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Geoffrey C Wall, Matthew J Taylor, Hayden L Smith
Background Fluoroquinolone (quinolones) antibiotics are commonly prescribed worldwide. Hypersensitivity reactions to these agents have been reported, but little systematic data exists concerning prevalence, types of reactions, or associated factors. Objective To identify the prevalence of patients reporting an allergy to quinolones, types of reactions claimed, and patient information associated with allergy. Setting A tertiary 370 bed level 1 trauma center, located in a Midwestern City in the United States...
March 14, 2018: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy
Antoine Lecocq, Amelia A Green, Érika Cristina Pinheiro De Castro, Carl Erik Olsen, Annette B Jensen, Mika Zagrobelny
Honeybees ( Apis mellifera ) pollinate flowers and collect nectar from many important crops. White clover ( Trifolium repens ) is widely grown as a temperate forage crop, and requires honeybee pollination for seed set. In this study, using a quantitative LC-MS (Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry) assay, we show that the cyanogenic glucosides linamarin and lotaustralin are present in the leaves, sepals, petals, anthers, and nectar of T. repens . Cyanogenic glucosides are generally thought to be defense compounds, releasing toxic hydrogen cyanide upon degradation...
March 13, 2018: Insects
Rodrigo Cupertino Bernardes, Wagner Faria Barbosa, Gustavo Ferreira Martins, Maria Augusta Pereira Lima
Large-scale pesticide application poses a major threat to bee biodiversity by causing a decline in bee populations that, in turn, compromises ecosystem maintenance and agricultural productivity. Biopesticides are considered an alternative to synthetic pesticides with a focus on reducing potential detrimental effects to beneficial organisms such as bees. The production of healthy queen stingless bees is essential for the survival and reproduction of hives, although it remains unknown whether biopesticides influence stingless bee reproduction...
March 6, 2018: Chemosphere
Carolina Diez Morrondo, Lucía Pantoja Zarza, Pelayo Brañanova López, Miriam García Arias
An acute inflammatory arthritis of unknown cause has been described in beekeepers in relation to their work with the hives. We present the case of a beekeeper who, after a bee sting, developed arthritis of the interphalangeal joint of the first finger of his left hand. Although the subacute clinical course and the magnetic resonance imaging findings required the differential diagnosis with an infectious process, the rest of the laboratory tests. other imaging studies and the course, together with a history of a similar episode a few years earlier on a finger of the other hand after a bee sting, enabled us to diagnosis this condition...
March 9, 2018: Reumatología Clinica
A-G E Ausseil, J R Dymond, L Newstrom
Honey bees require nectar and pollen from flowers: nectar for energy and pollen for growth. The demand for nectar and pollen varies during the year, with more pollen needed in spring for colony population growth, and more nectar needed in summer to sustain the maximum colony size and collect surplus nectar stores for winter. Sufficient bee forage is therefore necessary to ensure a healthy bee colony. Land-use changes can reduce the availability of floral resources suitable for bees, thereby increasing the susceptibility of bees to other stressors such as disease and pesticides...
March 12, 2018: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
Oussama Medjeber, Kahina Touri, Hayet Rafa, Zineb Djeraba, Mourad Belkhelfa, Amira Fatima Boutaleb, Amina Arroul-Lammali, Houda Belguendouz, Chafia Touil-Boukoffa
Celiac Disease (CeD) is a chronic immune-mediated enteropathy, in which dietary gluten induces an inflammatory reaction, predominantly in the duodenum. Propolis is a resinous hive product, collected by honeybees from various plant sources. Propolis is well-known for its anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and immunomodulatory effects, due to its major compounds, polyphenols and flavonoids. The aim of our study was to assess the ex vivo effect of ethanolic extract of propolis (EEP) upon the activity and expression of iNOS, along with IFN-γ and IL-10 production in Algerian Celiac patients...
