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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340464/a-review-on-various-electrochemical-techniques-for-heavy-metal-ions-detection-with-different-sensing-platforms
#1
REVIEW
BabanKumar Bansod, Tejinder Kumar, Ritula Thakur, Shakshi Rana, Inderbir Singh
Heavy metal ions are non-biodegradable and contaminate most of the natural resources occurring in the environment including water. Some of the heavy metals including Lead (Pb), Mercury (Hg), Arsenic (As), Chromium (Cr) and Cadmium (Cd) are considered to be highly toxic and hazardous to human health even at trace levels. This leads to the requirement of fast, accurate and reliable techniques for the detection of heavy metal ions. This review presents various electrochemical detection techniques for heavy metal ions those are user friendly, low cost, provides on-site and real time monitoring as compared to other spectroscopic and optical techniques...
March 18, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339347/the-aging-kidney-and-the-nephrotoxic-effects-of-mercury
#2
Christy C Bridges, Rudolfs K Zalups
Owing to advances in modern medicine, life expectancies are lengthening and leading to an increase in the population of older individuals. The aging process leads to significant alterations in many organ systems, with the kidney being particularly susceptible to age-related changes. Within the kidney, aging leads to ultrastructural changes such as glomerular and tubular hypertrophy, glomerulosclerosis, and tubulointerstitial fibrosis, which may compromise renal plasma flow (RPF) and glomerular filtration rate (GFR)...
2017: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part B, Critical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335523/-2-2-photodimerization-of-naphthylvinylpyridines-through-cation-%C3%AF-interactions-in-acidic-solution
#3
Shinji Yamada, Yuka Nojiri
Irradiation of (E)-4-(2-(2-naphthyl)vinyl)pyridine (1a) and (E)-4-(2-(1-naphthyl)vinyl)pyridine (1b) with a 250 W high-pressure mercury lamp in acidic solution afforded synHT dimers in high stereoselectivities. Similar results were obtained by visible light irradiation. On the other hand, when the reactions were carried out under neutral conditions, the stereoselectivities were very low, and the yields were decreased by visible light irradiation. Comparison of the UV-vis spectra between the acidic and the neutral conditions elucidated that the red shift was observed in acidic solutions...
March 20, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335439/mercury-levels-in-human-hair-and-farmed-fish-near-artisanal-and-small-scale-gold-mining-communities-in-the-madre-de-dios-river-basin-peru
#4
Aubrey L Langeland, Rebecca D Hardin, Richard L Neitzel
Artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) has been an important source of income for communities in the Madre de Dios River Basin in Peru for hundreds of years. However, in recent decades, the scale of ASGM activities in the region has increased dramatically, and exposures to a variety of occupational and environmental hazards related to ASGM, including mercury, are becoming more widespread. The aims of our study were to: (1) examine patterns in the total hair mercury level of human participants in several communities in the region and compare these results to the 2...
March 14, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335390/a-simple-metallothionein-based-biosensor-for-enhanced-detection-of-arsenic-and-mercury
#5
Gordon W Irvine, Swee Ngin Tan, Martin J Stillman
Metallothioneins (MTs) are a family of cysteine-rich proteins whose biological roles include the regulation of essential metal ions and protection against the harmful effects of toxic metals. Due to its high affinity for many toxic, soft metals, recombinant human MT isoform 1a was incorporated into an electrochemical-based biosensor for the detection of As(3+) and Hg(2+). A simple design was chosen to maximize its potential in environmental monitoring and MT was physically adsorbed onto paper discs placed on screen-printed carbon electrodes (SPCEs)...
March 13, 2017: Biosensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335369/effect-of-nano-sio%C3%A2-on-the-hydration-and-microstructure-of-portland-cement
#6
Liguo Wang, Dapeng Zheng, Shupeng Zhang, Hongzhi Cui, Dongxu Li
This paper systematically studied the modification of cement-based materials by nano-SiO₂ particles with an average diameter of about 20 nm. In order to obtain the effect of nano-SiO₂ particles on the mechanical properties, hydration, and pore structure of cement-based materials, adding 1%, 3%, and 5% content of nano-SiO₂ in cement paste, respectively. The results showed that the reaction of nano-SiO₂ particles with Ca(OH)₂ (crystal powder) started within 1 h, and formed C-S-H gel. The reaction speed was faster after aging for three days...
December 15, 2016: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335328/investigation-of-the-mechanical-properties-and-microstructure-of-graphene-nanoplatelet-cement-composite
#7
Baomin Wang, Ruishuang Jiang, Zhenlin Wu
In this work, graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs) were dispersed uniformly in aqueous solution using methylcellulose (MC) as a dispersing agent via ultrasonic processing. Homogenous GNP suspensions were incorporated into the cement matrix to investigate the effect of GNPs on the mechanical behavior of cement paste. The optimum concentration ratio of GNPs to MC was confirmed as 1:7 by ultraviolet visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis), and the optical microscope and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images displayed remarkable dispersing performance...
