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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446005/cardioprotective-effects-of-wharton-jelly-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cell-transplantation-in-a-rodent-model-of-myocardial-injury
#1
Taghrid Gaafar, Wael Attia, Shereen Mahmoud, Dina Sabry, Osama Abdel Aziz, Dina Rasheed, Hala Hamza
Background: Whartons jelly-derived mesenchymal stem cells are a valuable alternative source that possess multipotent properties, easy to obtain and available in large scale compared to BMMSCs. We investigated the possibility of cardiac function improvement post isoproterenol induced cardiac injury in a rat model following human WJMSCs transplantation. Materials and Methods: MSCs were extracted and cultured from cord WJ, characterized by morphology, Immunophenotyping and differentiation to osteoblast and adipocytes...
April 30, 2017: International Journal of Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445940/suppression-of-allograft-rejection-by-cd8-cd122-pd-1-tregs-is-dictated-by-their-fas-ligand-initiated-killing-of-effector-t-cells-versus-fas-mediated-own-apoptosis
#2
Huazhen Liu, Yeshu Wang, Qiaohuang Zeng, Yu-Qun Zeng, Chun-Ling Liang, Feifei Qiu, Hong Nie, Zhenhua Dai
Mounting evidence has shown that naturally occurring CD8+CD122+ T cells are regulatory T cells (Tregs) that suppress both autoimmunity and alloimmunity. We have previously shown that CD8+CD122+PD-1+ Tregs not only suppress allograft rejection, but also are more potent in suppression than conventional CD4+CD25+ Tregs. However, the mechanisms underlying their suppression of alloimmunity are not well understood. In an adoptive T-cell transfer model of mice lacking lymphocytes, we found that suppression of skin allograft rejection by CD8+CD122+PD-1+ Tregs was mostly dependent on their expression of Fas ligand as either lacking Fas ligand or blocking it with antibodies largely abolished their suppression of allograft rejection mediated by transferred T cells...
April 11, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445885/patterns-of-microglial-cell-activation-in-alzheimer-disease-and-frontotemporal-lobar-degeneration
#3
Ricardo Taipa, Paulo Brochado, Andrew Robinson, Inês Reis, Patrício Costa, David M Mann, Manuel Melo Pires, Nuno Sousa
AIMS: Microglia-driven neuroinflammation can play an important role in the pathophysiology of neurodegenerative disorders. In this study, we sought to characterize the distribution of microglial cell activation in 2 neurodegenerative dementias with distinct protein signatures, Alzheimer disease (AD) and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) of the TDP subtype, and to determine if there was an anatomical correlation with the phenotypes most commonly associated with these conditions...
April 27, 2017: Neuro-degenerative Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445879/cytokine-and-chemokine-profiles-in-patients-with-neuromyelitis-optica-spectrum-disorder
#4
Yuge Wang, Yifan Zhou, Xiaobo Sun, Tingting Lu, Lei Wei, Ling Fang, Chen Chen, Qiao Huang, Xueqiang Hu, Zhengqi Lu, Lisheng Peng, Wei Qiu
OBJECTIVE: To screen cytokines and chemokines and determine their dynamic changes in the serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD). METHODS: Eight NMOSD with seropositive aquaporin-4 antibody (AQP4-IgG) were enrolled, as well as 8 matched patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and 8 with noninflammatory neurological diseases, who were included as controls. In total, 102 cytokines and 34 chemokines were detected in the CSF and serum of NMOSD patients and controls...
April 27, 2017: Neuroimmunomodulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445693/high-content-analysis-screening-for-cell-cycle-regulators-using-arrayed-synthetic-crrna-libraries
#5
Žaklina Strezoska, Matthew R Perkett, Eldon T Chou, Elena Maksimova, Emily M Anderson, Shawn McClelland, Melissa L Kelley, Annaleen Vermeulen, Anja van Brabant Smith
The CRISPR-Cas9 system has been utilized for large-scale, loss-of-function screens mainly using lentiviral pooled formats and cell-survival phenotypic assays. Screening in an arrayed format expands the types of phenotypic readouts that can be used to now include high-content, morphology-based assays, and with the recent availability of synthetic crRNA libraries, new studies are emerging. Here, we use a cell cycle reporter cell line to perform an arrayed, synthetic crRNA:tracrRNA screen targeting 169 genes (> 600 crRNAs) and used high content analysis (HCA) to identify genes that regulate the cell cycle...
