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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323830/on-the-evolutionary-origins-of-equity
#1
Stéphane Debove, Nicolas Baumard, Jean-Baptiste André
Equity, defined as reward according to contribution, is considered a central aspect of human fairness in both philosophical debates and scientific research. Despite large amounts of research on the evolutionary origins of fairness, the evolutionary rationale behind equity is still unknown. Here, we investigate how equity can be understood in the context of the cooperative environment in which humans evolved. We model a population of individuals who cooperate to produce and divide a resource, and choose their cooperative partners based on how they are willing to divide the resource...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303366/ancillary-care-obligations-in-light-of-an-african-bioethic-from-entrustment-to-communion
#2
Thaddeus Metz
Henry Richardson recently published the first book ever devoted to ancillary care obligations, which roughly concern what medical researchers are morally required to provide to participants beyond what safety requires. In it, Richardson notes that he is presenting the 'only fully elaborated view out there' on this topic, which he calls the 'partial-entrustment model'. In this article, I provide a new theory of ancillary care obligations, one that is grounded on ideals of communion salient in the African philosophical tradition and that is intended to rival and surpass Richardson's model, which is a function of Western considerations of autonomy...
March 16, 2017: Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301003/minor-and-major-health-a-nietzschean-reading
#3
Emília Carvalho Leitão Biato, Luciano Bedin da Costa, Silas Borges Monteiro
This paper aims to discuss the concept of health, understood as multiple and plural. We use Friedrich Nietzsche's philosophical thought as an analytical tool, allowing us to reach a typology involving minor and major health. While the first is normative and sustained by an ideal of healing, the second is an expanding strength, a condition constantly achieved. If minor health follows a preset life moralization script, major health relates to the expanded living being, which affirms its creative nature and transcends established rules...
March 2017: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300515/the-social-before-sociocognitive-theory-explaining-hypnotic-suggestion-in-german-speaking-europe-1900-1960
#4
Anthony D Kauders
The article intends to retrace and review German discourse on hypnotic suggestion from 1900 onward, demonstrating the variety of arguments advanced to account for the social relationship in the hypnotic setting well before the emergence of sociocognitive theory. Using Spanos's distinction between "happenings" and "doings," it shows how, in the case of the "social" in early 20th century German texts on (hypnotic) suggestion, the passive observer, recipient, or victim of hypnosis, a trope familiar to the discipline for many decades, was called into question...
April 2017: American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299156/fifty-shades-of-african-lightness-a-bio-psychosocial-review-of-the-global-phenomenon-of-skin-lightening-practices
#5
REVIEW
Meagan Jacobs, Susan Levine, Kate Abney, Lester Davids
Skin-lightening is an aesthetic practice of global concern. By adopting a biopsycho-social approach, we consider the interplay between the biological, psychological and social factors that underpin the circulation and consumption of skin lighteners in South Africa. This paper reflects on biological aspects of skin lightening, interpersonal relationships, individual beliefs and expectations about the maintenance of health and well being that informs cosmetic practices. The paper seeks to examine claims made by historians (Thomas) and political philosophers and activists (Biko) that colonialism and apartheid in South Africa historically reinforced the use of skin lightening products in the country...
December 31, 2016: Journal of Public Health in Africa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295359/the-perplexing-dilemma-of-measuring-sun-protection-factors
#6
Marc Pissavini, Brian Diffey, Olivier Doucet
Truth, like knowledge, is surprisingly difficult to define. Indeed, every definition of truth that philosophers have developed falls prey to the question, "Is it true?". In this essay we consider what is the true SPF of a sunscreen product and whether it can ever be realizable. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
March 15, 2017: International Journal of Cosmetic Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283051/the-many-encounters-of-thomas-kuhn-and-french-epistemology
#7
Massimiliano Simons
The work of Thomas Kuhn has been very influential in Anglo-American philosophy of science and it is claimed that it has initiated the historical turn. Although this might be the case for English speaking countries, in France an historical approach has always been the rule. This article aims to investigate the similarities and differences between Kuhn and French philosophy of science or 'French epistemology'. The first part will argue that he is influenced by French epistemologists, but by lesser known authors than often thought...