March 7, 2018: Inflammopharmacology
Alexander J Gill, Rolando Garza, Surendra S Ambegaokar, Benjamin B Gelman, Dennis L Kolson
BACKGROUND: Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is a critical cytoprotective enzyme that limits oxidative stress, inflammation, and cellular injury within the central nervous system (CNS) and other tissues. We previously demonstrated that HO-1 protein expression is decreased within the brains of HIV+ subjects and that this HO-1 reduction correlates with CNS immune activation and neurocognitive dysfunction. To define a potential CNS protective role for HO-1 against HIV, we analyzed a well-characterized HIV autopsy cohort for two common HO-1 promoter region polymorphisms that are implicated in regulating HO-1 promoter transcriptional activity, a (GT)n dinucleotide repeat polymorphism and a single nucleotide polymorphism (A(-413)T)...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Eustachio Nettis, Luca Cegolon, Elisabetta Di Leo, Walter Giorgio Canonica, Aikaterini Detoraki
BACKGROUND: Omalizumab therapy is effective and safe in patients with chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU) resistant to nonsedating histamine1 (H1 ) antihistamines (nsAHs). OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of omalizumab in elderly (aged ≥65 years) patients with nonsedating H1 -antihistamine-refractory CSU in a real-life setting. METHODS: Patients with nonsedating H1 -antihistamine-refractory CSU (n = 322) treated with omalizumab administered every 4 weeks in doses of 300 mg for 24 weeks were divided into 2 groups according to age at omalizumab treatment onset: 15 to 64 years and 65 years or older...
March 2018: Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology
Soon-Hee Kim, Hee-Sook Park, Moon Ju Hong, Haeng Jeon Hur, Dae Young Kwon, Myung-Sunny Kim
SCOPE: This study investigated the effects of caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), a bioactive component of honeybee hives, on the prevention and treatment of metabolic syndrome (MetS) by comparing the efficacy of CAPE intake at the beginning of obesity and after obesity. The functional mechanism of CAPE was also investigated. METHODS AND RESULTS: C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) containing 0.05% CAPE (HFD+C) for 12 weeks (HFD+C(Pre) group) or received HFD+C for 6 weeks after consuming the HFD for 6 weeks (HFD+C(Post) group)...
March 5, 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
Simona Kraberger, Gabriel A Visnovsky, Ron F van Toor, Maketalena F Male, Kara Waits, Rafaela S Fontenele, Arvind Varsani
Varroa destructor is a ubiquitous and parasitic mite of honey bees, infecting them with pathogenic viruses having a major impact on apiculture. We identified two novel circular replication-associated protein (Rep)-encoding single-stranded (CRESS) DNA viruses from V. destructor sampled from a honey bee hive near Christchurch in New Zealand.
March 1, 2018: Genome Announcements
T A Kanters, H B Thio, L Hakkaart
BACKGROUND: Chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU) is a skin disease, with itchy hives and / or angioedema that last for at least 6 weeks without an obvious external trigger. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to determine the cost-effectiveness of omalizumab relative to standard of care (SoC; up to 4 times the daily dose of H1-antihistaminics) for the Netherlands from a societal perspective. METHODS: The Markov model used consisted of five health states based on Urticaria Activity Score over seven days (UAS7)...
February 24, 2018: British Journal of Dermatology
Syed Ishtiaq Anjum, Abdul Haleem Shah, Muhammad Aurongzeb, Junaid Kori, M Kamran Azim, Mohammad Javed Ansari, Li Bin
Gut microbiota has been recognized to play a beneficial role in honey bees ( Apis mellifera ). Present study was designed to characterize the gut bacterial flora of honey bees in north-west Pakistan. Total 150 aerobic and facultative anaerobic bacteria from guts of 45 worker bees were characterized using biochemical assays and 16S rDNA sequencing followed by bioinformatics analysis. The gut isolates were classified into three bacterial phyla of Firmicutes (60%), Proteobacteria (26%) and Actinobacteria (14%)...
February 2018: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
Brenna E Traver, Haley K Feazel-Orr, Katelyn M Catalfamo, Carlyle C Brewster, Richard D Fell
Honey bee, Apis mellifera (L.; Hymenoptera: Apidae), populations are in decline and their losses pose a serious threat for crop pollination and food production. The specific causes of these losses are believed to be multifactorial. Pesticides, parasites and pathogens, and nutritional deficiencies have been implicated in the losses due to their ability to exert energetic stress on bees. While our understanding of the role of these factors in honey bee colony losses has improved, there is still a lack of knowledge of how they impact the immune system of the honey bee...
February 17, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
M Coulon, F Schurr, A-C Martel, N Cougoule, A Bégaud, P Mangoni, A Dalmon, C Alaux, Y Le Conte, R Thiéry, M Ribière-Chabert, E Dubois
Pathogens and pesticides are likely to co-occur in honeybee hives, but much remains to be investigated regarding their potential interactions. Here, we first investigated the metabolisation kinetics of thiamethoxam in chronically fed honeybees. We show that thiamethoxam, at a dose of 0.25ng/bee/day, is quickly and effectively metabolised into clothianidin, throughout a 20day exposure period. Using a similar chronic exposure to pesticide, we then studied, in a separate experiment, the impact of thiamethoxam and Chronic bee paralysis virus (CBPV) co-exposure in honeybees...
