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Glenohumeral joint

Nancy Henderson, Haley Worst, Ryan Decarreau, George Davies
BACKGROUND: Clinical examination of caspuloligamentous structures of the glenohumeral joint has historically been subjective in nature, as demonstrated by limited intra-rater and inter-rater reproducibility. Musculoskeletal diagnostic ultrasound was utilized to develop a clinically objective measurement technique for glenohumeral inferior and posterolateral translation. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to measure the accessory passive force required to achieve end range glenohumeral posterolateral and inferior accessory translation, as well as, to quantify the amount of translation of the glenohumeral joint caused by the applied force...
October 2016: International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy
Gretchen D Oliver, Hillary Plummer, Allison Brambeck
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Range of motion deficits at the hip and glenohumeral joint (GHJ) may contribute to the incidence of injury in softball players. With injury in softball players on the rise, softball related studies in the literature are important. The purpose of this study was to examine hip and GHJ passive range of motion (PROM) patterns in collegiate softball players. HYPOTHESIS: It was hypothesized that the position players would exhibit significantly different PROM patterns than pitchers...
October 2016: International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy
Tressa D Amirthanayagam, Andrew A Amis, Peter Reilly, Roger J H Emery
BACKGROUND: The deltopectoral approach for total shoulder arthroplasty can result in subscapularis dysfunction. In addition, glenoid wear is more prevalent posteriorly, a region difficult to access with this approach. We propose a posterior approach for access in total shoulder arthroplasty that uses the internervous interval between the infraspinatus and teres minor. This study compares this internervous posterior approach with other rotator cuff-sparing techniques, namely, the subscapularis-splitting and rotator interval approaches...
October 10, 2016: Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery
Oren I Feder, Konrad I Gruson
Septic arthritis of the shoulder girdle remains relatively uncommon, with Staphylococcus aureus and β-hemolytic streptococci the typical offending organisms in adult patients. Rare cases of Streptococcus viridans, an oral bacterium with low virulence, have been reported in the setting of septic arthritis, mostly involving the knee joint or the sternoclavicular joint. In this article, we report a case of Streptococcus mitis infection of the glenohumeral joint that likely resulted from hematogenous spread after oral trauma in a patient with poor underlying dentition...
September 2016: American Journal of Orthopedics
Alex Charles Fox, Daniel R Martin
Inferior dislocation (luxatio erecta) is the most uncommon form of dislocation of the glenohumeral joint. The chance that a person endures the specific direction of forces to dislocate both shoulders simultaneously makes bilateral luxatio erecta even more uncommon. In this article, we report the case of a man who sustained bilateral luxatio erecta when he jumped from a falling scaffold and tried grabbing onto another structure.
September 2016: American Journal of Orthopedics
Rachel M Frank, Anthony A Romeo, Matthew T Provencher
Anterior glenoid bone loss is present in nearly all cases of recurrent anterior glenohumeral instability. Treating glenoid bone loss in the setting of recurrent instability is challenging, and often, soft tissue stabilization procedures in isolation are inadequate. The nonanatomic, incongruous joint resulting from most bony augmentation procedures has motivated investigators to find an alternative solution. Recently, the use of fresh distal tibia allograft has been reported as an anatomic, osteoarticular reconstructive option for restoring the glenoid arc and maintaining glenohumeral congruency...
October 13, 2016: Orthopedics
Mohamed Mansour Elzohairy, Adel Mohamed Salama
INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to evaluate shoulder function following minimally invasive subtotal subscapularis muscle and periarticular capsuloligamentous arthroscopic release in children with Erb's palsy. METHODS: A prospective study was conducted on 15 consecutive children who underwent subtotal subscapularis muscle and periarticular capsuloligamentous arthroscopic release to treat internal rotation contracture of the shoulder joint after Erb's palsy...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Children's Orthopaedics
Timothy G Baumer, Derek Chan, Veronica Mende, Jack Dischler, Roger Zauel, Marnix van Holsbeeck, Daniel S Siegal, George Divine, Vasilios Moutzouros, Michael J Bey
BACKGROUND: Physical therapy (PT) is often prescribed for patients with rotator cuff tears. The extent to which PT influences strength, range of motion (ROM), and patient-reported outcomes has been studied extensively, but the effect of PT on in vivo joint kinematics is not well understood. PURPOSE: To assess the influence of symptomatic rotator cuff pathology and the effects of PT on shoulder motion, strength, and patient-reported outcomes. STUDY DESIGN: Controlled laboratory study...