February 2017: Studies in History and Philosophy of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277012/an-emotional-contribution-to-the-festschrift-of-the-journal-of-biomaterials-science-for-teiji-tsuruta
#8
Helmut Ringsdorf
It is a honor for me to contribute to the 'Festschrift for Teiji Tsuruta'! Being old, it is much easier for me to look back than to think ahead. Thus, please allow me to make a few 'historical remarks' about Biomaterials and Biotechnology, long before Science stepped in. Remarks about Georg Christoph Lichtenberg, the Göttinger physicist and philosopher, and his relation to Teiji Tsuruta. And talking about him as teacher, one cannot do it without looking at Hermann Staudinger and his dreams.
February 13, 2017: Journal of Biomaterials Science. Polymer Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273660/other-persons-on-the-phenomenology-of-interpersonal-experience-in-schizophrenia-ancillary-article-to-eawe-domain-3
#9
Giovanni Stanghellini, Massimo Ballerini, Milena Mancini
In this paper, we discuss the philosophical and psychopathological background of Domain 3, Other persons, of the Examination of Anomalous World Experiences (EAWE). The EAWE interview aims to describe the manifold phenomena of the schizophrenic lifeworld in all of their concrete and distinctive features, thus complementing a more abstract, symptom-focused approach. Domain 3, Other persons, focuses specifically on subjectively experienced interpersonal disturbances that may be especially common in schizophrenia...
March 9, 2017: Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261674/interventions-at-the-end-of-life-a-taxonomy-for-overlapping-consensus
#10
David Clark, Hamilton Inbadas, Ben Colburn, Catriona Forrest, Naomi Richards, Sandy Whitelaw, Shahaduz Zaman
Context: Around the world there is increasing interest in end of life issues. An unprecedented number of people dying in future decades will put new strains on families, communities, services and governments.  It will also have implications for representations of death and dying within society and for the overall orientation of health and social care. What interventions are emerging in the face of these challenges? Methods: We conceptualize a comprehensive taxonomy of interventions, defined as 'organized responses to end of life issues'...
February 2, 2017: Wellcome Open Res
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260422/pre-versus-posttransplant-treatment-of-hepatitis-c-virus-with-direct-acting-antivirals-in-liver-transplant-recipients-more-issues-to-be-solved
#11
Abdelhai Abdelqader, Gokhan Kabacam, Tinsay A Woreta, James P Hamilton, Harry Luu, Kawtar Al Khalloufi, Behnam Saberi, Benjamin Philosophe, Andrew M Cameron, Ahmet Gurakar
OBJECTIVES: Our goal was to investigate wait times related to hepatitis C virus treatment with direct acting antivirals before versus after liver transplant at a single center as well as wait times for insurance approval for preemptive treatment with these agents after liver transplant. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated hepatitis C virus infections in transplant recipients of deceased liver donations in 2014 and 2015. Demographics, hepatocellular carcinoma incidence, Model for End-Stage Liver Disease scores, and transplant wait times were compared between patients treated before or after liver transplant...
February 2017: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260172/the-oblique-perspective-philosophical-diagnostics-of-contemporary-life-sciences-research
#12
Hub Zwart
This paper indicates how continental philosophy may contribute to a diagnostics of contemporary life sciences research, as part of a "diagnostics of the present" (envisioned by continental thinkers, from Hegel up to Foucault). First, I describe (as a "practicing" philosopher) various options for an oblique (or symptomatic) reading of emerging scientific discourse, bent on uncovering the basic "philosophemes" of science (i.e. the guiding ideas, the basic conceptions of nature, life and technology at work in contemporary life sciences research practices)...
December 2017: Life Sciences, Society and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258975/animatio-a-history-of-ideas-on-the-beginning-of-personhood
#13
Michael Obladen
The onset of individual human life has fascinated thinkers of all cultures and epochs, and the history of their ideas may enlighten an unsettled debate. Aristotle attributed three different souls to the subsequent developmental stages. The last, the rational soul, was associated with the formed fetus, and entailed fetal movements. With some modifications, the concept of delayed ensoulment - at 30, 42, 60, or 90 days after conception - was adopted by several Christian Church Fathers and remained valid throughout the Middle Ages...
March 4, 2017: Journal of Perinatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258761/schism-and-synthesis-at-the-royal-society
#14
Kevin N Laland
November 7-9, 2016 witnessed a joint discussion meeting of the Royal Society and the British Academy (the UK national academies for the sciences and social sciences, respectively) entitled 'New Trends in Evolutionary Biology: Biological, Philosophical and Social Science Perspectives'. The meeting, anticipated with a mix of feverish enthusiasm and dread, sold out months in advance, the eager audience perhaps expecting radical and traditional evolutionists to go toe to toe, rather than the constructive dialogue among biologists, social scientists, and researchers in the humanities that the academies advertised...