November 4, 2016: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331572/environmental-risk-factors-for-autism-an-evidence-based-review-of-systematic-reviews-and-meta-analyses
#8
REVIEW
Amirhossein Modabbernia, Eva Velthorst, Abraham Reichenberg
BACKGROUND: According to recent evidence, up to 40-50% of variance in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) liability might be determined by environmental factors. In the present paper, we conducted a review of systematic reviews and meta-analyses of environmental risk factors for ASD. We assessed each review for quality of evidence and provided a brief overview of putative mechanisms of environmental risk factors for ASD. FINDINGS: Current evidence suggests that several environmental factors including vaccination, maternal smoking, thimerosal exposure, and most likely assisted reproductive technologies are unrelated to risk of ASD...
2017: Molecular Autism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329084/obstructive-sleep-apnea-is-associated-with-early-but-possibly-modifiable-alzheimer-s-disease-changes
#9
Claudio Liguori, Nicola Biagio Mercuri, Francesca Izzi, Andrea Romigi, Alberto Cordella, Giuseppe Sancesario, Fabio Placidi
Study Objectives: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common sleep disorder. Actually, literature lacks studies examining sleep, cognition, and Alzheimer's Disease (AD) cerebrospinal-fluid biomarkers in OSA patients. Therefore, we firstly studied cognitive performances, polysomnographic sleep, and CSF β-amyloid, tau proteins and lactate levels in patients affected by subjective cognitive impairment (SCI) divided in three groups: OSA patients (showing an Apnea-Hypopnea Index - AHI ≥15/h), controls (showing an AHI<15/h), and patients treating OSA by continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP)...
January 28, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326463/relationship-between-selenium-lead-and-mercury-in-red-blood-cells-of-saudi-autistic-children
#10
Afaf El-Ansary, Geir Bjørklund, Alexey A Tinkov, Anatoly V Skalny, Hussain Al Dera
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that can cause significant social, communication and behavioral challenges. Environmental contribution to ASD is due in large part to the sensitivity of the developing brain to external exposures such as lead (Pb), and mercury (Hg) as toxic heavy metals or due to a poor detoxification ability as the phenotype of this disorder. Selenium (Se) as an antioxidant element that counteracts the neurotoxicity of Hg, and Pb, presumably through the formation of nontoxic complexes...
March 21, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325924/genome-wide-association-analysis-identifies-loci-governing-mercury-accumulation-in-maize
#11
Zhan Zhao, Zhongjun Fu, Yanan Lin, Hao Chen, Kun Liu, Xiaolong Xing, Zonghua Liu, Weihua Li, Jihua Tang
Owing to the rapid development of urbanisation and industrialisation, heavy metal pollution has become a widespread environmental problem. Maize planted on mercury (Hg)-polluted soil can absorb and accumulate Hg in its edible parts, posing a potential threat to human health. To understand the genetic mechanism of Hg accumulation in maize, we performed a genome-wide association study using a mixed linear model on an association population consisting of 230 maize inbred lines with abundant genetic variation. The order of relative Hg concentrations in different maize tissues was as follows: leaves > bracts > stems > axes > kernels...
March 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325913/persistent-dna-methylation-changes-associated-with-prenatal-mercury-exposure-and-cognitive-performance-during-childhood
#12
Andres Cardenas, Sheryl L Rifas-Shiman, Golareh Agha, Marie-France Hivert, Augusto A Litonjua, Dawn L DeMeo, Xihong Lin, Chitra J Amarasiriwardena, Emily Oken, Matthew W Gillman, Andrea A Baccarelli
Prenatal exposure to mercury, a known neurotoxic metal, is associated with lower cognitive performance during childhood. Disruption of fetal epigenetic programming could explain mercury's neurodevelopmental effects. We screened for epigenome-wide methylation differences associated with maternal prenatal blood mercury levels in 321 cord blood DNA samples and examined the persistence of these alterations during early (n = 75; 2.9-4.9 years) and mid-childhood (n = 291; 6.7-10.5 years). Among males, prenatal mercury levels were associated with lower regional cord blood DNA methylation at the Paraoxonase 1 gene (PON1) that persisted in early childhood and was attenuated in mid-childhood blood...
March 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324255/can-red-deer-antlers-be-used-as-an-indicator-of-environmental-and-edible-tissues-trace-element-contamination
#13
Aleksandra Giżejewska, Józef Szkoda, Agnieszka Nawrocka, Jan Żmudzki, Zygmunt Giżejewski
Venison is an attractive product for consumers concerned with healthy lifestyle; however, it can contain high levels of toxic elements, and therefore, it is a possible source of hazardous contaminants in human diet. Antlers are suitable bioindicators of environmental metal contamination, and herein, we assessed the ability of trace element levels in antlers to indicate levels in edible soft tissues. We determined the concentrations of lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), arsenic (As), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), and iron (Fe) in the liver, kidney, muscle, and antlers of 14 free-ranging red deer (Cervus elaphus) from northeastern Poland using atomic absorption spectrometry...
