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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213434/malaria-during-pregnancy
#1
Michal Fried, Patrick E Duffy
One hundred and twenty-five million women in malaria-endemic areas become pregnant each year (see Dellicour et al. PLoS Med7: e1000221 [2010]) and require protection from infection to avoid disease and death for themselves and their offspring. Chloroquine prophylaxis was once a safe approach to prevention but has been abandoned because of drug-resistant parasites, and intermittent presumptive treatment with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine, which is currently used to protect pregnant women throughout Africa, is rapidly losing its benefits for the same reason...
February 17, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211557/associations-of-selected-lower-urinary-tract-symptoms-with-biographical-context-in-patients-of-a-day-hospital-for-neurotic-disorders
#2
Michał Skalski, Jerzy A Sobański, Tomasz Golabek, Agata Świerkosz, Katarzyna Klasa, Mikołaj Przydacz, Krzysztof Rutkowski, Edyta Dembińska, Michał Mielimąka, Katarzyna Cyranka, Piotr Chłosta, Dominika Dudek
OBJECTIVES: To assess the correlation of subjectively estimated biographical context and lower urinary tract symptoms reported by patients with neurotic and personality disorders. METHODS: This was a retrospective analysis of the biographical context of co-existence of urinary frequency and urinary incontinence reported by 3,929 patients in a day hospital for treatment of neurotic disorders. The symptom checklists KO "0" were completed by patients prior to any treatment...
December 23, 2016: Psychiatria Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207655/internally-randomized-control-trial-of-radiation-exposure-using-ultra-low-radiation-imaging-versus-traditional-c-arm-fluoroscopy-for-patients-undergoing-single-level-minimally-invasive-transforaminal-lumbar-interbody-fusion
#3
Timothy Y Wang, S Harrison Farber, Scott S Perkins, Adam G Back, Sarah A Byrd, Debbie Chi, David Vincent, Isaac O Karikari
STUDY DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial. OBJECTIVE: To compare radiation exposure between ultra-low radiation imaging (ULRI) with image enhancement and standard-dose fluoroscopy for patients undergoing minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (MIS TLIF). SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Although the benefits of MIS are lauded by many, there is a significant amount of radiation exposure to surgeon and operating room personnel...
February 15, 2017: Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197787/dermatux-phase-iv-trial-of-cetuximab-plus-folfiri-in-first-line-metastatic-colorectal-cancer-receiving-a-pre-defined-skin-care
#4
Carl Christoph Schimanski, Frank Staib, Thomas Göhler, Holger Hebart, Michael Heike, Michael Neise, Jochen Rudi, Thomas Geer, Gerrit Dingeldein, Claudia Lang, Peter Ehscheidt, Thomas Flohr, Klaus Maria Josten, Meinolf Karthaus, Alexander Schmittel, Jan Wierecky, Emil Boller, Martin Indorf, Marcus-Alexander Wörns, Peter R Galle, Markus Moehler
PURPOSE: Cetuximab-induced skin rash Gd3+ occurs in ≥16% patients (pts) (Heinemann et al., Lancet Oncol 15(10):1065-1075, 2014; Van Cutsem et al. J Clin Oncol 27(19):3117-25; 2009b). Survival, response, and toxicity parameters were re-evaluated under a pre-defined skin prophylaxis consistent of vitamin K1 ointment and oral doxycycline. METHODS: This is a national, multicenter, phase 4, first-line mCRC (K-RAS wt) trial. Pts received irinotecan 180 mg/m² (d1), FA 400 mg/m² (d1), 5-FU 400 mg/m² (d1), 5-FU 2400 mg/m² (d1-2), and cetuximab [400 mg/m² (d1), and then 250 mg/m² qw], prophylactic 0...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194764/commentary-what-is-the-case-for-candidate-gene-approaches-in-the-era-of-high-throughput-genomics-a-response-to-border-and-keller-2017
#5
Sarah R Moore
Border and Keller argue that candidate gene approaches are outdated and out-of-touch with the current understanding of the genetic architecture of complex behavioral traits and should be abandoned in favor of unbiased, genome-wide approaches. Border and Keller further suggest that a candidate gene should not be selected for in-depth investigation unless identified by a well-powered genome-wide association study (GWAS). An alternative perspective is offered that candidate approaches can be sensible for developmental and deep-phenotyping studies aimed at elucidating particular biological pathways responsible for the emergence of psychological phenotypes, and that candidates should not necessarily be expected to be confirmed by, or solely selected based on, GWAS...
