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Dynamic stretching

Filipe Alves Neto Verri, Paulo Roberto Urio, Liang Zhao
The emergence of collective dynamics in neural networks is a mechanism of the animal and human brain for information processing. In this paper, we develop a computational technique using distributed processing elements in a complex network, which are called particles, to solve semisupervised learning problems. Three actions govern the particles' dynamics: generation, walking, and absorption. Labeled vertices generate new particles that compete against rival particles for edge domination. Active particles randomly walk in the network until they are absorbed by either a rival vertex or an edge currently dominated by rival particles...
November 29, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems
Priya Maheshwari, D Dutta, T Muthulakshmi, B Chakraborty, N Raje, P K Pujari
The desorption mechanism of water from the hydrophilic mesopores of MCM-41 was studied using positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS) and attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy supplemented with molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. PALS results indicated that water molecules do not undergo sequential evaporation in a simple layer-by-layer manner during desorption from MCM-41 mesopores. The results suggested that the water column inside the uniform cylindrical mesopore become stretched during desorption and induces cavitation (as seen in the case of ink-bottle type pores) inside it, keeping a dense water layer at the hydrophilic pore wall, as well as a water plug at both the open ends of the cylindrical pore, until the water was reduced to a certain volume fraction where the pore catastrophically empties...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
Ankun Yang, Alexander J Hryn, Marc R Bourgeois, Won-Kyu Lee, Jingtian Hu, George C Schatz, Teri W Odom
Plasmonic nanostructures with enhanced localized optical fields as well as narrow linewidths have driven advances in numerous applications. However, the active engineering of ultranarrow resonances across the visible regime-and within a single system-has not yet been demonstrated. This paper describes how aluminum nanoparticle arrays embedded in an elastomeric slab may exhibit high-quality resonances with linewidths as narrow as 3 nm at wavelengths not accessible by conventional plasmonic materials. We exploited stretching to improve and tune simultaneously the optical response of as-fabricated nanoparticle arrays by shifting the diffraction mode relative to single-particle dipolar or quadrupolar resonances...
November 28, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Arman Boromand, Safa Jamali, João M Maia
Core-Modified Dissipative Particle Dynamics (CM-DPD) with a modified depletion potential and full hydrodynamics description is used to study non-equilibrium properties of colloidal gels with short range attraction potentials at an intermediate volume fraction (ϕ = 0.2) under start-up shear deformation. Full structural and rheological analysis using the stress fabric tensor complemented by bond number and bond distribution evolution under flow reveals that similarly to dilute colloidal gels, flow-induced anisotropy and strain-induced stretching of bonds are present during the first yielding transition...
December 2, 2016: Soft Matter
Aishani Ghosal, Binny J Cherayil
In an extension of earlier studies from this group on the application of the Jarzynski equality to the determination of the elastic properties of a finitely extensible Rouse model of polymers under flow [A. Ghosal and B. J. Cherayil, J. Chem. Phys. 144, 214902 (2016)], we derive several new theoretical results in this paper on the nature of the distribution function P(w) that governs the long-time limit t>1 of the fluctuations in the work w performed by the polymer during flow-induced stretching. In particular, we show that an expression for the average of the nth power of the work, ⟨w(n)(t)⟩, can be obtained in closed form in this limit, making it possible to exactly calculate three important statistical measures of P(w): the mean μ, the skewness γ1, and the kurtosis γ2 (apart from the variance σ(2))...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Chemical Physics
Rita Sahyoun, Paolo Guidetti, Antonio Di Franco, Serge Planes
Patterns of connectivity and self-recruitment are recognized as key factors shaping the dynamics of marine populations. Connectivity is also essential for maintaining and restoring natural ecological processes with genetic diversity contributing to the adaptation and persistence of any species in the face of global disturbances. Estimates of connectivity are crucial to inform the design of both marine protected areas (MPAs) and MPA networks. Among several approaches, genetic structure is frequently used as a proxy for patterns of connectivity...
2016: PloS One
Montakarn Chaikumarn, Nuttika Nakphet, Prawit Janwantanakul
There is limited research on the effects of different types of rest-break interventions for VDU (Visual display Units) operators on neck and shoulder postures. This study examined the effect of rest-break interventions on the neck and shoulder postures of symptomatic VDU operators during prolonged computer work. Thirty subjects were randomly and equally assigned to breaks with stretching, breaks with dynamic movement, and passive breaks. Subjects performed the typing task for 60 min and received 3-min breaks after 20-min of work...
