keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Philosopher

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450230/do-addicts-have-free-will-an-empirical-approach-to-a-vexing-question
#1
Gene M Heyman
Introduction: This paper addresses two overlapping questions: Do addicts have the capacity to voluntarily quit drugs? And do individuals knowingly pursue courses of action that they realize are bad for them, such as excessive drug use? Methods: I propose two testable versions of free will. First, the observation that activities differ in the degree to which they are susceptible to the influence of their consequences (e.g., costs and benefits) has proven a useful criterion for classifying behavior as voluntary or involuntary...
June 2017: Addictive Behaviors Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441029/the-bi-directional-relationship-between-source-characteristics-and-message-content
#2
Peter J Collins, Ulrike Hahn, Ylva von Gerber, Erik J Olsson
Much of what we believe we know, we know through the testimony of others (Coady, 1992). While there has been long-standing evidence that people are sensitive to the characteristics of the sources of testimony, for example in the context of persuasion, researchers have only recently begun to explore the wider implications of source reliability considerations for the nature of our beliefs. Likewise, much remains to be established concerning what factors influence source reliability. In this paper, we examine, both theoretically and empirically, the implications of using message content as a cue to source reliability...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432193/bayesian-selection-of-misspecified-models-is-overconfident-and-may-cause-spurious-posterior-probabilities-for-phylogenetic-trees
#3
Ziheng Yang, Tianqi Zhu
The Bayesian method is noted to produce spuriously high posterior probabilities for phylogenetic trees in analysis of large datasets, but the precise reasons for this overconfidence are unknown. In general, the performance of Bayesian selection of misspecified models is poorly understood, even though this is of great scientific interest since models are never true in real data analysis. Here we characterize the asymptotic behavior of Bayesian model selection and show that when the competing models are equally wrong, Bayesian model selection exhibits surprising and polarized behaviors in large datasets, supporting one model with full force while rejecting the others...
February 5, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431144/paradigm-shift-purity-progress-and-the-origins-of-first-episode-psychosis
#4
Suze G Berkhout
First-episode psychosis has garnered significant attention and resources within mental health services in North America, Europe and Australia/New Zealand since the 1990s. Despite this widespread embrace, little scholarship exists that examines underlying concepts, ideologies and imagery embedded within the early intervention paradigm. In this paper, I offer a sociohistorical analysis of the emergence of first-episode psychosis and early intervention as entities in psychiatry, drawing on contemporary philosophical thought to explore various concepts embedded in them...
February 3, 2018: Medical Humanities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427238/opinion-paper-scientific-philosophical-and-legal-consideration-of-doping-in-sports
#5
REVIEW
Massimo Negro, Natale Marzullo, Francesca Caso, Luca Calanni, Giuseppe D'Antona
The term doping is generally used to indicate practices based on the use of performance-enhancing drugs (PEDs) or the abuse of medical therapies. Mostly analysed by doctors and officials, doping nevertheless also requires a philosophical consideration to avoid being simplistically portrayed as an isolated practice. To do this, we need to pay attention to the contradictions and paradoxes in the modern approach to doping in sport. In this context, doping is not only relevant to the health of an individual involved in the violation of World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) criteria, but it actually represents a double-edged phenomenon containing ethical and legal points of view...
February 9, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424102/complex-care-and-contradictions-of-choice-in-the-safety-net
#6
Meredith Van Natta, Nancy J Burke, Irene H Yen, Sara Rubin, Mark D Fleming, Ariana Thompson-Lastad, Janet K Shim
This article explores the complicated and often-contradictory notions of choice at play in complex care management (CCM) programmes in the US healthcare safety net. Drawing from longitudinal data collected over two years of ethnographic fieldwork at urban safety-net clinics, our study examines the CCM goal of transforming frequent emergency department (ED) utilisers into 'active' patients who will reduce their service utilisation and thereby contribute to a more rational, cost-effective healthcare system. By considering our data alongside philosopher Annemarie Mol's (2008) conceptualisation of the competing logics of choice and care, we argue that these premises often undermine CCM teams' efforts to support patients and provide the care they need - not only to prevent medical crises, but to overcome socio-economic barriers as well...
February 8, 2018: Sociology of Health & Illness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423420/trends-in-kindergarten-rates-of-vaccine-exemption-and-state-level-policy-2011-2016
#7
Saad B Omer, Rachael M Porter, Kristen Allen, Daniel A Salmon, Robert A Bednarczyk
Background: Kindergarten-entry vaccination requirements have played an important role in controlling vaccine-preventable diseases in the United States. Forty-eight states and the District of Colombia offer nonmedical exemptions to vaccines, ranging in stringency. Methods: We analyzed state-level exemption data from 2011 to 2012 through 2015 to 2016 school years. States were categorized by exemption ease and type of exemption allowed. We calculated nonmedical exemption rates for each year in the sample and stratified by exemption ease, type, and 2 trend categories: 2011-12 through 2012-13 and 2013-14 through 2015-16 school years...
