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Dynamic stretching

Zhizhao Che, Omar K Matar
The impact of droplets on liquid films is a ubiquitous phenomenon not only in nature but also in many industrial applications. Compared to the widely-studied impact of droplets on films of identical fluids, the impact of droplets on immiscible films has received far less attention. In the present work, we show using high-speed imaging that immiscibility has a profound effect on the impact dynamics. The impact of a water droplet on an oil film leads to the formation of a compound crown followed by a central jet, whereas that of an oil droplet on a water film results in rapid spreading on the film surface driven by a large, positive spreading factor...
January 19, 2018: Soft Matter
Nikolai V Priezjev, Maxim A Makeev
Molecular dynamics simulations are carried out to investigate mechanical properties and porous structure of binary glasses subjected to steady shear. The model vitreous systems were prepared via thermal quench at constant volume to a temperature well below the glass transition. The quiescent samples are characterized by a relatively narrow pore size distribution whose mean size is larger at lower glass densities. We find that in the linear regime of deformation, the shear modulus is a strong function of porosity, and the individual pores become slightly stretched while their structural topology remains unaffected...
November 2017: Physical Review. E
Hannah Kreczak, Rob Sturman, Mark C T Wilson
We present a computational study of a simple one-dimensional map with dynamics composed of stretching, permutations of equally sized cells, and diffusion. We observe that the combination of the aforementioned dynamics results in eigenmodes with long-time exponential decay rates. The decay rate of the eigenmodes is shown to be dependent on the choice of permutation and changes nonmonotonically with the diffusion coefficient for many of the permutations. The global mixing rate of the map M in the limit of vanishing diffusivity approximates well the decay rates of the eigenmodes for small diffusivity, however this global mixing rate does not bound the rates for all values of the diffusion coefficient...
November 2017: Physical Review. E
Biswarup Ash, J Chakrabarti, Amit Ghosal
We study the temperature dependence of static and dynamic responses of Coulomb interacting particles in two-dimensional confinements across the crossover from solid- to liquid-like behaviors. While static correlations that investigate the translational and bond orientational order in the confinements show the footprints of hexatic-like phase at low temperatures, dynamics of the particles slow down considerably in this phase, reminiscent of a supercooled liquid. Using density correlations, we probe long-lived heterogeneities arising from the interplay of the irregularity in the confinement and long-range Coulomb interactions...
October 2017: Physical Review. E
Takuya Saito
We discuss a deviation of the fluctuation-dissipation relation (FDR) in a driven superdiffusive system as exemplified by polymer stretching. The superdiffusion is found by monitoring momentum transfer to a tracer, which is a conjugate observable with the position. Molecular-dynamics simulation demonstrates that the FDR deviates during the nonequilibrium transient process. We then propose nonequilibrium mode analysis for superdiffusion, which is a counterpart to that for driven subdiffusion. The mode analysis yields results that are in qualitative agreement with the simulation results, suggesting that the fluctuations of the stiffness in the system from initial equilibrium to stretching account for the FDR deviation...
September 2017: Physical Review. E
Patrick Charbonneau, Yue Cathy Li, Henry D Pfister, Sho Yaida
Lyapunov exponents characterize the chaotic nature of dynamical systems by quantifying the growth rate of uncertainty associated with the imperfect measurement of initial conditions. Finite-time estimates of the exponent, however, experience fluctuations due to both the initial condition and the stochastic nature of the dynamical path. The scale of these fluctuations is governed by the Lyapunov susceptibility, the finiteness of which typically provides a sufficient condition for the law of large numbers to apply...
September 2017: Physical Review. E
Tamal Roy, Kai Szuttor, Jens Smiatek, Christian Holm, Steffen Hardt
We study the stretching of a surface-tethered polyelectrolyte confined between parallel surfaces under the application of a dc electric field. We explore the influence of the electric-field strength, the length of the polyelectrolyte, and the degree of confinement on the conformation of the polyelectrolyte by single-molecule experiments and coarse-grained coupled lattice-Boltzmann molecular-dynamics simulations. The fractional extension of the polyelectrolyte is found to be a universal function of the product of the applied electric field and the molecular contour length, which is explained by simple scaling arguments...
