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Hydroxy methylbutyrate

Michael J Redd, Jay R Hoffman, Yftach Gepner, Jeffrey R Stout, Mattan W Hoffman, Daniel Ben-Dov, Shany Funk, David D Church, Guy Avital, Yacov Chen, Hagai Frankel, Ishay Ostfeld
OBJECTIVE: Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) is a metabolic and anabolic biomarker that has been proposed to reflect physiological adaptations resulting from multistressor environments. The bioactivity of IGF-I is regulated by seven different insulin-like growth factor binding proteins (IGFBPs) which act not only as carriers of IGF-1, but also function as a modulator of IGF-I availability and activity. Supplementing with β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB) has been shown to enhance physiological outcomes associated with intense training, and has been reported to augment the IGF-1 response...
October 5, 2016: Growth Hormone & IGF Research
Katarzyna A Szcześniak, Anna Ciecierska, Piotr Ostaszewski, Tomasz Sadkowski
β-Hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB) is a popular ergogenic aid used by human athletes and as a supplement to sport horses, because of its ability to aid muscle recovery, improve performance and body composition. Recent findings suggest that HMB may stimulate satellite cells and affect expressions of genes regulating skeletal muscle cell growth. Despite the scientific data showing benefits of HMB supplementation in horses, no previous study has explained the mechanism of action of HMB in this species. The aim of this study was to reveal the molecular background of HMB action on equine skeletal muscle by investigating the transcriptomic profile changes induced by HMB in equine satellite cells in vitro...
October 2016: British Journal of Nutrition
Yue Zhong, Joshua T Cohen, Scott Goates, Menghua Luo, Jeffrey Nelson, Peter J Neumann
BACKGROUND: Malnutrition, which is associated with increased medical complications in older hospitalized patients, can be attenuated by providing nutritional supplements. OBJECTIVE: This study evaluates the cost effectiveness of a specialized oral nutritional supplement (ONS) in malnourished older hospitalized patients. METHODS: We conducted an economic evaluation alongside a multicenter, randomized, controlled clinical trial (NOURISH Study)...
August 4, 2016: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy
Willian G Birolli, Natália Alvarenga, Mirna H R Seleghim, André L M Porto
Esfenvalerate biodegradation by marine-derived fungi is reported here. Esfenvalerate (S,S-fenvalerate) and its main metabolites [3-phenoxybenzaldehyde (PBAld), 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (PBAc), 3-phenoxybenzyl alcohol (PBAlc), and 2-(4-chlorophenyl)-3-methylbutyric acid (CLAc)] were quantitatively analyzed by a validated method in triplicate experiments. All the strains (Penicillium raistrickii CBMAI 931, Aspergillus sydowii CBMAI 935, Cladosporium sp. CBMAI 1237, Microsphaeropsis sp. CBMAI 1675, Acremonium sp...
August 2016: Marine Biotechnology
Josep M Argilés, Nefertiti Campos, José M Lopez-Pedrosa, Ricardo Rueda, Leocadio Rodriguez-Mañas
Skeletal muscle is recognized as vital to physical movement, posture, and breathing. In a less known but critically important role, muscle influences energy and protein metabolism throughout the body. Muscle is a primary site for glucose uptake and storage, and it is also a reservoir of amino acids stored as protein. Amino acids are released when supplies are needed elsewhere in the body. These conditions occur with acute and chronic diseases, which decrease dietary intake while increasing metabolic needs. Such metabolic shifts lead to the muscle loss associated with sarcopenia and cachexia, resulting in a variety of adverse health and economic consequences...
September 1, 2016: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
Peter J Fitschen, Annabel Biruete, Jinny Jeong, Kenneth R Wilund
Introduction Maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients suffer from a number of co-morbidities including declines in muscle mass and physical function. Beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) is a metabolite of the amino acid leucine that has been shown to improve lean mass and physical function in elderly and clinical populations, but had not been studied in MHD patients. The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy of HMB in this population. Methods We performed a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial to assess the effects of daily HMB supplementation on co-morbidities in MHD patients...
June 14, 2016: Hemodialysis International
Izabela Świetlicka, Siemowit Muszyński, Ewa Tomaszewska, Piotr Dobrowolski, Anita Kwaśniewska, Michał Świetlicki, Anna Skic, Krzysztof Gołacki
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this research was to check the effect of the prenatally administered β-hydroxy β-methylbutyrate (HMB) on the development of enamel surface of the spiny mice offspring. DESIGN: The spiny mice dams were randomly assigned into three groups: control group (not supplemented with HMB) and two experimental groups in which powdered HMB was given at the daily dosage of 0.2g/kg of body weight (group I) and 0.02g/kg of body weight (group II) during the last period of gestation...