February 2018: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29421939/social-support-for-female-sexual-dysfunction-in-fibromyalgia
#8
José Granero-Molina, Tamara María Matarín Jiménez, Carmen Ramos Rodríguez, José Manuel Hernández-Padilla, Adelaida María Castro-Sánchez, Cayetano Fernández-Sola
The aim of this study is to describe and understand experiences related to social support for women with fibromyalgia who suffer from sexual dysfunction. An interpretive qualitative research methodology based on Gadamer's philosophical hermeneutics was used. Data collection included a focus group and in-depth interviews with 13 women who averaged 44.8 years of age and 14.3 years since being diagnosed with fibromyalgia. Data were analyzed using Fleming's method and two themes were identified: "searching for understanding in socio-family support" and "lack of formal support regarding fibromyalgia patient's sexuality...
March 2018: Clinical Nursing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29421848/characterization-conservation-and-loss-of-dignity-at-the-end-of-life-in-the-emergency-department-a-qualitative-protocol
#9
Cayetano Fernández-Sola, José Granero-Molina, María Del Mar Díaz-Cortés, Francisca Rosa Jiménez-López, Pablo Roman-López, Encarnación Saez-Molina, Cayetano José Aranda-Torres, José María Muñoz-Terrón, María Paz García-Caro, José Manuel Hernández-Padilla
AIMS: to explore and understand the experiences of terminally-ill patients and their relatives regarding dignity during end-of-life care in the emergency department. BACKGROUND: the respect given to the concept of dignity is significantly modifying the clinical relationship and the care framework involving the end-of-life patient in palliative care units, critical care units, hospices and their own homes. This situation is applicable to in-hospital emergency departments, where there is a lack of research which takes the experiences of end-of-life patients and their relatives into account...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Advanced Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29421642/women-s-motivation-perception-and-experience-of-complementary-and-alternative-medicine-in-pregnancy-a-meta-synthesis
#10
Rebekah L Bowman, Deborah L Davis, Sally Ferguson, Jan Taylor
BACKGROUND: complementary and Alternative Medicine use during pregnancy is popular in many countries, including Australia. There is currently little evidence to support this practice, which raises the question of women's motivation for use of these therapies and the experiences they encounter. OBJECTIVE: this study aims to explore the perceptions, motivations and experiences of pregnant women with regard to their use of Complementary and Alternative Medicine during pregnancy...
December 6, 2017: Midwifery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29416395/a-global-checklist-of-the-932-fruit-fly-species-in-the-tribe-dacini-diptera-tephritidae
#11
Camiel Doorenweerd, Luc Leblanc, Allen L Norrbom, Michael San Jose, Daniel Rubinoff
The correct application of the scientific names of species is neither easy nor trivial. Mistakes can lead to the wrong interpretation of research results or, when pest species are involved, inappropriate regulations and limits on trade, and possibly quarantine failures that permit the invasion of new pest species. Names are particularly challenging to manage when groups of organisms encompass a large number of species, when different workers employ different philosophical views, or when species are in a state of taxonomic flux...
2018: ZooKeys
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29416184/an-overview-of-structural-equation-modeling-its-beginnings-historical-development-usefulness-and-controversies-in-the-social-sciences
#12
Piotr Tarka
This paper is a tribute to researchers who have significantly contributed to improving and advancing structural equation modeling (SEM). It is, therefore, a brief overview of SEM and presents its beginnings, historical development, its usefulness in the social sciences and the statistical and philosophical (theoretical) controversies which have often appeared in the literature pertaining to SEM. Having described the essence of SEM in the context of causal analysis, the author discusses the years of the development of structural modeling as the consequence of many researchers' systematically growing needs (in particular in the social sciences) who strove to effectively understand the structure and interactions of latent phenomena...
2018: Quality & Quantity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29412337/the-presentation-of-the-mind-brain-problem-in-leading-psychiatry-journals
#13
Alexander Moreira-Almeida, Saulo de F Araujo, C Robert Cloninger
OBJECTIVE: The mind-brain problem (MBP) has marked implications for psychiatry, but has been poorly discussed in the psychiatric literature. This paper evaluates the presentation of the MBP in the three leading general psychiatry journals during the last 20 years. METHODS: Systematic review of articles on the MBP published in the three general psychiatry journals with the highest impact factor from 1995 to 2015. The content of these articles was analyzed and discussed in the light of contemporary debates on the MBP...
February 1, 2018: Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29409981/liver-transplantation-for-severe-alcoholic-hepatitis-updated-lessons-from-the-world-s-largest-series
#14
Sharon R Weeks, Zhaoli Sun, Mary E McCaul, Heng Zhu, Robert A Anders, Benjamin Philosophe, Shane E Ottmann, Jacqueline M Garonzik Wang, Ahmet O Gurakar, Andrew M Cameron
BACKGROUND: Six-month sobriety prior to transplantation for alcoholic liver disease is typically required but poorly supported by data. We initiated a pilot program following a report of liver transplantation for severe alcoholic hepatitis (SAH) in which the 6-month rule was waived. We previously reported early outcomes; we now provide longer follow-up in the largest cohort of early liver transplantation for SAH in the literature to date. STUDY DESIGN: Forty-six carefully selected patients with SAH underwent liver transplantation from October 2012-July 2017, none of whom had been abstinent for 6 months...