September 2016: Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine
Julien Clément, Jérémie Ménard, Maxime Raison, Jennifer Dumais, Laura Dubois, Dominique M Rouleau
BACKGROUND: Although recurrent anterior shoulder instability (RASI) is a common condition in young patients, no studies to date have measured the 3-dimensional (3D) locked position of the glenohumeral joint during an anterior dislocation. Therefore, our goal was to estimate it with 3D computed tomography (CT) scans. METHODS: Patients in this prospective observational study were separated in 3 groups: normal laxity, hyperlaxity, and epilepsy. They were characterized by questionnaires (Western Ontario Shoulder Instability Index, 11-item version of the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand, and Beighton Laxity Score), and a CT scan revealing bipolar bone defects...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery
Tineke De Coninck, Steven S Ngai, Monica Tafur, Christine B Chung
The shoulder joint is the most unstable articulation in the entire human body. While this certainly introduces vulnerability to injury, it also confers the advantage of broad range of motion. There are many elements that work in combination to offset the inherent instability of the glenohumeral joint, but the glenoid labrum is perhaps related most often. Broadly, clinical unidirectional instability can be subdivided into anterior and posterior instability, which usually raise concern for anteroinferior and posteroinferior labral lesions, respectively...
October 2016: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
Thomas Suter, Christopher W Kolz, Robert Z Tashjian, Heath B Henninger, Ariane Gerber Popp
BACKGROUND: The best chance that a shoulder arthroplasty will restore motion and muscle balance across the glenohumeral joint is by closely replicating natural articular morphology. Defining the humeral osteotomy plane along clear landmarks at the anatomic neck is critical. We hypothesized that a new osteotomy, based on alternative landmarks on the anatomic neck, would restore 3-dimensional humeral head morphology more reliably than the traditional osteotomy. METHODS: The anatomic neck was digitized in 30 human cadaver shoulders and compared with its 3-dimensional computed tomography reconstruction...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery
Elizabeth B Gausden, Moira M McCarthy, Andreas Kontaxis, Keith T Corpus, Lawrence V Gulotta, Anne M Kelly
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to determine the relative amount of load that is transmitted through the superior portion of the subscapularis during activities of daily living as compared with the load that is transmitted through the middle and inferior portions in a normal shoulder and in a shoulder with a supraspinatus tear. METHODS: By use of the Newcastle shoulder model, the subscapularis was modeled with 3 lines of action encircling the humeral head...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery
Justin A Ly, Erin M Coleman, Eric J Kropf
The treatment of anterior shoulder instability is well described with various techniques, including arthroscopic double-row repair, an alternative to open stabilization procedures in high-risk groups. The surgical management of posterior instability in high-risk and athletic populations is a less-explored entity. We describe our technique for an all arthroscopic double-row suture anchor repair of a large posterior bony Bankart lesion. We prefer this technique over percutaneous cannulated screw fixation because the double-row suture technique allows for incorporation of capsular plication with bony fixation in an effort to better restore normal anatomy for capsulolabral complex...
August 2016: Arthroscopy Techniques
Samuel G Moulton, Joshua A Greenspoon, Peter J Millett, Maximilian Petri
BACKGROUND: It is important to appreciate the risk factors for the development of rotator cuff tears and specific physical examination maneuvers. METHODS: A selective literature search was performed. RESULTS: Numerous well-designed studies have demonstrated that common risk factors include age, occupation, and anatomic considerations such as the critical shoulder angle. Recently, research has also reported a genetic component as well. The rotator cuff axially compresses the humeral head in the glenohumeral joint and provides rotational motion and abduction...