February 28, 2017: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253711/patterns-of-failure-after-brain-metastases-radiotherapy-reflections-on-the-importance-for-treatment-and-clinical-trials-reporting
#15
R Lakomy, L Hynkova, P Pospisil, P Burkon, M Slavik, P Slampa, R Jancalek, T Kazda
In many ongoing clinical trials, new strategies for radiotherapy of brain metastases are currently being investigated. A post surgical focal cavity stereotactic radiosurgery and the developing role of a hippocampal-sparing whole brain radiotherapy are of the highest importance. The evaluation of spatial patterns of metastases failure after radiotherapy is a powerful tool for assessing the potential benefit of new different radiotherapy approaches, andwhich enables to identify possible directions leading to better radiotherapy techniques and to modify general management for newly diagnosed brain metastases...
March 3, 2017: Neoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251445/a-phenomenological-construct-of-caring-among-spouses-following-acute-coronary-syndrome
#16
Janice Gullick, Mark Krivograd, Susan Taggart, Susana Brazete, Lise Panaretto, John Wu
The aim of this study was interpret the existential construct of family caring following Acute Coronary Syndrome. Family support is known to have a positive impact on recovery and adjustment after cardiac events. Few studies provide philosophically-based, interpretative explorations of carer experience following a spouse's ischaemic event. As carer experiences, behaviours and meaning-making may impact on the quality of the support they provide to patients, further understanding could improve both patient outcomes and family experience...
March 1, 2017: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249740/bridging-science-and-traditional-knowledge-to-assess-cumulative-impacts-of-stressors-on-ecosystem-health
#17
Chrystal S Mantyka-Pringle, Timothy D Jardine, Lori Bradford, Lalita Bharadwaj, Andrew P Kythreotis, Jennifer Fresque-Baxter, Erin Kelly, Gila Somers, Lorne E Doig, Paul D Jones, Karl-Erich Lindenschmidt
Cumulative environmental impacts driven by anthropogenic stressors lead to disproportionate effects on indigenous communities that are reliant on land and water resources. Understanding and counteracting these effects requires knowledge from multiple sources. Yet the combined use of Traditional Knowledge (TK) and Scientific Knowledge (SK) has both technical and philosophical hurdles to overcome, and suffers from inherently imbalanced power dynamics that can disfavour the very communities it intends to benefit...
February 26, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28246082/survivorship-of-severe-medically-unexplained-symptoms-in-palliative-care
#18
Justin Dwyer, Keryn Taylor, Mark Boughey
OBJECTIVES: Patients who articulate their psychological distress primarily through physical symptoms (referred to as medically unexplained symptoms (MUS)) pose a challenge to the skills of most clinicians, including palliative care physicians. The philosophical underpinnings of palliative care with a stated focus on symptom management and care of the person in their psychosociospiritual context lend itself to the care of these patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the characteristics to improve identification of this patient group within palliative care...
February 28, 2017: BMJ Supportive & Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242724/not-moving-the-fundamental-but-neglected-motor-function
#19
REVIEW
Imran Noorani, R H S Carpenter
The function of the motor system in preventing rather than initiating movement is often overlooked. Not only are its highest levels predominantly, and tonically, inhibitory, but in general behaviour it is often intermittent, characterized by relatively short periods of activity separated by longer periods of stillness: for most of the time we are not moving, but stationary. Furthermore, these periods of immobility are not a matter of inhibition and relaxation, but require us to expend almost as much energy as when we move, and they make just as many demands on the central nervous system in controlling their performance...
April 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230460/meditation-and-hypnosis-two-sides-of-the-same-coin
#20
Enrico Facco
Hypnosis and meditation, as a whole, form a heterogeneous complex of psychosomatic techniques able to control mind and body regulation. Hypnosis has been pragmatically used for limited therapeutic targets, while Eastern meditation has much wider philosophical and existential implications, aiming for a radical liberation from all illusions, attachments, suffering and pain. The available data on the history, phenomenology, and neuropsychology of hypnosis and meditation show several common features, such as the following: (a) induction based on focused attention; (b) capability to reach an intentional control of both biologic-somatic activities and conscious-unconscious processes;...
April 2017: International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis
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