September 2017: Physical Review. E
Kellen Chen, Andrea Vigliotti, Mattia Bacca, Robert M McMeeking, Vikram S Deshpande, Jeffrey W Holmes
The ability of cells to orient in response to mechanical stimuli is essential to embryonic development, cell migration, mechanotransduction, and other critical physiologic functions in a range of organs. Endothelial cells, fibroblasts, mesenchymal stem cells, and osteoblasts all orient perpendicular to an applied cyclic stretch when plated on stretchable elastic substrates, suggesting a common underlying mechanism. However, many of these same cells orient parallel to stretch in vivo and in 3D culture, and a compelling explanation for the different orientation responses in 2D and 3D has remained elusive...
January 17, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Yasmine Meroz, Brendan J Meade
Earthquakes at seismogenic plate boundaries are a response to the differential motions of tectonic blocks embedded within a geometrically complex network of branching and coalescing faults. Elastic strain is accumulated at a slow strain rate on the order of 10^{-15}  s^{-1}, and released intermittently at intervals >100  yr, in the form of rapid (seconds to minutes) coseismic ruptures. The development of macroscopic models of quasistatic planar tectonic dynamics at these plate boundaries has remained challenging due to uncertainty with regard to the spatial and kinematic complexity of fault system behaviors...
September 29, 2017: Physical Review Letters
Wilbert J Smit, Fujie Tang, M Alejandra Sánchez, Ellen H G Backus, Limei Xu, Taisuke Hasegawa, Mischa Bonn, Huib J Bakker, Yuki Nagata
Phase-resolved sum-frequency generation measurements combined with molecular dynamics simulations are employed to study the effect of temperature on the molecular arrangement of water on the basal face of ice. The topmost monolayer, interrogated through its nonhydrogen-bonded, free O-H stretch peak, exhibits a maximum in surface H-bond density around 200 K. This maximum results from two competing effects: above 200 K, thermal fluctuations cause the breaking of H bonds; below 200 K, the formation of bulklike crystalline interfacial structures leads to H-bond breaking...
September 29, 2017: Physical Review Letters
Tong Zhu, Long Yuan, Yan Zhao, Mingwei Zhou, Yan Wan, Jianguo Mei, Libai Huang
Charge-transfer (CT) excitons at heterointerfaces play a critical role in light to electricity conversion using organic and nanostructured materials. However, how CT excitons migrate at these interfaces is poorly understood. We investigate the formation and transport of CT excitons in two-dimensional WS2/tetracene van der Waals heterostructures. Electron and hole transfer occurs on the time scale of a few picoseconds, and emission of interlayer CT excitons with a binding energy of ~0.3 eV has been observed...
January 2018: Science Advances
Brandon John McKinlay, Phillip Wallace, Raffy Dotan, Devon Long, Craig Tokuno, David Gabriel, Bareket Falk
This study examined the effect of 8-weeks of free-weight-resistance (RT) and plyometric (PLYO) training on maximal strength, explosiveness and jump performance compared with no added training (CON), in young male soccer players. Forty-one 11[FIGURE DASH]13-year-old soccer players were divided into three groups (RT, PLYO, CON). All participants completed isometric and dynamic (240°/s) knee extensions pre- and post-training. Peak torque (pT), peak rate of torque development (pRTD), electromechanical-delay (EMD), rate of muscle activation (Q50), m...
January 4, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Eva M Bruening, Jakob Schauss, Torsten Uwe Siebert, Benjamin P Fingerhut, Thomas Elsaesser
The equilibrium structure of the RNA sugar-phosphate backbone and its hydration shell is distinctly different from hydrated DNA. Applying femtosecond two-dimensional infrared (2D-IR) spectroscopy in a range from 950 to 1300 cm-1, we elucidate the character, dynamics, and couplings of backbone modes of a double-stranded RNA A-helix geometry in its aqueous environment. The 2D-IR spectra display a larger number of backbone modes than for DNA, with distinctly different lineshapes of diagonal peaks. Phosphate-ribose interactions and local hydration structures are reflected in the complex coupling pattern of RNA modes...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
Zan Tang, Yucheng Hu, Zheng Wang, Kewu Jiang, Cheng Zhan, Wallace F Marshall, Nan Tang
Oriented cell division plays a key role in controlling organogenesis. The mechanisms for regulating division orientation at the whole-organ level are only starting to become understood. By combining 3D time-lapse imaging, mouse genetics, and mathematical modeling, we find that global orientation of cell division is the result of a combination of two types of spindles with distinct spindle dynamic behaviors in the developing airway epithelium. Fixed spindles follow the classic long-axis rule and establish their division orientation before metaphase...
