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Gene expression in crps

Marguerite K McDonald, Sujay Ramanathan, Andrew Touati, Yiqian Zhou, Rushi U Thanawala, Guillermo M Alexander, Ahmet Sacan, Seena K Ajit
Circulating microRNAs are beneficial biomarkers because of their stability and dysregulation in diseases. Here we sought to determine the role of miR-939, a miRNA downregulated in patients with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS). Hsa-miR-939 is predicted to target several proinflammatory genes, including IL-6, VEGFA, TNFα, NFκB2, and nitric oxide synthase 2 (NOS2A). Binding of miR-939 to the 3' untranslated region of these genes was confirmed by reporter assay. Overexpression of miR-939 in vitro resulted in reduction of IL-6, NOS2A and NFκB2 mRNAs, IL-6, VEGFA, and NOS2 proteins and NFκB activation...
2016: Scientific Reports
Ling Zhang, Xin Wang, Jinglu Zou, Yingxun Liu, Jinke Wang
The dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) was widely used to coat iron oxide nanoparticles (FeNPs); however, its intracellular cytotoxicity remains to be adequately elucidated. This study analyzed the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in four mammalian cells treated by a DMSA-coated magnetite FeNP at various doses at different times. The results revealed that about one-fourth of DEGs coded cysteine-rich proteins (CRPs) in all cells under each treatment, indicating that the nanoparticles greatly affected the expressions of CRP-coding genes...
October 19, 2015: Chemical Research in Toxicology
John J Orczyk, Rishabh Sethia, Dominique Doster, Preston E Garraghty
The effects of infraorbital nerve (ION) transection on gene expression in the adult male rat barrel cortex were investigated using RNA sequencing. After a 24-hour survival duration, 98 genes were differentially regulated by ION transection. Differentially expressed genes suggest changes in neuronal activity, excitability, and morphology. The production of mRNA for neurotrophins, including brain-derived neurotrophin factor (BNDF), was decreased following ION transection. Several potassium channels showed decreased mRNA production, whereas a sodium channel (Na(V)β4) associated with burst firing showed increased mRNA production...
January 1, 2016: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Matthew R Shenton, Hajime Ohyanagi, Zi-Xuan Wang, Atsushi Toyoda, Asao Fujiyama, Toshifumi Nagata, Qi Feng, Bin Han, Nori Kurata
Defensive and reproductive protein genes undergo rapid evolution. Small, cysteine-rich secreted peptides (CRPs) act as antimicrobial agents and function in plant intercellular signaling and are over-represented among reproductively expressed proteins. Because of their roles in defense, reproduction and development and their presence in multigene families, CRP variation can have major consequences for plant phenotypic and functional diversification. We surveyed the CRP genes of six closely related Oryza genomes comprising Oryza sativa ssp...
October 2015: Molecular Genetics and Genomics: MGG
Jun Zhang, Jintian Li, Zebo Huang, Bing Yang, Xiaojie Zhang, Dehua Li, David J Craik, Alan J M Baker, Wensheng Shu, Bin Liao
Cysteine (Cys)-rich proteins (CRPs) are frequently associated with plant defense and stress resistance. Viola baoshanensis is a cadmium (Cd) hyper-accumulating plant whose CRPs-based defense systems are so far poorly understood. Next generation sequencing (NGS) techniques and a specialist searching tool, CrpExcel, were employed for identifying CRPs in V. baoshanensis. The transcriptome sequences of V. baoshanensis were assembled primarily from 454FLX/Hiseq2000 reads of plant cDNA sequencing libraries. CrpExcel was then used to search the ORFs and 9687 CRPs were identified, and included zinc finger (ZF) proteins, lipid transfer proteins, thaumatins and cyclotide precursors...
April 15, 2015: Journal of Plant Physiology
Htin Lin Aung, Laura L Dixon, Laura J Smith, Nathan P Sweeney, Jennifer R Robson, Michael Berney, Roger S Buxton, Jeffrey Green, Gregory M Cook
Mycobacterium smegmatis is a fast-growing, saprophytic, mycobacterial species that contains two cAMP-receptor protein (CRP) homologues designated herein as Crp1 and Crp2. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that Crp1 (Msmeg_0539) is uniquely present in fast-growing environmental mycobacteria, whereas Crp2 (Msmeg_6189) occurs in both fast- and slow-growing species. A crp1 mutant of M. smegmatis was readily obtained, but crp2 could not be deleted, suggesting it was essential for growth. A total of 239 genes were differentially regulated in response to crp1 deletion (loss of function), including genes coding for mycobacterial energy generation, solute transport and catabolism of carbon sources...
