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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235965/philosophical-issues-and-nursing-science
#1
Pamela G Reed
The author of this article introduces a new column that will explore philosophical issues of concern to nurse scientists. In this initial column, I review the general terrain of philosophy in nursing science and explore some philosophical issues relevant to theory development. One conclusion is that inquiry into philosophical issues may help expand our repertoire of conceptual tools useful in building scientific knowledge and facilitating theoretical progress.
January 2018: Nursing Science Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235959/rediscovering-the-art-of-nursing-to-enhance-nursing-practice
#2
Deborah Henry
There is wide agreement that nursing practice is a combination of art and science. While the science is easily found in nursing education, research, and practice, the art is overshadowed. Philosophical and theoretical discussions on the art of nursing are plentiful, but research demonstrating its importance to nursing practice is lacking. In this article, the nature of nursing is explored separate from science, and a comprehensive exploration of the literature on the art of nursing is presented. Three themes concerning the art of nursing are identified and discussed, including implications for research, practice, and education...
January 2018: Nursing Science Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235793/wanted-a-new-role-as-a-clinical-nurse-philosopher
#3
Roy Poules
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: Canadian Nurse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233798/reading-caplan-in-karachi
#4
Farhat Moazam
Bioethics education and discussions about ethical dilemmas are being increasingly reduced to teaching students how to balance the four, easily memorised philosophical principles popularised by influential American philosophers Tom Beauchamp and Jim Childress. The reality is that human beings approach and comprehend moral issues in diverse ways shaped by shared histories, cultural norms and values, kinship systems, lived experiences and existing socio-political realities. Therefore, ethical discourse limited to a culturally myopic Principlism that disregards the indigenous landscape can be an abstract and meaningless venture...
October 5, 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231878/greek-medicine-practice-at-ancient-rome-the-physician-molecularist-asclepiades
#5
Luigi Santacroce, Lucrezia Bottalico, Ioannis Alexandros Charitos
Background: In the pre-Hellenistic period, the concept of medicine was not well-defined. Usually, a disease was considered as a divine punishment and its treatment was devolved to the priests who asked for healing from the divinities. The only job that could be compared to medical practice was a kind of itinerant medicine, derived from the Egyptian therapeutic tradition based only on practical experience and performed by people that knew a number of remedies, mostly vegetable, but without any theoretical bases about the possible mechanisms of action...
December 12, 2017: Medicines (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230510/manfred-eigen-the-realization-of-his-vision-of-biophysical-chemistry
#6
REVIEW
Herbert Jäckle, Carmen Rotte, Peter Gruss
Manfred Eigen turned 90 on May 9th, 2017. He celebrated with a small group of colleagues and friends on behalf of the many inspired by him over his lifetime-whether scientists, artists, or philosophers. A small group of friends, because many-who by their breakthroughs have changed the face of science in different research areas-have already died. But it was a special day, devoted to the many genius facets of Manfred Eigen's oeuvre, and a day to highlight the way in which he continues to exude a great, vital and unbroken passion for science as well as an insatiable curiosity beyond his own scientific interests...
December 11, 2017: European Biophysics Journal: EBJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228838/beyond-competency-based-continuing-professional-development
#7
Matthew J Links
Competency based medical education (CBME) has become the default for undergraduate and post-graduate medical education (PGME) but its role in continuing professional development (CPD) is under discussion. Some critical differences between CPD and PGME are identified and these differences applied to: the relative roles of competence and performance; existing criticisms of CBME; heutagogy as a learning theory; and post-modernism as an underlying philosophical perspective. The argument is made that the characteristics of CPD fit with performance based medical education, a heutagogical learning theory, a focus on capabilities, rather than competencies; and a post-modern perspective...
December 11, 2017: Medical Teacher
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226226/work-based-assessment-and-co-production-in-postgraduate-medical-training
#8
Eric S Holmboe
Assessment has always been an essential component of postgraduate medical education and for many years focused predominantly on various types of examinations. While examinations of medical knowledge and more recently of clinical skills with standardized patients can assess learner capability in controlled settings and provide a level of assurance for the public, persistent and growing concerns regarding quality of care and patient safety worldwide has raised the importance and need for better work-based assessments...
