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Pauline Funchain, Ahmad A Tarhini
Rapidly advancing genomic sequencing technologies are changing all areas of cancer, from diagnosis to surveillance, and prognostication to treatment. The role of genomic testing in melanoma is expanding, and multiple genomically based tests are available, including somatic tumor sequencing for actionable genetic alterations and tumor mutational burden, prognostic gene expression profiling from tumor tissue, and germline genetic testing from blood. The available testing options have varying levels of supporting data, from robust to preliminary...
March 15, 2018: Oncology (Williston Park, NY)
Antonella Sferra, Fabiana Fattori, Teresa Rizza, Elsabetta Flex, Emanuele Bellacchio, Alessandro Bruselles, Stefania Petrini, Serena Cecchetti, Massimo Teson, Fabrizia Restaldi, Andrea Ciolfi, Filippo M Santorelli, Ginevra Zanni, Sabina Barresi, Claudia Castiglioni, Marco Tartaglia, Enrico Bertini
Microtubules participate in fundamental cellular processes, including chromosomal segregation and cell division, migration, and intracellular trafficking. Their proper function is required for correct central nervous system development and operative preservation, and mutations in genes coding tubulins, the constituting units of microtubules, underlie a family of neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative diseases, collectively known as "tubulinopathies", characterized by a wide range of neuronal defects resulting from defective proliferation, migration, and function...
March 14, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
Gualtiero Alvisi, Marta Trevisan, Giulia Masi, Vanessa Canel, Luciana Caenazzo, Patrizia Nespeca, Luisa Barzon, Enzo Di Iorio, Vanessa Barbaro, Giorgio Palù
Human oral mucosa epithelial stem cells (hOMESCs) were obtained from a fresh oral biopsy collected from a healthy subject at the Fondazione Banca degli Occhi del Veneto (FBOV). An integration-free reprogramming protocol was applied exploiting episomal plasmids transfected into cells using a Nucleofector device. Around day 20 post transfection, several human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC) colonies were manually picked and expanded. One of these (UNIPDi001-A-hiPSCs) expressed undifferentiated state marker alkaline phosphatase along with a panel of pluripotency state markers and was able to differentiate into the derivatives of all the three germ layers...
February 18, 2018: Stem Cell Research
Sofía I Deperi, Martín E Tagliotti, M Cecilia Bedogni, Norma C Manrique-Carpintero, Joseph Coombs, Ruofang Zhang, David Douches, Marcelo A Huarte
The reported narrow genetic base of cultivated potato (Solanum tuberosum) can be expanded by the introgression of many related species with large genetic diversity. The analysis of the genetic structure of a potato population is important to broaden the genetic base of breeding programs by the identification of different genetic pools. A panel composed by 231 diverse genotypes was characterized using single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers of the Illumina Infinium Potato SNP Array V2 to identify population structure and assess genetic diversity using discriminant analysis of principal components (DAPC) and pedigree analysis...
2018: PloS One
Rita Turnaturi, Carmela Parenti, Orazio Prezzavento, Agostino Marrazzo, Paschalina Pallaki, Zafiroula Georgoussi, Emanuele Amata, Lorella Pasquinucci
The opioid pharmacological profile of cis -(-)- N -normetazocine derivatives is deeply affected by the nature of their N -substituents. Here, our efforts were focused on the synthesis and pharmacological evaluation of novel derivatives of the lead LP1, a multitarget opioid analgesic compound featuring an N -phenylpropanamido substituent. LP1 derivatives 5a - d and 6a - d were characterized by flexible groups at the N -substituent that allow them to reposition themselves relative to cis -(-)- N -normetazocine nucleus, thus producing different pharmacological profiles at the mu, delta and kappa opioid receptors (MOR, DOR and KOR) in in vitro and in vivo assays...
March 16, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Curtis Harris, Kelli McCarthy, E Liang Liu, Kelly Klein, Raymond Swienton, Parker Prins, Tawny Waltz
2017 was a record year for disasters and disaster response in the U.S. Redefining and differentiating key response roles like "immediate responders" and "first responders" is critical. Traditional first responders are not and cannot remain the only cadre of expected lifesavers following a mass casualty event. The authors argue that the U.S. needs to expand its understanding of response roles to include that of the immediate responders, or those individuals who find themselves at the incident scene and are able to assist others...