March 2017: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192042/assessing-timing-and-causes-of-neonatal-lamb-losses-in-a-bighorn-sheep-ovis-canadensis-canadensis-herd-via-use-of-vaginal-implant-transmitters
#6
Jamin L Grigg, Lisa L Wolfe, Karen A Fox, Halcyon J Killion, Jessica Jennings-Gaines, Michael W Miller, Brian P Dreher
We evaluated the use of vaginal implant transmitters (VITs) as a means of detecting, capturing, and radio collaring Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep ( Ovis canadensis canadensis) lambs to estimate survival and to facilitate carcass recovery to assess causes of mortality. We focused on one of several bighorn herds in Colorado, USA, suffering from depressed recruitment that was not preceded by a classic all-age die-off. We captured, radio-collared, diagnosed pregnancy by ultrasound examination, and inserted VITs into 15 pregnant ewes from a herd residing near Granite, Colorado...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185801/lived-experience-of-having-a-child-with-stroke-a%C3%A2-qualitative-study
#7
Syrine Soufi, Stéphane Chabrier, Laurent Bertoletti, Silvy Laporte, Stéphane Darteyre
OBJECTIVE: To assess the lived experience of parents whose child has suffered a stroke. METHODS: A qualitative study model was chosen, comprising in-depth interviews with parents separately or altogether. A semi-structured interview guide was used. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed using constant comparison and content analysis. Participant checking was performed. Thirteen families of children aged 1 month to 17 years, having suffered ischaemic or haemorrhagic arterial stroke within one to five years, were recruited...
January 25, 2017: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185642/quantifying-the-sensitivity-of-human-immune-cells-to-chemoattractant
#8
Emmet A Francis, Volkmar Heinrich
The efficient recruitment of immune cells is a vital cornerstone of our defense against infections and a key challenge of immunotherapeutic applications. It relies on the ability of chemotaxing cells to prioritize their responses to different stimuli. For example, immune cells are known to abandon gradients of host-cell-produced cytokines in favor of complement-derived anaphylatoxins, which then guide the cells toward nearby pathogen surfaces. The aptitude to triage stimuli depends on the cells' specific sensitivities to different chemoattractants...
February 6, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185234/multimodality-molecular-imaging-in-cardiac-regenerative-therapy
#9
Davis Vo, Patricia K Nguyen
Stem cell therapy holds great promise for the repair and regeneration of damaged myocardium. Disappointing results from recent large-scale randomized trials using adult stem cells, however, have led some to question the efficacy of this new therapeutic. Because most clinical stem cell trials have not incorporated molecular imaging to track cell fate, it may be premature to abandon this approach. Herein, we will review how multimodality imaging can be incorporated into cardiac regenerative therapy to facilitate the translation of stem cell therapy...
February 9, 2017: Journal of Nuclear Cardiology: Official Publication of the American Society of Nuclear Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183689/game-based-rehabilitation-for-myoelectric-prosthesis-control
#10
Cosima Prahm, Ivan Vujaklija, Fares Kayali, Peter Purgathofer, Oskar C Aszmann
BACKGROUND: A high number of upper extremity myoelectric prosthesis users abandon their devices due to difficulties in prosthesis control and lack of motivation to train in absence of a physiotherapist. Virtual training systems, in the form of video games, provide patients with an entertaining and intuitive method for improved muscle coordination and improved overall control. Complementary to established rehabilitation protocols, it is highly beneficial for this virtual training process to start even before receiving the final prosthesis, and to be continued at home for as long as needed...
February 9, 2017: JMIR Serious Games
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181451/from-a-religious-view-of-madness-to-religious-mania-the-encyclop%C3%A3-die-pinel-esquirol
#11
Philippe Huneman
This paper focuses on the shift from a concept of insanity understood in terms of religion to another (as entertained by early psychiatry, especially in France) according to which it is believed that forms of madness tinged by religion are difficult to cure. The traditional religious view of madness, as exemplified by Pascal (inter alia), is first illustrated by entries from the Encyclopédie. Then the shift towards a medical view of madness, inspired by Vitalistic physiology, is mapped by entries taken from the same publication...
February 1, 2017: History of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177158/neuronal-responses-support-a-role-for-orbitofrontal-cortex-in-cognitive-set-reconfiguration
#12
Brianna J Sleezer, Giuliana Loconte, Meghan D Castagno, Benjamin Y Hayden
We are often faced with the need to abandon no-longer beneficial rules and adopt new ones. This process, known as cognitive set reconfiguration, is a hallmark of executive control. Although cognitive functions like reconfiguration are most often associated with dorsal prefrontal structures, recent evidence suggests that the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) may play an important role as well. We recorded activity of OFC neurons while rhesus macaques performed an analogue of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Task that involved a trial-and-error stage...
February 8, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176768/soil-networks-become-more-connected-and-take-up-more-carbon-as-nature-restoration-progresses
#13
Elly Morriën, S Emilia Hannula, L Basten Snoek, Nico R Helmsing, Hans Zweers, Mattias de Hollander, Raquel Luján Soto, Marie-Lara Bouffaud, Marc Buée, Wim Dimmers, Henk Duyts, Stefan Geisen, Mariangela Girlanda, Rob I Griffiths, Helene-Bracht Jørgensen, John Jensen, Pierre Plassart, Dirk Redecker, Rűdiger M Schmelz, Olaf Schmidt, Bruce C Thomson, Emilie Tisserant, Stephane Uroz, Anne Winding, Mark J Bailey, Michael Bonkowski, Jack H Faber, Francis Martin, Philippe Lemanceau, Wietse de Boer, Johannes A van Veen, Wim H van der Putten
Soil organisms have an important role in aboveground community dynamics and ecosystem functioning in terrestrial ecosystems. However, most studies have considered soil biota as a black box or focussed on specific groups, whereas little is known about entire soil networks. Here we show that during the course of nature restoration on abandoned arable land a compositional shift in soil biota, preceded by tightening of the belowground networks, corresponds with enhanced efficiency of carbon uptake. In mid- and long-term abandoned field soil, carbon uptake by fungi increases without an increase in fungal biomass or shift in bacterial-to-fungal ratio...