2017: GMS Journal for Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214922/the-design-and-rationale-of-an-interdisciplinary-non-prescriptive-and-health-at-every-size%C3%A2-based-clinical-trial-the-health-and-wellness-in-obesity-study
#9
Mariana D Ulian, Bruno Gualano, Fabiana B Benatti, Patricia Lopes de Campos-Ferraz, Desire Coelho, Odilon J Roble, Fernanda Sabatini, Isabel Perez, Luiz Aburad, Ana Jéssica Pinto, André Vessoni, Jhessica Campos Victor, Victoria Kupper Lima, Ramiro Fernandez Unsain, Priscila de Morais Sato, Marcelo Macedo Rogero, Tatiana Natasha Toporcov, Fernanda B Scagliusi
BACKGROUND: This manuscript describes the design and rationale of a clinical trial that aims to investigate the multiple physiological, attitudinal, nutritional, and behavioral effects of a new interdisciplinary intervention based on the Health at Every Size® (HAES®) approach in obese women. METHODS: This will be a prospective, 7-month, randomized (2:1), mixed-method clinical trial. Obese women will be recruited and randomly allocated into two groups. The intervention group (I-HAES®; proposed n = 40) will undertake a novel HAES®-based intervention...
December 2017: Nutrition and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210882/fluency-in-nursing-education-and-simulation-a-concept-analysis
#10
Audra Lewis
AIM: The aim of the study was to realign how nurses view simulation in nursing education as a means of facilitating fluency in knowledge and action to promote expertise in practice. BACKGROUND: Nursing expertise is attained by translating complex phenomena across multiple representations and by constructing meaning through experience. Simulation provides learners the experiences necessary to develop fluency in thought and action. METHOD: Procedures outlined by Hupcey and Penrod (2005) and Walker and Avant (2011) were used to identify uses, defining attributes, philosophical assumptions, contextual factors, and values of the concept...
November 27, 2017: Nursing Education Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204457/employing-a-qualitative-description-approach-in-health-care-research
#11
Carmel Bradshaw, Sandra Atkinson, Owen Doody
A qualitative description design is particularly relevant where information is required directly from those experiencing the phenomenon under investigation and where time and resources are limited. Nurses and midwives often have clinical questions suitable to a qualitative approach but little time to develop an exhaustive comprehension of qualitative methodological approaches. Qualitative description research is sometimes considered a less sophisticated approach for epistemological reasons. Another challenge when considering qualitative description design is differentiating qualitative description from other qualitative approaches...
January 2017: Global Qualitative Nursing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195650/clinical-outcome-measurement-models-theory-psychometrics-and-practice
#12
Leah McClimans, John Browne, Stefan Cano
In the last decade much has been made of the role that models play in the epistemology of measurement. Specifically, philosophers have been interested in the role of models in producing measurement outcomes. This discussion has proceeded largely within the context of the physical sciences, with notable exceptions considering measurement in economics. However, models also play a central role in the methods used to develop instruments that purport to quantify psychological phenomena. These methods fall under the umbrella term 'psychometrics'...
October 2017: Studies in History and Philosophy of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195643/the-making-of-measurement-editors-introduction
#13
EDITORIAL
Daniel Jon Mitchell, Eran Tal, Hasok Chang
This special issue consists of selected papers arising from the interdisciplinary conference "The Making of Measurement" held at the University of Cambridge on 23-24 July 2015. In this introduction, we seek ways to further productive interactions among historical, philosophical, and sociological approaches to the study of measurement without attempting to lay out a prescriptive program for a field of "measurement studies." We ask where science studies has led us, and answer: from the function to the making of measurement...
October 2017: Studies in History and Philosophy of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194844/older-brazilian-caregivers-and-their-lived-experiences-of-caring-a-hermeneutic-phenomenological-study
#14
Larissa Chaves Pedreira, Acylene Maria Cabral Ferreira, Gilberto Thadeu Reis Silva, Rosana Maria de Oliveira Silva, Carolina Marques Freitas
OBJECTIVE: To understand the lived experiences of older Brazilian carers. BACKGROUND: For many caregivers, the practice of caregiving becomes their daily lives, embedding in their care and the experiences, beliefs, learning, and techniques that contribute to the meanings these caregivers attach to their world. Studies have reported on the experiences of caregivers in general; however, few studies have addressed the unique characteristics of older caregivers. METHOD: Phenomenological research was conducted in the homes of these persons who were registered in a public program of home care...