January 9, 2018: Developmental Cell
Patrick D Knight, Theodoros K Karamanos, Sheena E Radford, Alison E Ashcroft
Amyloid diseases represent a growing social and economic burden in the developed world. Understanding the assembly pathway and the inhibition of amyloid formation is key to developing therapies to treat these diseases. The neurodegenerative condition Machado-Joseph disease is characterised by the self-aggregation of the protein ataxin-3. Ataxin-3 consists of a globular N-terminal Josephin domain, which can aggregate into curvilinear protofibrils, and an unstructured, dynamically disordered C-terminal domain containing three ubiquitin interacting motifs separated by a polyglutamine stretch...
February 2018: European Journal of Mass Spectrometry
Wojciech Radosz, Grzegorz Pawlik, Antoni Mitus
We study theoretically the kinetics of non-interacting photo-switchable guest molecules (model azo-dye) dispersed at low concentration in host (model polymer matrix) in the all-optical poling process close to the glass transition temperature Tg. We modify kinetic Monte Carlo model used in our previous studies of nonlinear optical processes in host-guest systems. The polymer matrix is simulated using the bond-fluctuation model. The kinetics of multiple trans-cis-trans cycles is formulated in terms of transition probabilities which depend on local free volume in the matrix and its dynamics...
January 15, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Masoumeh Ozmaian, David Jasnow, Afshin Eskandari Nasrabad, Anton Zilman, Rob D Coalson
The effect of cohesive contacts or, equivalently, dynamical cross-linking on the equilibrium morphology of a polymer brush infiltrated by nanoparticles that are attracted to the polymer strands is studied for plane-grafted brushes using coarse-grained molecular dynamics and approximate statistical mechanical models. In particular, the Alexander-de Gennes (AdG) and Strong Stretching Theory (SST) mean-field theory (MFT) models are considered. It is found that for values of the MFT cross-link strength interaction parameter beyond a certain threshold, both AdG and SST models predict that the polymer brush will be in a compact state of nearly uniform density packed next to the grafting surface over a wide range of solution phase nanoparticle concentrations...
January 14, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
H H Katkar, M Muthukumar
One of the major theoretical methods in understanding polymer translocation through a nanopore is the Fokker-Planck formalism based on the assumption of quasi-equilibrium of polymer conformations. The criterion for applicability of the quasi-equilibrium approximation for polymer translocation is that the average translocation time per Kuhn segment, ⟨τ⟩/NK, is longer than the relaxation time τ0 of the polymer. Toward an understanding of conditions that would satisfy this criterion, we have performed coarse-grained three dimensional Langevin dynamics and multi-particle collision dynamics simulations...
January 14, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
Surajit Kayal, Khokan Roy, Siva Umapathy
Ultrafast torsional dynamics plays an important role in the photoinduced excited state dynamics. Tetraphenylethylene (TPE), a model system for the molecular motor, executes interesting torsional dynamics upon photoexcitation. The photoreaction of TPE involves ultrafast internal conversion via a nearly planar intermediate state (relaxed state) that further leads to a twisted zwitterionic state. Here, we report the photoinduced structural dynamics of excited TPE during the course of photoisomerization in the condensed phase by ultrafast Raman loss (URLS) and femtosecond transient absorption (TA) spectroscopy...
January 14, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
Aaron W Johnson, Caisa N Warcup, Matthew K Seeley, Dennis Eggett, Jeffery B Feland
BACKGROUND: While stretching with vibration has been shown to improve static flexibility; the effect of stretching with vibration on dynamic flexibility is not well known. The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of stretching with vibration on acute dynamic flexibility and jump height in novice and advanced competitive female gymnasts during a split jump. METHODS: Female gymnast (n=27, age: 11.5 ± 1.7 years, Junior Olympic levels 5-10) participated in this cross-over study...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
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