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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222354/modelling-with-words-narrative-and-natural-selection
#1
Dominic K Dimech
I argue that verbal models should be included in a philosophical account of the scientific practice of modelling. Weisberg (2013) has directly opposed this thesis on the grounds that verbal structures, if they are used in science, only merely describe models. I look at examples from Darwin's On the Origin of Species (1859) of verbally constructed narratives that I claim model the general phenomenon of evolution by natural selection. In each of the cases I look at, a particular scenario is described that involves at least some fictitious elements but represents the salient causal components of natural selection...
February 18, 2017: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220638/a-novel-clinical-framework-the-use-of-dispositions-in-clinical-practice-a-person-centred-approach
#2
Matthew Low
This paper explores a novel clinical framework that is underpinned by a specific philosophical perspective of causation and its utility in clinical practice. A dispositional theory of causation may overcome challenges that clinicians face in complex clinical presentations including those that are medically unexplained. Dispositionalism identifies causes not as regular events necessitating an effect but rather phenomena, which are highly complex, context-sensitive, and which tend toward an effect. Diagnostic uncertainty and causal explanation are significant challenges in terms of clinical reasoning, communication, and the overall therapeutic outcome...
February 21, 2017: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220399/leibniz-the-microscope-and-the-concept-of-preformation
#3
Alessandro Becchi
In recent years a certain emphasis has been put by some scholars on Leibniz's concern about empirical sciences and the relations between such concern and the development of his mature metaphysical system. In this paper I focus on Leibniz's interest for the microscope and the astonishing discoveries that such instrument made possible in the field of the life sciences during the last part of the Seventeenth century. The observation of physical bodies carried out by the "magnifying glasses" revealed a matter swarming everywhere with life and activity, contrary to the cartesian and atomistic view of matter as something sterile and passive...
March 2017: History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220361/for-and-against-methodologies-some-perspectives-on-recent-causal-and-statistical-inference-debates
#4
Sander Greenland
I present an overview of two methods controversies that are central to analysis and inference: That surrounding causal modeling as reflected in the "causal inference" movement, and that surrounding null bias in statistical methods as applied to causal questions. Human factors have expanded what might otherwise have been narrow technical discussions into broad philosophical debates. There seem to be misconceptions about the requirements and capabilities of formal methods, especially in notions that certain assumptions or models (such as potential-outcome models) are necessary or sufficient for valid inference...
February 20, 2017: European Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219473/needham-at-the-crossroads-history-politics-and-international-science-in-wartime-china-1942-1946
#5
Thomas Mougey
In 1946, the British biochemist Joseph Needham returned from a four-year stay in China. Needham scholars have considered this visit as a revelatory period that paved the way for his famous book series Science and Civilization in China (SCC). Surprisingly, however, Needham's actual time in China has remained largely unstudied over the last seventy years. As director of the Sino-British Scientific Cooperation Office, Needham travelled throughout Free China to promote cooperation between British and Chinese scientists to contain the Japanese invasion during the Second World War...
February 21, 2017: British Journal for the History of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219376/cooperate-a-paradigm-shift-for-health-equity
#6
REVIEW
Wei-Ching Chang, Joy H Fraser
The role of competition and cooperation in relation to the goal of health equity is examined in this paper. The authors explain why the win-lose mentality associated with avoidable competition is ethically questionable and less effective than cooperation in achieving positive outcomes, particularly as it relates to health and health equity. Competition, which differentiates winners from losers, often with the winner-takes-all reward system, inevitably leads to a few winners and many losers, resulting in social inequality, which, in turn, engenders and perpetuates health inequity...
February 21, 2017: International Journal for Equity in Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219280/disability-diversity-and-autism-philosophical-perspectives-on-health
#7
Lidia Ripamonti
This paper aims to explore the connection between health and developmental disorders, particularly in regard to the notion of 'neurodiversity', which considers high-functioning autism not as a lifelong disability but a neurological form within a diversity of human minds. In recent years, autistic activist movements have called for a more positive, humanizing, identity-first language when describing this condition, rejecting negative language such as 'disorder', 'deficit', and 'impairment', and instead describing autism as a way of being, part of one's personal identity, which does not always need to be cured...
April 2016: New Bioethics: a Multidisciplinary Journal of Biotechnology and the Body
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219278/stem-cell-dialogues-a-philosophical-and-scientific-inquiry-into-medical-frontiers
#8
Matt James
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2016: New Bioethics: a Multidisciplinary Journal of Biotechnology and the Body
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217454/erectile-dysfunction-treatment-and-traditional-medicine-can-east-and-west-medicine-coexist
#9
REVIEW
Joe K C Lee, Ronny B W Tan, Eric Chung
Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a common sexual problem affecting many men irrespective of cultures, beliefs and nationalities. While medical therapy for ED has been revolutionized by the advent of oral phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors and intracavernosal injection of vasoactive agents, recent technological advances such stem cell therapy, low intensity shock wave and newer generation of penile prosthesis implant offer hope to men who do not respond to conventional medical therapy. In contrast, traditional and complementary medicine (TCM) focuses on the restoration and better overall bodily regulation with the use of various herbal and animal products as well as exercises to invigorate qi (energy) in vital organs...
February 2017: Translational Andrology and Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211156/michael-polanyi-patriarch-of-chemical-dynamics-and-tacit-knowing
#10
REVIEW
Dudley R Herschbach
Connecting Science and the Humanities was the title of the symposium on Michael Polanyi that took place at the Technische Universität Berlin (Technical University of Berlin) in October 2016. This essay, which appraises the scientific and philosophical contributions of Michael Polanyi, is based on the presentation given by Dr. Herschbach on this occasion. In the picture: Polanyi in 1931.
