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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667122/the-gene-editing-of-super-ego
#1
Bjørn Hofmann
New emerging biotechnologies, such as gene editing, vastly extend our ability to alter the human being. This comes together with strong aspirations to improve humans not only physically, but also mentally, morally, and socially. These conjoined ambitions aggregate to what can be labelled "the gene editing of super-ego." This article investigates a general way used to argue for new biotechnologies, such as gene-editing: if it is safe and efficacious to implement technology X for the purpose of a common good Y, why should we not do so? This is a rhetorical question with a conditional, and may be dismissed as such...
April 17, 2018: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663183/three-visions-of-doctoring-a-gadamerian-dialogue
#2
Benjamin Chin-Yee, Atara Messinger, L Trevor Young
Medicine in the twenty-first century faces an 'identity crisis,' as it grapples with the emergence of various 'ways of knowing,' from evidence-based and translational medicine, to narrative-based and personalized medicine. While each of these approaches has uniquely contributed to the advancement of patient care, this pluralism is not without tension. Evidence-based medicine is not necessary individualized; personalized medicine may be individualized but is not necessarily person-centered. As novel technologies and big data continue to proliferate today, the focus of medical practice is shifting away from the dialogic encounter between doctor and patient, threatening the loss of humanism that many view as integral to medicine's identity...
April 16, 2018: Advances in Health Sciences Education: Theory and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663121/the-beneficence-of-hope-findings-from-a-qualitative-study-with-gout-and-diabetes-patients
#3
Isabelle Wienand, Milenko Rakic, David Shaw, Bernice Elger
This paper explores the importance of hope as a determining factor for patients to participate in first-in-human trials for synthetic biology therapies. This paper focuses on different aspects of hope in the context of human health and well-being and explores the varieties of hope expressed by patients. The research findings are based on interview data collected from stable gout and diabetes patients. Three concepts of hope have emerged from the interviews: hope as certainty (H1); hope as reflective uncertainty (H2); hope as self-therapy (H3)...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658728/-beyond-sacrificial-harm-a-two-dimensional-model-of-utilitarian-psychology-correction
#4
(no author information available yet)
Reports an error in "Beyond Sacrificial Harm: A Two-Dimensional Model of Utilitarian Psychology" by Guy Kahane, Jim A. C. Everett, Brian D. Earp, Lucius Caviola, Nadira S. Faber, Molly J. Crockett and Julian Savulescu ( Psychological Review , Advanced Online Publication, Dec 21, 2017, np). The copyright attribution was incorrectly listed, and the Creative Commons CC-BY license disclaimer was incorrectly omitted from the author note. The correct copyright is "© 2017 The Author(s)" and the omitted disclaimer is presented in the erratum...
March 2018: Psychological Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656532/of-lamp-posts-keys-and-fabled-drunkards-a-perspectival-tale-of-4-guidelines
#5
Trisha Greenhalgh
BACKGROUND: Evidence-based medicine is the application of research findings to inform individual clinical decisions. There is a tension-both philosophical and practical-between the average result from a population study and the circumstances and needs of an individual patient. This personal account of "evidence-based" trauma care illustrates and explores this tension. THE CASE: The author, a keen athlete, describes her experience of a high-impact cycle accident that led to limb fractures (which were diagnosed and treated according to evidence-based guidelines) and also an occult injury to the cervical spine (which was not diagnosed at the time)...
April 15, 2018: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649220/statistical-reporting-inconsistencies-in-experimental-philosophy
#6
Matteo Colombo, Georgi Duev, Michèle B Nuijten, Jan Sprenger
Experimental philosophy (x-phi) is a young field of research in the intersection of philosophy and psychology. It aims to make progress on philosophical questions by using experimental methods traditionally associated with the psychological and behavioral sciences, such as null hypothesis significance testing (NHST). Motivated by recent discussions about a methodological crisis in the behavioral sciences, questions have been raised about the methodological standards of x-phi. Here, we focus on one aspect of this question, namely the rate of inconsistencies in statistical reporting...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29648851/eugene-t-gendlin-1926-2017
#7
Kevin C Krycka
Presents an obituary of Eugene T. Gendlin (1926 -2017) who passed on May 1, 2017, at the age of 90 in Spring Hill, New York. Gendlin, an American philosopher and psychologist, is perhaps best known for his impact on psychology, psychotherapy, and research on the effectiveness of psychotherapy even though he regarded himself first as a philosopher. He established the subfield of experiential psychotherapy and was the founding editor of the American Psychological Association's (APA) Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, and Practice journal...