November 30, 2017: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191725/bonding-in-neonatal-intensive-care-units-experiences-of-extremely-preterm-infants-mothers
#15
Isabel María Fernández Medina, José Granero-Molina, Cayetano Fernández-Sola, José Manuel Hernández-Padilla, Marcos Camacho Ávila, María Del Mar López Rodríguez
BACKGROUND: The birth of an extremely preterm infant can disrupt normal mother-infant physical contact and the care provided by the mother. This situation has an impact on the process of bonding between the mother and the child. AIM: The objective of this study was to describe and understand the experiences of mothers who have extremely preterm infants admitted in Neonatal Intensive Care Units with regard to their bonding process. METHODS: An interpretive, qualitative research methodology using Gadamer's philosophical hermeneutics was carried out...
November 27, 2017: Women and Birth: Journal of the Australian College of Midwives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190576/the-semiotics-of-medical-image-segmentation
#16
John S H Baxter, Eli Gibson, Roy Eagleson, Terry M Peters
As the interaction between clinicians and computational processes increases in complexity, more nuanced mechanisms are required to describe how their communication is mediated. Medical image segmentation in particular affords a large number of distinct loci for interaction which can act on a deep, knowledge-driven level which complicates the naive interpretation of the computer as a symbol processing machine. Using the perspective of the computer as dialogue partner, we can motivate the semiotic understanding of medical image segmentation...
November 21, 2017: Medical Image Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189930/periodization-theory-confronting-an-inconvenient-truth
#17
John Kiely
Periodization theory has, over the past seven decades, emerged as the preeminent training planning paradigm. The philosophical underpinnings of periodization theory can be traced back to the integration of diverse shaping influences, whereby coaching beliefs and traditions were blended with historically available scientific insights and contextualized against pervading social planning models. Since then, many dimensions of elite preparation have evolved significantly, as driven by a combination of coaching innovations and science-led advances in training theory, techniques, and technologies...
November 30, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188350/-understanding-in-psychiatry-part%C3%A2-1-philosophical-sources-and-concept-analysis
#18
REVIEW
J Valdés-Stauber
BACKGROUND: The dichotomy comprehension/understanding vs. explanation has been initially developed with a legitimating intention for the humanities vis à vis the natural sciences. This investigation examines the different usages of understanding/comprehension in psychiatry and psychotherapy as well as its relevance for medical practice. METHOD: Critical discussion of the historical roots of the comprehension-explanation dichotomy and its introduction into the psychiatry by Jaspers...
November 29, 2017: Der Nervenarzt
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187828/on-the-interpretation-and-use-of-mediation-multiple-perspectives-on-mediation-analysis
#19
REVIEW
Robert Agler, Paul De Boeck
Mediation analysis has become a very popular approach in psychology, and it is one that is associated with multiple perspectives that are often at odds, often implicitly. Explicitly discussing these perspectives and their motivations, advantages, and disadvantages can help to provide clarity to conversations and research regarding the use and refinement of mediation models. We discuss five such pairs of perspectives on mediation analysis, their associated advantages and disadvantages, and their implications: with vs...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187088/european-vignettes-in-donation-after-circulatory-death
#20
Dale Gardiner, Tineke Wind, Ben Cole, Walter van Mook, Francisco Del Río, Beatriz Domínguez-Gil
Donation after circulatory death (DCD) is increasing in Europe, yet there is widespread variability in practice. Insight into actual practice is difficult to acquire simply by analyzing protocols and laws from each individual country. For this reason, the 3 DCD vignettes in this article have been constructed to outline routine and standard DCD practice in the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, and Spain. These imagined vignettes reflect a "typical" case, based on the authors' extensive experience with DCD but are not real patient cases...
September 2017: Progress in Transplantation
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