April 23, 2017: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445628/characterization-of-four-latin-american-families-confirms-previous-findings-and-reveals-novel-features-of-acid-labile-subunit-als-deficiency
#6
Paula A Scaglia, Ana C Keselman, Débora Braslavsky, Lucía C Martucci, Liliana M Karabatas, Sabina Domené, Mariana L Gutiérrez, María G Ballerini, María G Ropelato, Angela Spinola-Castro, Adriana A Siviero-Miachon, Juliana Saito Tartuci, Sol Rodríguez Azrak, Rodolfo A Rey, Héctor G Jasper, Ignacio Bergadá, Horacio M Domené
OBJECTIVE: ALS deficiency (ACLSD), caused by inactivating mutations in both IGFALS gene alleles, is characterized by marked reduction of IGF-I and IGFBP-3 levels associated to mild growth retardation. The aim of this study was to expand the known phenotype and genetic characteristics of ACLSD by reporting data from four index cases and their families. DESIGN: Auxological data, biochemical and genetic studies were performed in four children diagnosed with ACLSD and all available relatives...
April 26, 2017: Clinical Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445466/human-pluripotent-stem-cells-recurrently-acquire-and-expand-dominant-negative-p53-mutations
#7
Florian T Merkle, Sulagna Ghosh, Nolan Kamitaki, Jana Mitchell, Yishai Avior, Curtis Mello, Seva Kashin, Shila Mekhoubad, Dusko Ilic, Maura Charlton, Genevieve Saphier, Robert E Handsaker, Giulio Genovese, Shiran Bar, Nissim Benvenisty, Steven A McCarroll, Kevin Eggan
Human pluripotent stem cells (hPS cells) can self-renew indefinitely, making them an attractive source for regenerative therapies. This expansion potential has been linked with the acquisition of large copy number variants that provide mutated cells with a growth advantage in culture. The nature, extent and functional effects of other acquired genome sequence mutations in cultured hPS cells are not known. Here we sequence the protein-coding genes (exomes) of 140 independent human embryonic stem cell (hES cell) lines, including 26 lines prepared for potential clinical use...
April 26, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445464/burgess-shale-fossils-illustrate-the-origin-of-the-mandibulate-body-plan
#8
Cédric Aria, Jean-Bernard Caron
Retracing the evolutionary history of arthropods has been one of the greatest challenges in biology. During the past decade, phylogenetic analyses of morphological and molecular data have coalesced towards the conclusion that Mandibulata, the most diverse and abundant group of animals, is a distinct clade from Chelicerata, in that its members possess post-oral head appendages specialized for food processing, notably the mandible. The origin of the mandibulate body plan, however, which encompasses myriapods, crustaceans and hexapods, has remained poorly documented...
April 26, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445460/polyglutamine-tracts-regulate-beclin-1-dependent-autophagy
#9
Avraham Ashkenazi, Carla F Bento, Thomas Ricketts, Mariella Vicinanza, Farah Siddiqi, Mariana Pavel, Ferdinando Squitieri, Maarten C Hardenberg, Sara Imarisio, Fiona M Menzies, David C Rubinsztein
Nine neurodegenerative diseases are caused by expanded polyglutamine (polyQ) tracts in different proteins, such as huntingtin in Huntington's disease and ataxin 3 in spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 (SCA3). Age at onset of disease decreases with increasing polyglutamine length in these proteins and the normal length also varies. PolyQ expansions drive pathogenesis in these diseases, as isolated polyQ tracts are toxic, and an N-terminal huntingtin fragment comprising exon 1, which occurs in vivo as a result of alternative splicing, causes toxicity...
April 26, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445373/auricular-reconstruction-in-hemifacial-microsomia-with-an-expanded-two-flap-method
#10
Jin Qian, Zhibin Li, Tun Liu, Xu Zhou, Qingguo Zhang
BACKGROUND: Reconstruction of external ear is important for the child/adult with craniofacial deformities to achieve balance and harmony of the face and head. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical application of an expanded two-flap method for auricular reconstruction in hemifacial microsomia. METHODS: Between January of 2014 and November of 2015, 111 hemifacial microsomia patients with microtia underwent auricular reconstruction with an expanded two-flap method...