April 2018: American Psychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643372/good-and-bad-love-and-intimacy-from-plato-to-melanie-klein
#8
David Stromberg
Melanie Klein's theories on love outline a complex system of relations-an oscillating dynamic of psychical and emotional tendencies following from both actual experience and fantasies produced by the mind. Her insights are often discussed and applied in psychoanalytical contexts, but the philosophical implications of her theory-especially in relation to Platonic thought-have rarely been discussed. In this article, I will attempt to address this gap by setting out some preliminary yet core considerations shared by both Plato and Klein...
April 11, 2018: American Journal of Psychoanalysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29622282/-the-more-you-know-the-more-you-realise-it-is-really-challenging-to-do-tensions-and-uncertainties-in-person-centred-support-for-people-with-long-term-conditions
#9
Vikki A Entwistle, Alan Cribb, Ian S Watt, Zoë C Skea, John Owens, Heather M Morgan, Simon Christmas
OBJECTIVE: To identify and examine tensions and uncertainties in person-centred approaches to self-management support - approaches that take patients seriously as moral agents and orient support to enable them to live (and die) well on their own terms. METHODS: Interviews with 26 UK clinicians about working with people with diabetes or Parkinson's disease, conducted within a broader interdisciplinary project on self-management support. The analysis reported here was informed by philosophical reasoning and discussions with stakeholders...
March 30, 2018: Patient Education and Counseling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29622015/empathy-is-proprioceptive-the-bodily-fundament-of-empathy-a-philosophical-contribution-to-medical-education
#10
Florian Schmidsberger, Henriette Löffler-Stastka
BACKGROUND: The current philosophical debate on empathy entails accounts of theory of mind and simulation as well as a phenomenological opposition. The first focuses on a detached observation of others from a 3rd person perspective and formulates the common claim that there is no direct access to the mental and emotional life of others, only simulation or analogy can grant access to the emotions and behaviour of others. The philosophical respectively phenomenological account of Fuchs instead opposes by focusing personal interaction within a 1st or 2nd person perspective claiming that the emotions of others are experienceable through bodily expression and bodily resonance...
April 5, 2018: BMC Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29610376/the-myriad-challenges-of-the-paris-agreement
#11
Dann Mitchell, Myles R Allen, Jim W Hall, Benito Muller, Lavanya Rajamani, Corinne Le Quéré
The much awaited and intensely negotiated Paris Agreement was adopted on 12 December 2015 by the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. The agreement set out a more ambitious long-term temperature goal than many had anticipated, implying more stringent emissions reductions that have been under-explored by the research community. By its very nature a multidisciplinary challenge, filling the knowledge gap requires not only climate scientists, but the whole Earth system science community, as well as economists, engineers, lawyers, philosophers, politicians, emergency planners and others to step up...
May 13, 2018: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29609774/realizability-and-the-varieties-of-explanation
#12
Philippe Huneman
What realization is has been convincingly presented in relation to the way we determine what counts as the realizers of realized properties. The way we explain a fact of realization includes a reference to what realization should be; therefore it informs in turn our understanding of the nature of realization. Conceptions of explanation are thereby included in the views of realization as a metaphysical property. Recently, several major views of realization such as Polger and Shapiro's or Gillett and Aizawa's, however competing, have relied on the neo-mechanicist theory of explanations (e...
April 2018: Studies in History and Philosophy of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29609773/physicalism-realization-and-structure
#13
Gary Fuller
In the philosophy of mind and psychology, a central question since the 1960s has been that of how to give a philosophically adequate formulation of mind-body physicalism. A large quantity of work on the topic has been done in the interim. There have been, and continue to be, extensive discussions of the ideas of physicalism, identity, functionalism, realization, and constitution. My aim in this paper is a modest one: it is to get clearer about these ideas and some of their interrelations. After providing some background and history, I shall focus on two related topics: the distinction between a functional property and a structural one and the dispute over whether a realization account of the mental-physical relation provides a better physicalist account than a constitutional account...
April 2018: Studies in History and Philosophy of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29609772/multiple-realization-and-multiple-ways-of-realization-a-progress-report
#14
Kenneth Aizawa
One might have thought that if something has two or more distinct realizations, then that thing is multiply realized. Nevertheless, some philosophers have claimed that two or more distinct realizations do not amount to multiple realization, unless those distinct realizations amount to multiple "ways" of realizing the thing. Corey Maley, Gualtiero Piccinini, Thomas Polger, and Lawrence Shapiro are among these philosophers. Unfortunately, they do not explain why multiple realization requires multiple "ways" of realizing...