March 16, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Julia J Mack, M Luisa Iruela-Arispe
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The formation of a hierarchical vascular network is a complex process that requires precise temporal and spatial integration of several signaling pathways. Amongst those, Notch has emerged as a key regulator of multiple steps that expand from endothelial sprouting to arterial specification and remains relevant in the adult. This review aims to summarize major concepts and rising hypotheses on the role of Notch signaling in the endothelium. RECENT FINDINGS: A wealth of new information has helped to clarify how Notch signaling cooperates with other pathways to orchestrate vascular morphogenesis, branching, and function...
March 14, 2018: Current Opinion in Hematology
Gary J Hausman
Adipose tissue exists in many locations or depots that differ from one another based on numerous and various characteristics. The unique "layered" anatomical feature of subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) in man and the pig is reviewed and discussed. The origin of fetal pig adipose tissue subcutaneous layers is reviewed before the onset of adipogenesis and after the overt adipogenesis. Furthermore, the distinguishing characteristics of developing outer SAT layer (OSQ) and middle SAT layer (MSQ) in pigs are reviewed...
March 16, 2018: Hormone Molecular Biology and Clinical Investigation
Yizhi Zhuo, Verner Håkonsen, Zhiwei He, Senbo Xiao, Jianying He, Zhiliang Zhang
Ice accretion presents a severe risk for human safety. Despite great efforts for developing icephobic surfaces (the surface with an ice adhesion strength below 100 kPa) have been devoted, expanding the lifetime of state-of-the-art icephobic surfaces still remains as a critical unsolved issue. Herein, a novel icephobic material is designed by integrating interpenetrating polymer network (IPN) into autonomous self-healing elastomer, and applied in anti-icing for enhancing mechanical durability. The molecular structure, surface morphology, mechanical properties and durable icephobicity of the material were studied...
March 16, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
James Hope, Frederique Vanholsbeeck, A J McDaid
In neural interfaces for peripheral nerve a trade-off exists between the level of invasiveness and the selectivity of neural recordings. In this study, we implement electrical impedance tomography (EIT) in a nerve cuff with the aim to investigate the achievable level of selectivity.
 Approach: Established modelling approaches in neural-EIT are expanded on to be used, for the first time, on myelinated fibres which are abundant in mammalian peripheral nerves and transmit motor commands. The model is then used to evaluate the viability of using EIT with a nerve cuff to record neural activity in peripheral nerves...
March 16, 2018: Physiological Measurement
Seiji Obata, Minoru Sato, Keishi Akada, Koichiro Saiki
A high throughput synthesis method of graphene has been required for a long time to apply graphene to industrial applications. Of the various synthesis methods, the chemical exfoliation of graphite via graphene oxide (GO) is advantageous as far as productivity is concerned; however, the quality of the graphene produced by this method is far inferior to that synthesized by other methods, such as chemical vapor deposition on metals. Developing an effective reduction and restoration method for GO on dielectric substrates has been therefore a key issue...
March 16, 2018: Nanotechnology
Neel H Shah, Mark Löbel, Arthur Weiss, John Kuriyan
The specificity of tyrosine kinases is predominantly attributed to localization effects dictated by non-catalytic domains. We developed a method to profile the specificities of tyrosine kinases by combining bacterial surface-display of peptide libraries with next-generation sequencing. Using this, we showed that the tyrosine kinase ZAP-70, which is critical for T cell signaling, discriminates substrates through an electrostatic selection mechanism encoded within its catalytic domain (Shah et al. 2016). Here, we expand this high-throughput platform to analyze the intrinsic specificity of any tyrosine kinase domain against thousands of peptides derived from human tyrosine phosphorylation sites...