2016: Open Orthopaedics Journal
Joshua A Greenspoon, Peter J Millett, Samuel G Moulton, Maximilian Petri
BACKGROUND: Tendon transfers can be a surgical treatment option in managing younger, active patients with massive irreparable rotator cuff tears. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of the use of tendon transfers to treat massive irreparable rotator cuff tears and to summarize clinical outcomes. METHODS: A selective literature search was performed and personal surgical experiences are reported. RESULTS: Latissimus dorsi transfers have been used for many years in the management of posterosuperior rotator cuff tears with good reported clinical outcomes...
2016: Open Orthopaedics Journal
Yin-Liang Lin, Andrew Karduna
While synchronous movement of glenohumeral and scapulothoracic joints has been emphasized in previous kinematics studies, most investigations of shoulder joint position sense have treated the shoulder complex as a single joint. The purposes of this study were to investigate the joint position sense errors of the humerothoracic, glenohumeral and scapulothoracic joints at different elevation angles and to examine whether the errors of the glenohumeral and scapulothoracic joints contribute to the errors of the humerothoracic joint...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
Mukesh Kumar, Jai Thilak
INTRODUCTION: The glenoid labrum is frequently torn in traumatic glenohumeral dislocation; arthroscopic repair is the standard method of treatment. The complications associated with this repair are pulling out of metal suture anchors, chondrolysis and joint infection. The infection of joint after arthroscopy is less than 1%. Staphylococcus is most common organism and rarely followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. We report a case of infected shoulder with chondrolysis of the joint and pulled out metal suture anchor lying inside the joint after Bankart's repair...
April 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic Case Reports
Mustafa Soner Özcan, Mahmut Kalem, Menekşe Özçelik, Ercan Şahin, Sanem Çakar, Nazlı Hayırlı, Oya Evirgen, Feyhan Ökten
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: In this study it was aimed to examine the histological and morphometric effects on cartilage structure of intra-articular application of levobupivacaine to the shoulder joint. METHODS: In twenty New Zealand adult male rabbits, 35 shoulders were used for the study and prepared in 5 groups of 7. These groups were defined as Groups L1, L2, L3 and L4 which were right shoulders administered with 0.25% and 0.5% levobupivacaine, Group C which were left shoulders as the control group and Groups S1 and S2 which were left shoulders administered with 0...
September 28, 2016: Revista Brasileira de Anestesiologia
A Karelse, N Spapens, A Van Tongel, L De Wilde
We evaluate our experience with arthroscopic interpositioning arthroplasty as a treatment of the young degenerative shoulder joint. Between 2007 and 2009 ten patients were treated with either a dermal allograft or a meniscal allograft. In seven patients the graft failed and within 13 months these were revised to a total shoulder arthroplasty. Three patients are still satisfied after 7 to 8 years follow-up. Biologic resurfacing of the glenoid may have a role in the management of glenohumeral arthritis in the young and active patient, but the optimal graft and pathology still need to be defined...
August 2016: Acta Orthopaedica Belgica
Maryne Cozette, Stéphane Delanaud, Pierre-Marie Lepretre, Thierry Weissland
OBJECTIVE: Shoulder internal (IR) and external rotator (ER) muscles play an important role in the stability of glenohumeral joint. The ratio between the peak torque of ER and IR in concentric (ER/IRPT) and mixed (ER-ECC/IR-CONPT) are usually measured to evaluate the effects of muscle weakness, sport activities, injury and treatment (Greenfield et al., 1990; Scoville et al., 1997). However, ER/IRPT and ER-ECC/IR-CONPT failed to provide some indication on the evolution of the ER/IR torque ratio (ER/IRTorque) and mixed torque ratio (ER-EC/IR-COTorque) during the range of motion (ROM)...
September 2016: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
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