February 8, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28171836/content-of-advance-care-planning-among-japanese-elderly-people-living-at-home-a-qualitative-study
#14
Yoshihisa Hirakawa, Chifa Chiang, Esayas Haregot Hilawe, Atsuko Aoyama
PURPOSE OF STUDY: Elderly peoples' values and preferences for end-of-life care have not yet known in details. The aim of the present study was to investigate the end-of-life wishes and decision making among Japanese elderly people who required home care services. The study was designed to qualitative research strategies, using face to face interview data recorded in nursing care records, with a focus on advance care planning. DESIGN AND METHODS: A total of 102 elderly people (47 males, 55 females) of 6 home care support offices in Hyogo prefecture participated...
January 31, 2017: Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167722/projected-coding-intensity-in-medicare-advantage-could-increase-medicare-spending-by-200%C3%A2-billion-over-ten-years
#15
Richard Kronick
Over the past decade, the average risk score for Medicare Advantage (MA) enrollees has risen steadily relative to that for fee-for-service Medicare beneficiaries, by approximately 1.5 percent per year. The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) uses patient demographic and diagnostic information to calculate a risk score for each beneficiary, and these risk scores are used to determine payment to MA plans. The increase in relative MA risk scores is largely the result of successful efforts by MA plans to identify additional diagnoses, also known as coding intensity, and not of changes in enrollees' true health...
February 1, 2017: Health Affairs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165378/pit-latrine-fecal-sludge-resistance-using-a-dynamic-cone-penetrometer-in-low-income-areas-in-mzuzu-city-malawi
#16
Charles F C Chirwa, Ralph P Hall, Leigh-Anne H Krometis, Eric A Vance, Adam Edwards, Ting Guan, Rochelle H Holm
Pit latrines can provide improved household sanitation, but without effective and inexpensive emptying options, they are often abandoned once full and may pose a public health threat. Emptying techniques can be difficult, as the sludge contents of each pit latrine are different. The design of effective emptying techniques (e.g., pumps) is limited by a lack of data characterizing typical in situ latrine sludge resistance. This investigation aimed to better understand the community education and technical engineering needs necessary to improve pit latrine management...
February 3, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164343/size-matters-point-pattern-analysis-biases-the-estimation-of-spatial-properties-of-stomata-distribution
#17
Paulette I Naulin, Gerardo Valenzuela, Sergio A Estay
Stomata distribution is an example of biological patterning. Formal methods used to study stomata patterning are generally based on point-pattern analysis, which assumes that stomata are points and ignores the constraints imposed by size on the placement of neighbors. The inclusion of size in the analysis requires the use of a null model based on finite-size object geometry. In this study, we compare the results obtained by analyzing samples from several species using point and disc null models. The results show that depending on the null model used, there was a 20% reduction in the number of samples classified as uniform; these results suggest that stomata patterning is not as general as currently reported...
March 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164097/has-the-time-come-to-abandon-chloride-rich-resuscitation-fluids
#18
COMMENT
Michael Heung, Lenar Yessayan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Annals of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163353/can-we-be-certain-about-future-land-use-change-in-europe-a-multi-scenario-integrated-assessment-analysis
#19
I P Holman, C Brown, V Janes, D Sandars
The global land system is facing unprecedented pressures from growing human populations and climatic change. Understanding the effects these pressures may have is necessary to designing land management strategies that ensure food security, ecosystem service provision and successful climate mitigation and adaptation. However, the number of complex, interacting effects involved makes any complete understanding very difficult to achieve. Nevertheless, the recent development of integrated modelling frameworks allows for the exploration of the co-development of human and natural systems under scenarios of global change, potentially illuminating the main drivers and processes in future land system change...
February 2017: Agricultural Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163211/strategies-for-improving-the-payload-of-small-molecular-drugs-in-polymeric-micelles
#20
Yu Zhang, Tianyang Ren, Jingxin Gou, Ling Zhang, Xiaoguang Tao, Bin Tian, Pengqian Tian, Dandan Yu, Jianbo Song, Xiaolin Liu, Yanhui Chao, Wei Xiao, Xing Tang
In the past few years, substantial efforts have been made in the design and preparation of polymeric micelles as novel drug delivery vehicles. Typically, polymeric micelles possess a spherical core-shell structure, with a hydrophobic core and a hydrophilic shell. Consequently, poorly water-soluble drugs can be effectively solubilized within the hydrophobic core, which can significantly boost their drug loading in aqueous media. This leads to new opportunities for some bioactive compounds that have previously been abandoned due to their low aqueous solubility...
February 3, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
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