December 1, 2016: International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics: JOSE
Amri Hammami, James Zois, Maamer Slimani, Mark Russel, Ezdine Bouhlel
INTRODUCTION: This review aimed (i) to evaluate the current research that examines the efficacy of warm-up (WU) and re-warm-up (RWU) on physical performance, and (ii) to highlight the WU and RWU characteristics that optimise subsequent performance in soccer players. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: A computerized search was performed in the PubMed, ScienceDirect and Google Scholar (from 1995 to December 2015) for English-language, peer- reviewed investigations using the terms "soccer" OR "football" AND "warm-up" OR "stretching" OR "post-activation potentiation" OR "pre-activity" OR "re-warm-up" AND "performance" OR "jump" OR "sprint" OR "running"...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
Gauri Misra, Shipra Gupta, Neetu Jabalia
Platinum coordination compounds having cis geometry are frequently prescribed for various types of cancers. Protein dysregulation is one of the major factors contributing towards cancer metastasis. Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is one of the cancers where platinum-based compounds are used either alone or in combination with radiation as therapy. The underlying interactions of these compounds with both DNA and proteins are crucial for the drug response. The compounds forms DNA adducts which are recognized by conserved, non-chromosomal high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) proteins...
November 30, 2016: Interdisciplinary Sciences, Computational Life Sciences
Katsuhiko Takatori, Daisuke Matsumoto, Munenori Nishida, Shinnichiro Matsushita, Tatsuya Noda, Tomoaki Imamura
AIM: To investigate whether home-based exercise with the aim of preventing aspiration pneumonia and accidental falls improves swallowing-related and physical functions in community-dwelling frail older women. METHODS: Participants were 266 community-dwelling frail older women in a long-term care prevention class (mean (SD): age 75 (5) years). Participants were allocated to either an intervention group or a control group. In the intervention group, participants were asked to perform, at least three times a week for 6 months, a home-based exercise programme that was specifically developed to prevent aspiration pneumonia and accidental falls...
2016: BMJ Open Sport & Exercise Medicine
Takamasa Mizuno
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of varying amounts of dynamic stretching (DS) on joint range of motion (ROM) and stiffness of the muscle-tendon unit (MTU). Fifteen healthy participants participated in four randomly ordered experimental trials, which involved one (DS1), four (DS4) and seven (DS7) sets of DS, or control conditions/seated at rest (CON). Each DS set consisted of 15 repetitions of an ankle dorsiflexion-plantarflexion movement. The displacement of the muscle-tendon junction (MTJ) was measured using ultrasonography while the ankle was passively dorsiflexed at 0...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Sports Sciences
Alice Kunin, Wei-Li Li, Daniel M Neumark
Femtosecond time-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy is used to probe the decay channels of iodide-nitromethane (I(-)·CH3NO2) binary clusters photoexcited at 3.56 eV, near the vertical detachment energy (VDE) of the cluster. The production of I(-) is observed, and its photoelectron signal exhibits a mono-exponential rise time of 21 ± 1 ps. Previous work has shown that excitation near the VDE of the I(-)·CH3NO2 complex transfers an electron from iodide to form a dipole-bound state of CH3NO2(-) that rapidly converts to a valence bound (VB) anion...
November 28, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Praskoviya Boltovets, Svitlana Shinkaruk, Luc Vellutini, Borys Snopok
This study reports the operation principles for reusable SPR biosensors utilizing nanoscale-specific electrostatic levitation phenomena in their sensitive layer design. Functional macromolecular building blocks localized near the "charged" surface by a variety of weak electrostatic interactions create a flexible and structurally variable architecture. A proof-of-concept is demonstrated by an immunospecific detection of 17β-Estradiol (E2) following the competitive inhibition format. The sensing interfacial architecture is based on the BSA-E2 conjugate within the BSA matrix immobilized on the "charged" (as a result of guanidine thiocyanate treatment) gold surface at pH 5...