March 21, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323594/the-mercury-thirteen
#14
Bill Tarver
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 1, 2016: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323482/constraints-on-the-early-terrestrial-surface-uv-environment-relevant-to-prebiotic-chemistry
#15
Sukrit Ranjan, Dimitar D Sasselov
The UV environment is a key boundary condition to abiogenesis. However, considerable uncertainty exists as to planetary conditions and hence surface UV at abiogenesis. Here, we present two-stream multilayer clear-sky calculations of the UV surface radiance on Earth at 3.9 Ga to constrain the UV surface fluence as a function of albedo, solar zenith angle (SZA), and atmospheric composition. Variation in albedo and latitude (through SZA) can affect maximum photoreaction rates by a factor of >10.4; for the same atmosphere, photoreactions can proceed an order of magnitude faster at the equator of a snowball Earth than at the poles of a warmer world...
March 2017: Astrobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322969/arsenic-cadmium-mercury-sodium-and-potassium-concentrations-in-common-foods-and-estimated-daily-intake-of-the-population-in-valdivia-chile-using-a-total-diet-study
#16
Ociel Muñoz, Pedro Zamorano, Olga Garcia, José Miguel Bastías
This study was designed to estimate the dietary intake of total arsenic, inorganic arsenic, cadmium, mercury, sodium, and potassium by the general adult population (aged 18-65) of Valdivia, Chile. Calculations were based on a 24-h dietary recall survey. The highest dietary intake of t-As (73.0 μg/day), i-As (20.0 μg/day), Cd (18.0 μg/day), Hg (5.8 μg/day), Na(+) (3112.8 mg/day), and K(+) (2077.5 mg/day) were for 70-kg adults. Estimating carcinogenic risk (CR > 4 × 10(-4)) due to exposure to i-As indicated that consumers remain at low risk for cancer...
March 16, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321703/a-systematic-review-on-the-efficiency-of-cerium-impregnated-activated-carbons-for-the-removal-of-gas-phase-elemental-mercury-from-flue-gas
#17
Mohammad Hossein Sowlat, Babak Kakavandi, Saeedeh Lotfi, Masud Yunesian, Mohammad Abdollahi, Roshanak Rezaei Kalantary
In the present systematic review, we aimed to collect and analyze all the relevant evidence on the efficiency of cerium-impregnated versus virgin-activated carbons (ACs) for the removal of gas-phase elemental mercury (Hg(0)) from the flue gas of coal-fired power plants and to assess the effect of different calcination and operational parameters on their efficiency. A total of eight relevant papers (out of 1193 hits produced by the search) met the eligibility criteria and were included in the study. Results indicated that the Hg(0) adsorption capacity of cerium-impregnated ACs is significantly higher than that of virgin ACs, depending highly on the impregnation and operational parameters...
March 21, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321305/occupational-mercury-vapour-poisoning-with-a-respiratory-failure-pneumomediastinum-and-severe-quadriparesis
#18
Jakub Smiechowicz, Anna Skoczynska, Agata Nieckula-Szwarc, Katarzyna Kulpa, Andrzej Kübler
OBJECTIVES: Despite restrictions, mercury continues to pose a health concern. Mercury has the ability to deposit in most parts of the body and can cause a wide range of unspecific symptoms leading to diagnostic mistakes. METHODS AND RESULTS: We report the case of severe mercury vapour poisoning after occupational exposure in a chloralkali plant worker that resulted in life-threatening respiratory failure, pneumomediastinum and quadriparesis. CONCLUSIONS: Prolonged mechanical ventilation and treatment with penicillamine and spironolactone was used with successful outcome...
2017: SAGE open medical case reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319906/functional-characterization-of-gram-negative-bacteria-from-different-genera-as-multiplex-cadmium-biosensors
#19
Lara Bereza-Malcolm, Sanja Aracic, Ruban Kannan, Gülay Mann, Ashley E Franks
Widespread presence of cadmium in soil and water systems is a consequence of industrial and agricultural processes. Subsequent accumulation of cadmium in food and drinking water can result in accidental consumption of dangerous concentrations. As such, cadmium environmental contamination poses a significant threat to human health. Development of microbial biosensors, as a novel alternative method for in situ cadmium detection, may reduce human exposure by complementing traditional analytical methods. In this study, a multiplex cadmium biosensing construct was assembled by cloning a single-output cadmium biosensor element, cadRgfp, and a constitutively expressed mrfp1 onto a broad-host range vector...
March 16, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319740/concentrations-and-isotope-ratios-of-mercury-in-sediments-from-shelf-and-continental-slope-at-campos-basin-near-rio-de-janeiro-brazil
#20
Beatriz Ferreira Araujo, Holger Hintelmann, Brian Dimock, Marcelo Gomes Almeida, Carlos Eduardo Rezende
Mercury (Hg) may originate from both anthropogenic and natural sources. The measurement of spatial and temporal variations of Hg isotope ratios in sediments may enable source identification and tracking of environmental processes. In this study we establish the distribution of mercury concentrations and mercury isotope ratios in surface sediments of three transects along the continental shelf and slope in Campos Basin-RJ-Brazil. The shelf showed on average lower total Hg concentrations (9.2 ± 5.3 ng g(-1)) than the slope (24...
March 15, 2017: Chemosphere
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