May 2017: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445350/shaped-versus-round-implants-in-breast-reconstruction-a-multi-institutional-comparison-of-surgical-and-patient-reported-outcomes
#11
Nima Khavanin, Mark W Clemens, Andrea L Pusic, Neil A Fine, Jennifer B Hamill, H Myra Kim, Ji Qi, Edwin G Wilkins, John Y S Kim
BACKGROUND: Since the 2012 approval of shaped implants, their use in breast reconstruction has increased in the United States. However, large-scale comparisons of complications and patient-reported outcomes are lacking. The authors endeavored to compare surgical and patient-reported outcomes across implant types. METHODS: The Mastectomy Reconstruction Outcomes Consortium database was queried for expander/implant reconstructions with at least 1-year postexchange follow-up (mean, 18...
May 2017: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445280/clinical-outcome-after-endoscopic-submucosal-dissection-for-early-gastric-cancer-of-absolute-and-expanded-indication
#12
Ju Seok Kim, Sun Hyung Kang, Hee Seok Moon, Eaum Seok Lee, Seok Hyun Kim, Jae Kyu Sung, Byung Seok Lee, Hyun Yong Jeong
This study evaluated the clinical outcome of endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) in minute submucosa (SM) invasion or undifferentiated early gastric cancer (EGC) and analyzed factors related to local recurrence after ESD.We retrospectively reviewed the chart of EGC patients, who underwent ESD at our tertiary hospital between January 2009 and 2015. The patients' characteristics and clinical outcomes were compared among an absolute indication, minute SM invasion, and undifferentiated EGC group.Of 885 total patients, 729 composed the absolute indication group; 65, the differentiated, SM invasion group; and 51, the undifferentiated, confined mucosa group...
April 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445220/catalyzing-interdisciplinary-research-and-training-initial-outcomes-and-evolution-of-the-affinity-research-collaboratives-model
#13
Katya Ravid, Francesca Seta, David Center, Gloria Waters, David Coleman
Team science has been recognized as critical to solving increasingly complex biomedical problems and advancing discoveries in the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of human disease. In 2009, the Evans Center for Interdisciplinary Biomedical Research (ECIBR) was established in the Department of Medicine at Boston University School of Medicine as a new organizational paradigm to promote interdisciplinary team science. The ECIBR is made up of affinity research collaboratives (ARCs), consisting of investigators from different departments and disciplines who come together to study biomedical problems that are relevant to human disease and not under interdisciplinary investigation at the university...
April 25, 2017: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445084/brain-atrophy-15-years-after-cis-baseline-and-follow-up-clinico-radiological-correlations
#14
Angela Vidal-Jordana, Jaume Sastre-Garriga, Deborah Pareto, Carmen Tur, Georgina Arrambide, Susana Otero-Romero, Elena Huerga, Raquel Mitjana, Cristina Auger, Mar Tintoré, Alex Rovira, Xavier Montalban
BACKGROUND: Brain atrophy in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients is present since the very early stages of the disease and it has been related to long-term disability. OBJECTIVE: To estimate brain volume (BV) at 15 years after a clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) and to evaluate its relationship with disease outcomes. METHODS: From a prospective cohort including patients presenting with a CIS, 54 patients with a brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) performed 15 years after CIS were included...
April 1, 2017: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445083/fatigue-and-physical-functioning-in-children-with-multiple-sclerosis-and-acute-disseminated-encephalomyelitis
#15
Leontien Cc Toussaint-Duyster, Yu Yi M Wong, Monique Hm Van der Cammen-van Zijp, Daniëlle Van Pelt-Gravesteijn, Coriene E Catsman-Berrevoets, Rogier Q Hintzen, Rinze F Neuteboom
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Fatigue and physical impairments are a major concern in children with multiple sclerosis (MS) and after acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (post-ADEM). We here aimed to evaluate the interaction between fatigue, exercise capacity, motor performance, neurological status, and quality of life (HRQoL). METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, data of 38 children (MS n = 22, post-ADEM n = 16), aged 4-17 years attending our national pediatric MS center, were studied...