November 12, 2016: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Paul P Partyka, George A Godsey, John R Galie, Mary C Kosciuk, Nimish K Acharya, Robert G Nagele, Peter A Galie
Transport of fluid and solutes is tightly controlled within the brain, where vasculature exhibits a blood-brain barrier and there is no organized lymphatic network facilitating waste transport from the interstitial space. Here, using a compliant, three-dimensional co-culture model of the blood-brain barrier, we show that mechanical stimuli exerted by blood flow mediate both the permeability of the endothelial barrier and waste transport along the basement membrane. Application of both shear stress and cyclic strain facilitates tight junction formation in the endothelial monolayer, with and without the presence of astrocyte endfeet in the surrounding matrix...
November 17, 2016: Biomaterials
F Candelier, J Einarsson, B Mehlig
We compute the angular dynamics of a neutrally buoyant nearly spherical particle immersed in an unsteady fluid. We assume that the particle is small, that its translational slip velocity is negligible, and that unsteady and convective inertia are small perturbations. We derive an approximation for the torque on the particle that determines the first inertial corrections to Jeffery's equation. These corrections arise as a consequence of local vortex stretching and can be substantial in turbulence, where local vortex stretching is strong and closely linked to the irreversibility of turbulence...
November 11, 2016: Physical Review Letters
Kimiko Yamamoto, Joji Ando
Vascular endothelial cells(ECs)play a critical role in controlling a variety of vascular functions including maintenance of the vascular tone, blood coagulation and fibrinolysis, and selective permeability of proteins. It has recently become apparent that ECs respond to hemodynamic forces, namely, shear stress and stretch, by altering their morphology, functions and gene expression profile. These responses also play important roles in maintaining normal circulatory system functions and homeostasis, and their impairment leads to various vascular diseases, including hypertension, aneurysm and atherosclerosis...
2016: Clinical Calcium
Masataka Kobayashi, Yasuo Minami, Courtney L Johnson, Parker D Salmans, Nicholas R Ellsworth, Jun Takeda, Jeremy A Johnson, Ikufumi Katayama
Recent advances of ultrafast spectroscopy allow the capture of an entire ultrafast signal waveform in a single probe shot, which greatly reduces the measurement time and opens the door for the spectroscopy of unrepeatable phenomena. However, most single-shot detection schemes rely on two-dimensional detectors, which limit the repetition rate of the measurement and can hinder real-time visualization and manipulation of signal waveforms. Here, we demonstrate a new method to circumvent these difficulties and to greatly simplify the detection setup by using a long, single-mode optical fiber and a fast photodiode...
November 23, 2016: Scientific Reports
A D Dunkelberger, B T Spann, K P Fears, B S Simpkins, J C Owrutsky
Coupling vibrational transitions to resonant optical modes creates vibrational polaritons shifted from the uncoupled molecular resonances and provides a convenient way to modify the energetics of molecular vibrations. This approach is a viable method to explore controlling chemical reactivity. In this work, we report pump-probe infrared spectroscopy of the cavity-coupled C-O stretching band of W(CO)6 and the direct measurement of the lifetime of a vibration-cavity polariton. The upper polariton relaxes 10 times more quickly than the uncoupled vibrational mode...
November 22, 2016: Nature Communications
Chao Pan, Jingwei Weng, Wenning Wang
ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporters utilize the energy of ATP hydrolysis to uni-directionally transport substrates across cell membrane. ATP hydrolysis occurs at the nucleotide-binding domain (NBD) dimer interface of ABC transporters, whereas substrate translocation takes place at the translocation pathway between the transmembrane domains (TMDs), which is more than 30 angstroms away from the NBD dimer interface. This raises the question of how the hydrolysis energy released at NBDs is "transmitted" to trigger the conformational changes at TMDs...
2016: PloS One
Ryosuke Nakamura, Yoshizumi Inagaki, Hidefumi Hata, Norio Hamada, Nobuhiro Umemura, Tomosumi Kamimura
Femtosecond time-resolved mid-infrared (MIR) spectroscopy based on chirped-pulse upconversion is a promising method for observing molecular vibrational dynamics. A quantitative study on nonlinear media for upconversion is still essential for wide applications, particularly at the frequencies below 2000  cm<sup>-1</sup>. We evaluate wide-bandgap nonlinear crystals of Li-containing ternary chalcogenides based on their performance as the upconversion medium for femtosecond MIR spectroscopy. The upconversion efficiency is measured as a function of the MIR pulse frequency and the chirped pulse energy...
November 20, 2016: Applied Optics
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