March 2015: Microbiology
Ritu Sharma, Anisha Zaveri, Jayashree Gopalakrishnapai, Thiruneelakantan Srinath, Srinath Thiruneelakantan, Umesh Varshney, Sandhya S Visweswariah
The cyclic AMP receptor protein (CRP) family of transcription factors consists of global regulators of bacterial gene expression. Here, we identify two paralogous CRPs in the genome of Mycobacterium smegmatis that have 78% identical sequences and characterize them biochemically and functionally. The two proteins (MSMEG_0539 and MSMEG_6189) show differences in cAMP binding affinity, trypsin sensitivity, and binding to a CRP site that we have identified upstream of the msmeg_3781 gene. MSMEG_6189 binds to the CRP site readily in the absence of cAMP, while MSMEG_0539 binds in the presence of cAMP, albeit weakly...
December 16, 2014: Biochemistry
E S Drummond, L F Dawson, P M Finch, W Li, T-Z Guo, W S Kingery, P D Drummond
In certain forms of nerve injury and inflammation, noradrenaline augments pain via actions on up-regulated α1-adrenoceptors (α1-ARs). The aim of this study was to use immunohistochemistry to examine α1-AR expression on peripheral neurons, cutaneous blood vessels and keratinocytes after distal tibia fracture and cast immobilization, a model of complex regional pain syndrome type 1. We hypothesized that there would be increased α1-AR expression on neurons and keratinocytes in the injured limb in comparison to the contralateral unaffected limb after distal tibia fracture, in association with inflammatory changes and pain...
December 5, 2014: Neuroscience
Yuqing Xiong, Wenbin Mei, Eun-Deok Kim, Krishanu Mukherjee, Hatem Hassanein, William Brad Barbazuk, Sibum Sung, Bryan Kolaczkowski, Byung-Ho Kang
BACKGROUND: The Maternally expressed gene (Meg) family is a locally-duplicated gene family of maize which encodes cysteine-rich proteins (CRPs). The founding member of the family, Meg1, is required for normal development of the basal endosperm transfer cell layer (BETL) and is involved in the allocation of maternal nutrients to growing seeds. Despite the important roles of Meg1 in maize seed development, the evolutionary history of the Meg cluster and the activities of the duplicate genes are not understood...
2014: BMC Plant Biology
Fuzhou Wang, George B Stefano, Richard M Kream
Cumulating evidence indicated that nerve injury-associated cellular and molecular changes play an essential role in contributing to the development of pathological pain, and more recent findings implicated the critical role of epigenetic mechanisms in pain-related sensitization in the DRG subsequent to nerve injury. In this part of the dyad review (Part II), we reviewed and paid special attention on the etiological contribution of DGR gene expression modulated by epigenetic mechanisms of CRPS. As essential effectors to different molecular activation, we first discussed the activation of various signaling pathways that subsequently from nerve injury, and in further illustrated the fundamental and functional underpinnings of nerve injury-induced pain, in which we argued for the potential epigenetic mechanisms in response to sensitizing stimuli or injury...
2014: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Hideyuki Ota, Tetsuya Arai, Katsuyuki Iwatsuki, Hideki Urano, Toshikazu Kurahashi, Shuichi Kato, Michiro Yamamoto, Hitoshi Hirata
Patients with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) often complain of abnormal sensations beyond the affected body part, but causes of this spread of musculoskeletal manifestations into contiguous areas remain unclear. In addition, immobilization can predispose to the development of CRPS. We examined functional, biochemical, and histological alterations in affected parts, including contiguous zones, using an animal model. Ten-week-old male Wistar rats were assigned to 5 groups: a normal group receiving no treatment, a sham operation group with surgical exploration, an immobilization group with surgical exploration plus internal knee joint immobilization, a surgical neuropathy group prepared by spinal nerve ligation (SNL) of the left L5 nerve root, and a surgical neuropathy+immobilization group with simultaneous SNL and knee joint immobilization...
October 2014: Pain
Fuzhou Wang, George B Stefano, Richard M Kream
DRG is of importance in relaying painful stimulation to the higher pain centers and therefore could be a crucial target for early intervention aimed at suppressing primary afferent stimulation. Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a common pain condition with an unknown etiology. Recently added new information enriches our understanding of CRPS pathophysiology. Researches on genetics, biogenic amines, neurotransmitters, and mechanisms of pain modulation, central sensitization, and autonomic functions in CRPS revealed various abnormalities indicating that multiple factors and mechanisms are involved in the pathogenesis of CRPS...
June 25, 2014: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Mienke Rijsdijk, Albert J M van Wijck, Cornelis J Kalkman, Tony L Yaksh
Methylprednisolone acetate (MPA) has a long history of use in the treatment of sciatic pain and other neuropathic pain syndromes. In several of these syndromes, MPA is administered in the epidural space. On a limited basis, MPA has also been injected intrathecally in patients suffering from postherpetic neuralgia and complex regional pain syndrome. The reports on efficacy of intrathecal administration of MPA in neuropathic pain patients are contradictory, and safety is debated. In this review, we broadly consider mechanisms whereby glucocorticoids exert their action on spinal cascades relevant to the pain arising after nerve injury and inflammation...