April 2018: Studies in History and Philosophy of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29609050/poisoning-histories-in-the-italian-renaissance-the-case-of-pico-della-mirandola-and-angelo-poliziano
#15
Gianni Gallello, Elisabetta Cilli, Fulvio Bartoli, Massimo Andretta, Lucio Calcagnile, Agustin Pastor, Miguel de la Guardia, Patrizia Serventi, Alberto Marino, Stefano Benazzi, Giorgio Gruppioni
Giovanni Pico della Mirandola and Angelo Poliziano were two of the most important humanists of the Italian Renaissance. They died suddenly in 1494 and their deaths have been for centuries a subject of debate. The exhumation of their remains offered the opportunity to study the cause of their death through a multidisciplinary research project. Anthropological analyses, together with documentary evidences, radiocarbon dating and ancient DNA analysis supported the identification of the remains attributed to Pico...
March 28, 2018: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29607703/resource-allocation-and-rationing-in-nursing-care-a-discussion-paper
#16
P Anne Scott, Clare Harvey, Heike Felzmann, Riitta Suhonen, Monika Habermann, Kristin Halvorsen, Karin Christiansen, Luisa Toffoli, Evridiki Papastavrou
Driven by interests in workforce planning and patient safety, a growing body of literature has begun to identify the reality and the prevalence of missed nursing care, also specified as care left undone, rationed care or unfinished care. Empirical studies and conceptual considerations have focused on structural issues such as staffing, as well as on outcome issues - missed care/unfinished care. Philosophical and ethical aspects of unfinished care are largely unexplored. Thus, while internationally studies highlight instances of covert rationing/missed care/care left undone - suggesting that nurses, in certain contexts, are actively engaged in rationing care - in terms of the nursing and nursing ethics literature, there appears to be a dearth of explicit decision-making frameworks within which to consider rationing of nursing care...
January 1, 2018: Nursing Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29607615/a-nursing-theory-guided-framework-for-genetic-and-epigenetic-research
#17
Katherine A Maki, Holli A DeVon
The notion that genetics, through natural selection, determines innate traits has led to much debate and divergence of thought on the impact of innate traits on the human phenotype. The purpose of this synthesis was to examine how innate theory informs genetic research and how understanding innate theory through the lens of Martha Rogers' theory of unitary human beings can offer a contemporary view of how innate traits can inform epigenetic and genetic research. We also propose a new conceptual model for genetic and epigenetic research...
April 1, 2018: Nursing Inquiry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29607603/nursing-knowledge-a-middle-ground-exploration
#18
Mariko Liette Sakamoto
The discipline of nursing has long maintained that is has a unique contribution to make within the health care arena. This assertion of uniqueness lies in great part in the discipline's claim to a distinct body of knowledge. Nursing knowledge is characterized by diverse and multiple forms of knowing and underpins the work of all nurses, regardless of field of practice. Unfortunately, it has been challenging for the discipline to take full ownership of its epistemological diversity, largely due to factors such as competing worldviews, and ideological and binary positioning...
April 1, 2018: Nursing Philosophy: An International Journal for Healthcare Professionals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29605885/what-it-means-to-care-for-a-person-with-a-chronic-disease-integrating-the-patient-s-experience-into-the-medical-viewpoint
#19
EDITORIAL
Marie Gaille
In this contribution, we intend to shed light on the challenges involved in the requirement for greater medical attention to the meaning of chronic illness for the person affected by it. Two philosophical approaches dating from the twentieth century, hermeneutics and phenomenology, are especially pertinent to this questioning about the meaning of chronic illness for the patient. After making a clear distinction between merely listening to the patient in order to improve diagnosis and treatment and applying interest to the actual meaning of the disease for the person who has it (I), our contribution presents the ideas of H...
March 31, 2018: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29582010/dimensions-of-phenomenology-in-exploring-patient-s-suffering-in-long-life-illnesses-qualitative-evidence-synthesis
#20
Mahmoud Al Kalaldeh, Ghada Abu Shosha, Najah Saiah, Omar Salameh
Background: Patients' suffering has been increasingly investigated by health-care researchers especially in the chronically ill. Suffering is viewed as a progressive negative consequence that associated with pain, impaired self-esteem, and social alienation. This qualitative evidence synthesis aimed to provide further insights into the application of phenomenology in explaining suffering among patients with chronic illnesses. Methods: Studies included in this qualitative evidence synthesis study were retrieved by searching from the following electronic databases: CINAHL, PubMed Central, and EBSCO...
March 2018: Journal of Patient Experience
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