February 17, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211073/challenges-in-treatment-of-hepatitis-c-among-patients-with-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#11
Behnam Saberi, Alia S Dadabhai, Christine M Durand, Benjamin Philosophe, Andrew M Cameron, Mark S Sulkowski, Ahmet Gurakar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 17, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210923/investigating-adolescents-critical-consciousness-development-through-a-character-framework
#12
Scott Seider, Jalene Tamerat, Shelby Clark, Madora Soutter
Brazilian philosopher-educator Paulo Freire defined critical consciousness as the ability to engage in reflection and action upon the world in order to transform it. A growing body of research has found that critical consciousness is predictive of a number of important academic and civic outcomes in adolescents from oppressed groups. The present mixed methods study considered the critical consciousness development of 335 adolescents (57% female, 92% African American or Latinx) attending urban secondary schools that sought to foster their students' critical consciousness, but featured five different pedagogical approaches...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Youth and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205253/supporting-existential-care-with-protected-mealtimes-patients-experiences-of-a-mealtime-intervention-in-a-neurological-ward
#13
Malene Beck, Regner Birkelund, Ingrid Poulsen, Bente Martinsen
AIM: To explore the experiences of patients who were admitted to the neurological ward during an intervention - inspired by Protected Mealtime - that changed the traditional mealtime practice. BACKGROUND: Mealtimes are busy events in hospitals and patients are often interrupted by high-priority tasks (e.g., taking blood samples) while eating. Protected Mealtimes is a British concept that changes the organizational structure of mealtimes and provides a focus on the mealtime by ceasing all non-acute activities while patients are eating...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Advanced Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205138/kant-s-epigenesis-specificity-and-developmental-constraints
#14
Boris Demarest
In this paper, I argue that Kant adopted, throughout his career, a position that is much more akin to classical accounts of epigenesis, although he does reject the more radical forms of epigenesis proposed in his own time, and does make use of preformationist sounding terms. I argue that this is because Kant (1) thinks of what is pre-formed as a species, not an individual or a part of an individual; (2) has no qualm with the idea of a specific, teleological principle or force underlying generation, and conceives of germs and predispositions as specific constraints on such a principle or force...
March 2017: History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205088/-%C3%A2-what-is-the-best-theory-of-generation-%C3%A2-arguments-and-debates-among-students-from-the-royal-medical-society-in-eighteenth-century-edinburgh
#15
Sophie Vasset
This article proposes a different approach to the long generation controversy that divided naturalists in eighteenth-century Europe between those in favour of preformationism, on the one hand, and supporters of the theory of epigenesis on the other. This controversy has mostly been studied through the publications of the intellectual elite, that was constituted of medical doctors, natural historians, philosophers, and theologians. Rather than reviewing the ideas and antagonisms of the direct agents of the controversy, I will attempt to approach it from the margins...
December 2016: Revue de Synthèse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205081/-%C3%A2-ne-nous-engageons-point-dans-les-querelles-%C3%A2-a-project-for-never-ending-war
#16
Kate E Tunstall
This article considers the extent to which a quarrel might be a strategic activity for a writer or philosopher making a bid for posterity. Inveterate quarrellers like Voltaire or Rousseau come to mind, but the case to be examined here is the far less straightforward case of Diderot and in particular the stance of 'accidental quarreller' that he fabricates in his Essai sur les règnes de Claude et de Néron et sur les moeurs et les écrits de Sénèque pour servir à l'introduction de la lecture de ce philosophe (1782), the last work he published in his lifetime...
December 2016: Revue de Synthèse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28204950/-unnatural-thoughts-on-moral-enhancement-of-the-human-animal
#17
Norman K Swazo
Recent discussions about moral enhancement presuppose and recommend sets of values that relate to both the Western tradition of moral philosophy and contemporary empirical results of natural and social sciences, including moral psychology. It is argued here that this is a typology of thought that requires a fundamental interrogation. Proponents of moral enhancement do not account for important critical analyses of moral discourse, beginning with that of Friedrich Nietzsche and continuing with more prominent twentieth century thinkers such as the poststructuralist Michel Foucault, the deconstructionist Jacques Derrida, and the moral philosopher Alasdair MacIntyre...
February 15, 2017: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199025/beyond-fields-networks-and-fame-lawrence-krader-as-an-outsider-intellectual
#18
Sabine Sander, Cyril Levitt, Neil McMaughlin
This paper investigates the intellectual biography of the American philosopher and anthropologist Lawrence Krader (1919-1998) as a contribution to the sociology of intellectuals and history of ideas. We trace Krader's career trajectory to his intellectual self-concept, his scholarly and political worldviews, and his financial independence. Krader entertained a self-concept of a lone pioneer that led him to reject the competition for attention as highlighted in the current literature, dominated as it is by an emphasis on field, habitus, the accumulation and reproduction of power, and symbolic capital...
February 15, 2017: Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194721/determining-informative-priors-for-cognitive-models
#19
Michael D Lee, Wolf Vanpaemel
The development of cognitive models involves the creative scientific formalization of assumptions, based on theory, observation, and other relevant information. In the Bayesian approach to implementing, testing, and using cognitive models, assumptions can influence both the likelihood function of the model, usually corresponding to assumptions about psychological processes, and the prior distribution over model parameters, usually corresponding to assumptions about the psychological variables that influence those processes...
February 13, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190790/knowing-one-s-death-philosophical-considerations
#20
Siby K George
Coming to know and accept one's impending death allows terminally ill persons to face their mortality without deception. While life as such is a constant race towards death, terminal illness brings one's own death closer to experience. Being in the face of death in this manner can be transformed into an ontologically rewarding experience. Research on medical practices of truth telling in cases of terminal illness tends to show that there is healthy acceptance of impending death in western contexts, whereas in other contexts patients are more likely to do well when poor prognosis is concealed from them...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Ethics
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