June 2, 2016: Archives of Oral Biology
Guillermo Escalante, Michelle Alencar, Bryan Haddock, Phillip Harvey
BACKGROUND: Phosphatidic acid (PA) is a lipid messenger that has been shown to increase muscle protein synthesis via signaling stimulation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). MaxxTOR® (MT) is a supplement that contains PA as the main active ingredient but also contains other synergistic mTOR signaling substances including L-Leucine, Beta-Hydroxy-Beta-Methylbutyrate (HMB), and Vitamin D3. METHODS: Eighteen healthy strength-trained males were randomly assigned to a group that either consumed MT (n = 8, 22...
2016: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
Nikolaj Rittig, Ermina Bach, Henrik H Thomsen, Andreas B Møller, Jakob Hansen, Mogens Johannsen, Erik Jensen, Anja Serena, Jens O Jørgensen, Bjørn Richelsen, Niels Jessen, Niels Møller
BACKGROUND: Protein-rich beverages are widely used clinically to preserve muscle protein and improve physical performance. Beverages with high contents of leucine or its keto-metabolite β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB) are especially anabolic in muscle, but it is uncertain whether this also applies to catabolic conditions such as fasting and whether common or separate intracellular signaling cascades are involved. OBJECTIVE: To compare a specific leucine-rich whey protein beverage (LWH) with isocaloric carbohydrate- (CHO), soy protein (SOY), and soy protein +3 g HMB (HMB) during fasting-induced catabolic conditions...
May 25, 2016: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Jay R Hoffman, Yiftach Gepner, Jeffrey R Stout, Mattan W Hoffman, Daniel Ben-Dov, Shany Funk, Ido Daimont, Adam R Jajtner, Jeremy R Townsend, David D Church, Ilan Shelef, Philip Rosen, Guy Avital, Yacov Chen, Hagai Frankel, Ishay Ostfeld
This study tested the hypothesis that of 23 days of β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB) supplementation can maintain muscle mass and attenuate the immune and inflammatory response in combat soldiers during highly intense military training. Soldiers were randomly assigned to either a HMB (n = 6) or placebo (PL; n = 7) group and provided with 3 g · day(-1) of either HMB or PL. During the final week of supplementation soldiers participated in extreme physical training, which included night navigation of 6-8 hours across difficult terrain carrying heavy loads combined with sleep deprivation (3...
June 2016: Nutrition Research
Francesco Landi, Riccardo Calvani, Matteo Tosato, Anna Maria Martone, Elena Ortolani, Giulia Savera, Emanuela D'Angelo, Alex Sisto, Emanuele Marzetti
The provision of sufficient amounts of dietary proteins is central to muscle health as it ensures the supply of essential amino acids and stimulates protein synthesis. Older persons, in particular, are at high risk of insufficient protein ingestion. Furthermore, the current recommended dietary allowance for protein (0.8 g/kg/day) might be inadequate for maintaining muscle health in older adults, probably as a consequence of "anabolic resistance" in aged muscle. Older individuals therefore need to ingest a greater quantity of protein to maintain muscle function...
2016: Nutrients
Michelle Kao, Daniel A Columbus, Agus Suryawan, Julia Steinhoff-Wagner, Adriana Hernandez-Garcia, Hanh V Nguyen, Marta L Fiorotto, Teresa A Davis
Many low-birth weight infants are at risk for poor growth due to an inability to achieve adequate protein intake. Administration of the amino acid leucine stimulates protein synthesis in skeletal muscle of neonates. To determine the effects of enteral supplementation of the leucine metabolite β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB) on protein synthesis and the regulation of translation initiation and degradation pathways, overnight-fasted neonatal pigs were studied immediately (F) or fed one of five diets for 24 h: low-protein (LP), high-protein (HP), or LP diet supplemented with 4 (HMB4), 40 (HMB40), or 80 (HMB80) μmol HMB·kg body wt(-1)·day(-1) Cell replication was assessed from nuclear incorporation of BrdU in the longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle and jejunum crypt cells...
June 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
Thomas Brioche, Allan F Pagano, Guillaume Py, Angèle Chopard
Identification of cost-effective interventions to maintain muscle mass, muscle strength, and physical performance during muscle wasting and aging is an important public health challenge. It requires understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved. Muscle-deconditioning processes have been deciphered by means of several experimental models, bringing together the opportunities to devise comprehensive analysis of muscle wasting. Studies have increasingly recognized the importance of fatty infiltrations or intermuscular adipose tissue for the age-mediated loss of skeletal-muscle function and emphasized that this new important factor is closely linked to inactivity...