February 1, 2018: Journal of the American College of Surgeons
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408799/the-case-for-a-distinctive-philosophy-of-physiology-and-pathophysiology
#15
Hutan Ashrafian
What is an organ and what is an organ system? According to the 'standard' hierarchical model of physiology, each living organism comprises of organ systems including those that offer sensory and control functions (nervous system), energy accumulation (gastrointestinal system), internal dissipation (circulatory system) and mobility (musculoskeletal system). Each organ system in turn is comprised of individual organs. This taxonomy has conceptual flaws as not every organ has a single organ system function but may participate in a myriad of physiological functions...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29407601/contour-interpolation-a-case-study-in-modularity-of-mind
#16
Brian P Keane
In his monograph Modularity of Mind (1983), philosopher Jerry Fodor argued that mental architecture can be partly decomposed into computational organs termed modules, which are characterized as having nine co-occurring features such as automaticity, domain specificity, and informational encapsulation. Do modules exist? Debates thus far have been framed very generally with few, if any, detailed case studies. The topic is important because it has direct implications on current debates in cognitive science and because it potentially provides a viable framework from which to further understand and make hypotheses about the mind's structure and function...
January 26, 2018: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29404243/pediatric-craniopharyngiomas-a-primer-for-the-skull-base-surgeon
#17
REVIEW
Christopher Salvatore Graffeo, Avital Perry, Michael J Link, David J Daniels
Pediatric craniopharyngioma is a rare sellar-region epithelial tumor that, in spite of its typically benign pathology, has the potential to be clinically devastating, and presents a host of formidable management challenges for the skull base surgeon. Strategies in craniopharyngioma care have been the cause of considerable controversy, with respect to both philosophical and technical issues. Key questions remain unresolved, and include optimizing extent-of-resection goals; the ideal radiation modality and its role as an alternative, adjuvant, or salvage treatment; appropriate indications for expanded endoscopic endonasal surgery as an alternative to transcranial microsurgery; risks and benefits of skull base techniques in a pediatric population; benefits of and indications for intracavitary therapies; and the preferred management of common treatment complications...
February 2018: Journal of Neurological Surgery. Part B, Skull Base
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29398658/the-many-liberalisms-of-serge-audier
#18
Daniel Steinmetz-Jenkins, Kevin Brookes
The French philosopher Serge Audier has perhaps become the leading authority on the history of liberalism in France. However, he is largely unknown in the United States. This article attempts to provide the first critical overview of Audier's work in English. It does so by suggesting that the major aim of Audier's work is to revive a forgotten strand of social liberalism in France. The article illustrates this by looking at Audier's writings on the works of Léon Bourgeois and Raymond Aron and also his critical studies on the history of neoliberalism in France and beyond...
2018: Journal of the History of Ideas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29398656/anthropologia-an-almost-forgotten-early-modern-history
#19
Tricia M Ross
Approximately thirty almost entirely overlooked books appeared in Europe between 1500 and 1700 that include the word anthropologia in their titles. At first glance, the content of these works bears no resemblance to anthropology as we think of it. They present a combination of medieval traditions, cutting-edge medical practices, and evolving natural philosophical and theological systems found in universities of all confessions across Europe. But these largely overlooked sources reveal that the disciplines we use to study ourselves may have developed from an intertwined natural philosophical and religious system...
2018: Journal of the History of Ideas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29391309/role-of-nucleoside-nucleotide-analogues-and-low-dose-hepatitis-b-immune-glob%C3%A3-lin-in-prophylaxis-of-hepatitis-b-recurrence-among-cadaveric-liver-transplant-recipients
#20
Tokunbo Ajayi, Harry Luu, Behnam Saberi, James P Hamilton, Bugra Tolga Konduk, Burak Özşeker, Kawtar Al Khalloufi, Aliaksei Pustavoitau, Benjamin Philosophe, Andrew M Cameron, Ahmet Gürakar
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Hepatitis B core antibody (HBcAb) positivity of the donor or the recipient may pose a risk of hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation following liver transplantation (LT). We retrospectively investigated patient survival and reactivation among recipients who were given low-dose Hepatitis B Immune Globulin (HBIG) plus antiviral agent (AV) versus AV only. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Records of cadaveric LT recipients, between 2013 and 2016, with positive Hepatitis B surface Antigen (HBsAg) and/or HBcAb and recipients who had received LT from HBcAb-positive donors were reviewed...
January 2018: Turkish Journal of Gastroenterology: the Official Journal of Turkish Society of Gastroenterology
keyword
keyword
29888
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"