April 1, 2017: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444987/platelet-count-spleen-length-and-platelet-count-to-spleen-length-ratio-for-the-diagnosis-of-oesophageal-varices-in-people-with-chronic-liver-disease-or-portal-vein-thrombosis
#16
REVIEW
Agostino Colli, Juan Cristóbal Gana, Jason Yap, Thomasin Adams-Webber, Natalie Rashkovan, Simon C Ling, Giovanni Casazza
BACKGROUND: Current guidelines recommend screening of people with oesophageal varices via oesophago-gastro-duodenoscopy at the time of diagnosis of hepatic cirrhosis. This requires that people repeatedly undergo unpleasant invasive procedures with their attendant risks, although half of these people have no identifiable oesophageal varices 10 years after the initial diagnosis of cirrhosis. Platelet count, spleen length, and platelet count-to-spleen length ratio are non-invasive tests proposed as triage tests for the diagnosis of oesophageal varices...
April 26, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444906/carbamoyl-phosphate-synthetase-1-deficiency-diagnosed-by-whole-exome-sequencing
#17
Guoqing Zhang, Yulin Chen, Huiqun Ju, Fei Bei, Jing Li, Jian Wang, Jianhua Sun, Jun Bu
BACKGROUND: Carbamoyl Phosphate Synthetase 1 deficiency (CPS1D) is a rare autosomal recessive inborn metabolic disease characterized mainly by hyperammonemia. The fatal nature of CPS1D and its similar symptoms with other urea cycle disorders (UCDs) make its diagnosis difficult, and the molecular diagnosis is hindered due to the large size of the causative gene CPS1. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to investigate the clinical applicability of exome sequencing in molecular diagnosis of CPS1D in Chinese population...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444889/invasive-fungal-infections-in-paediatric-patients-treated-with-macromolecular-immunomodulators-other-than-tumour-necrosis-alpha-inhibitors
#18
REVIEW
Ioannis Kyriakidis, Athanasios Tragiannidis, Ilse Zündorf, Andreas H Groll
An expanding list of immunomodulatory or immunosuppressive monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and biologic therapeutics is currently entering clinical practice, particularly in the areas of oncology, transplantation and autoimmune disorders. These agents are directed against molecules or cells involved in inflammation and immunity and may therefore be associated with serious and opportunistic infections. The purpose of this review was to critically analyse the literature on invasive fungal infections (IFIs) occurring in association with mAbs and fusion proteins other than tumour necrosis alpha (TNF-α) inhibitors, including therapeutics modulating T-cell-mediated pathologies (muromonab, abatacept, belatacept, ipilimumab, basiliximab, daclizumab), inducing lymphopenia (alemtuzumab), depleting CD20+ B cells (rituximab) and interfering with various targets (anakinra, natalizumab, blodalumab, ixekizumab and others) with a focus on children, and to provide a framework of evaluating the risk for IFIs in this population...
April 26, 2017: Mycoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444784/earlier-defibrotide-initiation-post-diagnosis-of-veno-occlusive-disease-sinusoidal-obstruction-syndrome-improves-day-100-survival-following-haematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation
#19
Paul G Richardson, Angela R Smith, Brandon M Triplett, Nancy A Kernan, Stephan A Grupp, Joseph H Antin, Leslie Lehmann, Maja Miloslavsky, Robin Hume, Alison L Hannah, Bijan Nejadnik, Robert J Soiffer
Hepatic veno-occlusive disease/sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (VOD/SOS) is a progressive, potentially fatal complication of conditioning for haematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT). The VOD/SOS pathophysiological cascade involves endothelial-cell activation and damage, and a prothrombotic-hypofibrinolytic state. Severe VOD/SOS (typically characterized by multi-organ dysfunction) may be associated with >80% mortality. Defibrotide is approved for treating severe hepatic VOD/SOS post-HSCT in the European Union, and for hepatic VOD/SOS with renal or pulmonary dysfunction post-HSCT in the United States...
April 26, 2017: British Journal of Haematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444764/prospective-unbiased-experience-with-three-acellular-dermal-matrices-in-breast-reconstruction
#20
Edward I Chang, Jun Liu
BACKGROUND: The use of acellular dermal matrix (ADM) has become the standard of care in breast reconstruction. However, the majority of current studies are biased or combine large databases introducing inherent flaws. Here, we present a prospective single surgeon experience comparing three ADM. METHODS: All expander based breast reconstructions between 2014 and 2015 using ADM were included. RESULTS: Eighteen patients (32 breasts) underwent reconstruction using Flex Pliable, 15 patients (22 breasts) used Alloderm, and 14 patients (20 breasts) had Dermacell...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Surgical Oncology
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