August 2016: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
Sathyavageeswaran Shreeram, Subbarayan Ramesh, Jithesh K Puthan, Gayathri Balakrishnan, Ramachandran Subramanian, Murali Todime Reddy, Suzette L Pereira
BACKGROUND: The loss of muscle mass is considered to be a major factor contributing to strength decline during aging. β-Hydroxy-β-Methylbutyrate (HMB), a metabolite of leucine has been shown to enhance muscle protein synthesis and attenuate loss of muscle mass by multiple pathways. However, the production and regulation of endogenous levels of HMB over the lifespan have not been investigated. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the present study was to do a cross-sectional analysis of the basal plasma levels of HMB in male Sprague-Dawley rats of different ages and to compare the efficiency of conversion of leucine to HMB in young versus older rats...
July 2016: Experimental Gerontology
María D Girón, José D Vílchez, Rafael Salto, Manuel Manzano, Natalia Sevillano, Nefertiti Campos, Josep M Argilés, Ricardo Rueda, José M López-Pedrosa
BACKGROUND: L-Leu and its metabolite β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB) stimulate muscle protein synthesis enhancing the phosphorylation of proteins that regulate anabolic signalling pathways. Alterations in these pathways are observed in many catabolic diseases, and HMB and L-Leu have proven their anabolic effects in in vivo and in vitro models. The aim of this study was to compare the anabolic effects of L-Leu and HMB in myotubes grown in the absence of any catabolic stimuli. METHODS: Studies were conducted in vitro using rat L6 myotubes under normal growth conditions (non-involving L-Leu-deprived conditions)...
March 2016: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
Daniel G Kougias, Suzanne O Nolan, Wendy A Koss, Taehyeon Kim, Emily R Hankosky, Joshua M Gulley, Janice M Juraska
Beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB), a supplement commonly used to maintain muscle in elderly and clinical populations, has been unexplored in the aging brain. In both healthy aging humans and rat models, there are cognitive deficits associated with age-related dendritic shrinkage within the prefrontal cortex. The present study explores the effects of relatively short- and long-term (7 and 31 weeks) oral HMB supplementation starting at 12 months of age in male and female rats on the dendritic tree of layer 5 pyramidal neurons in the medial prefrontal cortex...
April 2016: Neurobiology of Aging
Osman Ekinci, Serhat Yanık, Berna Terzioğlu Bebitoğlu, Elvan Yılmaz Akyüz, Ayfer Dokuyucu, Şevki Erdem
BACKGROUND: Nutrition support in orthopedic patients with malnutrition shortens the immobilization period. The efficacy of calcium β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (CaHMB), vitamin D, and protein intake on bone structure is studied and well known; however, there is no evidence supporting the effect of combined use in orthopedic conditions. We investigated the effects of CaHMB, vitamin D, and protein supplementation on wound healing, immobilization period, muscle strength, and laboratory parameters...
March 10, 2016: Nutrition in Clinical Practice
Julian Vallejo, Madoka Spence, An-Lin Cheng, Leticia Brotto, Neile K Edens, Sean M Garvey, Marco Brotto
There is growing evidence that severe decline of skeletal muscle mass and function with age may be mitigated by exercise and dietary supplementation with protein and amino acid ingredient technologies. The purposes of this study were to examine the effects of the leucine catabolite, beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB), in C2C12 myoblasts and myotubes, and to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation with HMB, the amino acid β-alanine and the combination thereof, on muscle contractility in a preclinical model of pre-sarcopenia...
2016: PloS One
Minayuki Shirato, Yosuke Tsuchiya, Teruyuki Sato, Saki Hamano, Takeshi Gushiken, Naoto Kimura, Eisuke Ochi
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of combined β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB) and whey protein ingestion on muscle strength and damage following a single bout of eccentric exercise. METHODS: Eighteen untrained male subjects were assigned to HMB and Whey protein (HMB + Whey; 3 g/day HMB and 36.6 g/day whey protein, n = 6), HMB (3 g/day, n = 6), or whey protein (36.6 g/day, n = 6) groups. Ingestion commenced 7 days before non-dominant elbow flexor eccentric exercise (30 deg/sec, 6 reps × 7 sets) and continued until 4 days post-exercise...
2016: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
Haifeng Wan, Jiatao Zhu, Guoqi Su, Yan Liu, Lun Hua, Liang Hu, Caimei Wu, Ruinan Zhang, Pan Zhou, Yong Shen, Yan Lin, Shengyu Xu, Zhengfeng Fang, Lianqiang Che, Bin Feng, De Wu
Intra-uterine growth restriction (IUGR) impairs postnatal growth and skeletal muscle development in neonatal infants. This study evaluated whether dietary β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate Ca (HMB-Ca) supplementation during the early postnatal period could improve muscle growth in IUGR neonates using piglets as a model. A total of twelve pairs of IUGR and normal-birth-weight (NBW) male piglets with average initial weights (1·85 (sem 0·36) and 2·51 (sem 0·39) kg, respectively) were randomly allotted to groups that received milk-based diets (CON) or milk-based diets supplemented with 800 mg/kg HMB-Ca (HMB) during days 7-28 after birth...
April 2016: British Journal of Nutrition
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