January 2018: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Cong Wang, Yan Huang, Li Li, Jun Guo, Zhengyun Wu, Yu Deng, Lirong Dai, Shichun Ma
A novel facultatively anaerobic, Gram-stain-positive, non-motile, non-spore-forming, catalase-negative bacterium of the genus Lactobacillus, designated strain Bb 2-3T , was isolated from bee bread of Apis cerana collected from a hive in Kunming, China. The strain was regular rod-shaped. Optimal growth occurred at 37 °C, pH 6.5 with 5.0 g l-1 NaCl. The predominant fatty acids were C18 : 1ω9c, C16 : 0 and C19 : 0 iso. Respiratory quinones were not detected. Seven glycolipids, three lipids, phosphatidylglycerol and diphosphatidylglycerol were detected...
January 10, 2018: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
Michael Simone-Finstrom, Kate Aronstein, Michael Goblirsch, Frank Rinkevich, Lilia de Guzman
Managed honey bee (Apis mellifera) populations are currently facing unsustainable losses due to a variety of factors. Colonies are challenged with brood pathogens, such as the fungal agent of chalkbrood disease, the microsporidian gut parasite Nosema sp., and several viruses. These pathogens may be transmitted horizontally from worker to worker, vertically from queen to egg and via vectors like the parasitic mite, Varroa destructor. Despite the fact that these pathogens are widespread and often harbored in wax comb that is reused from year to year and transferred across beekeeping operations, few, if any, universal treatments exist for their control...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Franck Ouessou Idrissou, Qiang Huang, Orlando Yañez, Kayode Lawrence Akinwande, Peter Neumann
Small hive beetles (SHBs), Aethina tumida , are parasites of social bee colonies native to sub-Saharan Africa and have become an invasive species at a global scale. Reliable Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) diagnosis of this mandatory pest is required to limit its further spread and impact. Here, we have developed SHB primers, which amplify for 10 native African locations and 10 reported introductions, but not for three closely related species ( Aethina concolor , Aethina flavicollis , and Aethina inconspicua )...
February 14, 2018: Insects
Lizziane de Francisco, Diana Pinto, Hélen Rosseto, Lucas Toledo, Rafaela Santos, Flávia Tobaldini-Valério, Terezinha Svidzinski, Marcos Bruschi, Bruno Sarmento, M Beatriz P P Oliveira, Francisca Rodrigues
Propolis is a natural adhesive resinous compound produced by honeybees to protect hives from bacteria and fungi, being extremely expensive for food industry. During propolis production, a resinous by-product is formed. This resinous waste is currently undervalued and underexploited. Accordingly, in this study the proximate physical and chemical quality, as well as the antioxidant activity, radical scavenging activity and cell viability of this by-product were evaluated and compared with propolis in order to boost new applications in food and pharmaceutical industries...
March 2018: Food Research International
Angelo Gismondi, Silvia De Rossi, Lorena Canuti, Silvia Novelli, Gabriele Di Marco, Laura Fattorini, Antonella Canini
BACKGROUND: Robinia pseudoacacia L. nectar and its derivative monofloral honey were systematically compared in this study, to understand how much the starting solution reflected the final product, after re-elaboration by Apis mellifera ligustica Spinola. RESULTS: Subjected to dehydration in the hive, nectar changed its water and sugar content when transformed in honey, as physicochemical and GC-MS analyses revealed. Spectrophotometrical measurements and HPLC-DAD characterization of 18 plant molecules demonstrated honey to be richer than nectar in secondary metabolites...
February 10, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Magdalena Czarnecka-Operacz, Anna Sadowska-Przytocka, Dorota Jenerowicz, Anna Szeliga, Zygmunt Adamski, Katarzyna Łącka
Introduction: Chronic urticaria (CU) is a skin disease caused by autoantibodies against high affinity immunoglobulin E (IgE) receptor and against IgE. It is characterized by hives, erythematous wheals and redness present minimum twice a week for at least 6 weeks. It is observed that there is a strong association between CU and autoimmune diseases, such as autoimmune thyroiditis (AT). Aim: To verify the frequency of AT in patients suffering from chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU) and to confirm the coexistence of CU and AT in the Polish population...
December 2017: Postȩpy Dermatologii i Alergologii
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