May 2014: Anesthesia and Analgesia
Stefanie Sprunck, Thomas Hackenberg, Maria Englhart, Frank Vogler
During double fertilization in Arabidopsis thaliana, the egg cell secretes small cysteine-rich EC1 (egg cell 1) proteins, which enable the arriving sperm pair to rapidly interact with the two female gametes. EC1 proteins are members of the large and unexplored group of ECA1 (early culture abundant 1) gametogenesis-related family proteins, characterized by a prolamin-like domain with six conserved cysteine residues that may form three pairs of disulfide bonds. The distinguishing marks of egg-cell-expressed EC1 proteins are, however, two short amino acid sequence motifs present in all EC1-like proteins...
April 2014: Biochemical Society Transactions
Mario A Inchiosa
There is a relatively long history of the use of the α -adrenergic antagonist, phenoxybenzamine, for the treatment of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS). One form of this syndrome, CRPS I, was originally termed reflex sympathetic dystrophy (RSD) because of an apparent dysregulation of the sympathetic nervous system in the region of an extremity that had been subjected to an injury or surgical procedure. The syndrome develops in the absence of any apparent continuation of the inciting trauma. Hallmarks of the condition are allodynia (pain perceived from a nonpainful stimulus) and hyperalgesia (exaggerated pain response to a painful stimulus)...
2013: Anesthesiology Research and Practice
Lan He, Nurcan Uçeyler, Heidrun H Krämer, Maria Nandini Colaço, Bao Lu, Frank Birklein, Claudia Sommer
The pathophysiology of the complex regional pain syndrome involves enhanced neurogenic inflammation mediated by neuropeptides. Neutral endopeptidase (neprilysin, NEP) is a key enzyme in neuropeptide catabolism. Our previous work revealed that NEP knock out (ko) mice develop more severe hypersensitivity to thermal and mechanical stimuli after chronic constriction injury (CCI) of the sciatic nerve than wild-type (wt) mice. Because treatment with glucocorticoids is effective in early complex regional pain syndrome, we investigated whether methylprednisolone (MP) reduces pain and sciatic nerve neuropeptide content in NEP ko and wt mice with nerve injury...
March 2014: Pain
Eun-Heui Jin, Enji Zhang, Youngkwon Ko, Woo Seog Sim, Dong Eon Moon, Keon Jung Yoon, Jang Hee Hong, Won Hyung Lee
Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a chronic, progressive, and devastating pain syndrome characterized by spontaneous pain, hyperalgesia, allodynia, altered skin temperature, and motor dysfunction. Although previous gene expression profiling studies have been conducted in animal pain models, there genome-wide expression profiling in the whole blood of CRPS patients has not been reported yet. Here, we successfully identified certain pain-related genes through genome-wide expression profiling in the blood from CRPS patients...
2013: PloS One
Joseph J Gallagher, Maral Tajerian, Tianzhi Guo, Xiaoyou Shi, Wenwu Li, Ming Zheng, Gary Peltz, Wade S Kingery, J David Clark
BACKGROUND: CRPS is a painful, debilitating, and often-chronic condition characterized by various sensory, motor, and vascular disturbances. Despite many years of study, current treatments are limited by our understanding of the underlying mechanisms. Little is known on the molecular level concerning changes in gene expression supporting the nociceptive sensitization commonly observed in CRPS limbs, or how those changes might evolve over time. RESULTS: We used a well-characterized mouse tibial fracture/cast immobilization model of CRPS to study molecular, vascular and nociceptive changes...
2013: Molecular Pain
Wenwu Li, Xiaoyou Shi, Liping Wang, Tianzhi Guo, Tzuping Wei, Kejun Cheng, Kenner C Rice, Wade S Kingery, J David Clark
In many patients, the sympathetic nervous system supports pain and other features of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS). Accumulating evidence suggests that interleukin (IL)-6 also plays a role in CRPS, and that catecholamines stimulate production of IL-6 in several tissues. We hypothesized that norepinephrine acting through specific adrenergic receptors expressed on keratinocytes stimulates the production of IL-6 and leads to nociceptive sensitization in a rat tibial fracture/cast model of CRPS. Our approach involved catecholamine depletion using 6-hydroxydopamine or, alternatively, guanethidine, to explore sympathetic contributions...
August 2013: Pain
Alison Pepper, Wenwu Li, Wade S Kingery, Martin S Angst, Catherine M Curtin, J David Clark
UNLABELLED: The study of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) in humans is complicated by inhomogeneities in available study cohorts. We hoped to characterize early CRPS-like features in patients undergoing hand surgery. Forty-three patients were recruited from a hand surgery clinic that had elective surgeries followed by cast immobilization. On the day of cast removal, patients were assessed for vasomotor, sudomotor, and trophic changes, and edema and pain sensitization using quantitative sensory testing...
May 2013: Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society
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