March 16, 2018: ELife
Manuela Gander, Diana Diamond, Anna Buchheim, Kathrin Sevecke
Forced displacements and their psychosocial consequences in adolescent refugees and their families have received increasing attention in recent years. Although supportive family relations play a key role in buffering the impact of traumatization in adolescents, parental ability to provide such is often subject to extreme pressure. Under conditions of forced dislocation and fear, maladaptive interpersonal strategies in the parent-child relationships may develop, contributing to the onset of psychopathology. We explore new aspects of attachment-related issues for the understanding and treatment of adolescent refugees who have experienced multiple traumas in their childhood...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Trauma & Dissociation
Ana Abreu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 1, 2018: European Journal of Preventive Cardiology
Yves Lacasse, Ai-Yui M Tan, François Maltais, Jerry A Krishnan
Two landmark trials conducted more than 35 years ago provided scientific evidence that, under very specific circumstances, long-term oxygen therapy (LTOT) may prolong life. These two trials enrolled 290 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and severe daytime hypoxemia documented by direct arterial blood gas measurement. From this moment, LTOT became a standard of care and the indications for oxygen therapy have expanded to include nocturnal oxygen therapy for isolated nocturnal oxygen desaturation, ambulatory oxygen to correct exercise-induced desaturation, and short-burst oxygen to relieve dyspnea...
March 16, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Gaganpreet Kaur, Amanpreet Singh, Ajnesh Singh, Navneet Kaur, Narinder Singh
The unregulated use of organophosphates (OPs) as pesticides and toxic chemical warfare agents demands their continuous monitoring from a human health perspective. This study describes a fluorescence turn-on sensing assay for the selective quantification of OPs in aqueous medium. Metal complexes of two different Biginelli derivatives were processed in water through a reprecipitation technique. The engineered self-assembly of the pyridyl-2-cobalt complex (L1·Co(II)) was employed to selectively detect malathion while the pyridyl-4-cobalt complex (L2·Co(II)) could estimate azamethiphos fluorimetrically up to a detection limit of 9...
March 16, 2018: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Michael B Ranke, Jan M Wit
Growth hormone (GH) research and its clinical application for the treatment of growth disorders span more than a century. During the first half of the 20th century, clinical observations and anatomical and biochemical studies formed the basis of the understanding of the structure of GH and its various metabolic effects in animals. The following period (1958-1985), during which pituitary-derived human GH was used, generated a wealth of information on the regulation and physiological role of GH - in conjunction with insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) - and its use in children with GH deficiency (GHD)...
March 16, 2018: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
Dongni Wu, Shuangying Zhang, Yuyuan Zhao, Ningjian Ao, Seeram Ramakrishna, Liumin He
RADA16-I (Ac-(RADA)4 -CONH2 ) is a widely investigated self-assembling peptide (SAP) in the biomedical field. It can undergo ordered self-assembly to form stable secondary structures, thereby further forming a nanofiber hydrogel. The modification of RADA16-I with functional peptide motifs has become a popular research topic. Researchers aim to exhibit particular biomedical signaling, and subsequently, further expand its applications. However, only a few fundamental reports are available on the influences of the peptide motifs on self-assembly mechanisms of designer functional RADA16-I SAPs...
March 16, 2018: Biomedical Materials
Christine D Plant, Giles W Plant
Schwann cells are the primary inducers of regeneration of the peripheral nervous system. Schwann cells can be isolated from adult peripheral nerves, expanded in large numbers, and genetically transduced by viral vectors in vitro prior to their use in vivo. Here we describe how to use lentiviral vectors to transduce primary Schwann cells in vitro. We also describe how cultured Schwann cells can be used in conjunction with decellularized peripheral nerve sheaths prepared by multiple freeze thawing of peripheral nerve tissue...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Tamara Weiss, Sabine Taschner-Mandl, Peter F Ambros, Inge M Ambros
This chapter emphasizes detailed protocols for the effective establishment of highly enriched human Schwann cell cultures and their characterization via immunostaining. The Schwann cells are isolated from immediately dissociated fascicle tissue and expanded prior to purification. Two purification methods are described that use either fluorescence-activated cell sorting for the Schwann cell marker TNR16 (p75NTR ) or a less-manipulative two-step enrichment exploiting the differential adhesion properties of Schwann cells and fibroblasts, which is especially useful for low Schwann cell numbers...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
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