normal distribution for the transformed response times is desirable as it justifies the linearity and homoscedasticity assumptions in the underlying linear model. Past research has, however, shown that the transformed response times are not always normal. Models have been developed to accommodate this violation. In the present study, we propose a modelling approach for responses and response times to test and model non-normality in the transformed response times...
May 2017: British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469329/financial-burden-faced-by-families-due-to-out-of-pocket-expenses-during-the-treatment-of-their-cancer-children-an-indian-perspective
#17
Latha M Sneha, Jeyanth Sai, S Ashwini, Sunitha Ramaswamy, Mahalakshmi Rajan, Julius X Scott
CONTEXT: Life-saving cancer therapy is costly and may result in financial burden for these families. Financial costs for treating childhood cancer care are traditionally assessed based on the amount spent for diagnostic tests, hospitalization, and chemotherapy. The financial costs for travel, accommodation, out-of-pocket expenses for food, phone bills, and loss of income due to reduction or termination of parental employment are hidden nonmedical expenses that are rarely accounted for...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Medical and Paediatric Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464407/conditional-analysis-of-multiple-quantitative-traits-based-on-marginal-gwas-summary-statistics
#18
Yangqing Deng, Wei Pan
There has been an increasing interest in joint association testing of multiple traits for possible pleiotropic effects. However, even in the presence of pleiotropy, most of the existing methods cannot distinguish direct and indirect effects of a genetic variant, say single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), on multiple traits, and a conditional analysis of a trait adjusting for other traits is perhaps the simplest and most common approach to addressing this question. However, without individual-level genotypic and phenotypic data but with only genome-wide association study (GWAS) summary statistics, as typical with most large-scale GWAS consortium studies, we are not aware of any existing method for such a conditional analysis...
May 2, 2017: Genetic Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463399/phylogenetic-inference-using-revbayes
#19
Sebastian Höhna, Michael J Landis, Tracy A Heath
Bayesian phylogenetic inference aims to estimate the evolutionary relationships among different lineages (species, populations, gene families, viral strains, etc.) in a model-based statistical framework that uses the likelihood function for parameter estimates. In recent years, evolutionary models for Bayesian analysis have grown in number and complexity. RevBayes uses a probabilistic-graphical model framework and an interactive scripting language for model specification to accommodate and exploit model diversity and complexity within a single software package...
May 2, 2017: Current Protocols in Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461332/a-bacteroidetes-locus-dedicated-to-fungal-1-6-%C3%AE-glucan-degradation-unique-substrate-conformation-drives-specificity-of-the-key-endo-1-6-%C3%AE-glucanase
#20
Max J Temple, Fiona Cuskin, Arnaud Baslé, Niall Hickey, Gaetano Speciale, Spencer J Williams, Harry J Gilbert, Elisabeth C Lowe
Glycans are major nutrients available to the human gut microbiota (HGM). The Bacteroides are generalist glycan degraders and this function is mediated largely by polysaccharide utilization loci (PULs). The genomes of several Bacteroides species contain a PUL, PUL1,6-beta;-glucan, that was predicted to target mixed linked plant 1,3;1,4-beta-glucans. To test this hypothesis we characterized the proteins encoded by this locus in Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, a member of the HGM. We show here that PUL1,6-β-glucan does not orchestrate the degradation of a plant polysaccharide but targets a fungal cell wall glycan, 1,6-beta-glucan, which is a growth substrate for the bacterium...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
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