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Static stretching

Bogdan I Costescu, Sebastian Sturm, Frauke Gräter
Protein unfolding often does not obey a simple two-state behavior. Previous single molecule force spectroscopy studies demonstrated stretched exponential kinetics of protein unfolding under a constant pulling force, the molecular origin of which remains subject to debate. We here set out to extensively sample the mechanical unfolding of ubiquitin and NuG2 by Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations. Both proteins show kinetics best fit by stretched exponentials, with stretching exponents similar to those found in experiments, even though static disorder is absent in our short MD simulations...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Structural Biology
Clare F Heisey, J Derek Kingsley
Static stretching was once recognized as a method of preparation for physical activity that would inhibit performance and increase risk of injury. However, a growing body of research suggests that static stretching may not have an inhibitory effect. Regardless, the data have not examined gender differences or the fatigue index (FI) and flexibility effects of static stretching on the back squat over multiple sets. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between a static-stretch condition (SC) and control condition (CC) on flexibility and the FI of Division I female athletes during 4 sets of the back squat...
2016: International Journal of Exercise Science
Donato Belmonte, Carlo Gatti, Giulio Armando Ottonello, Pascal Richet, Marino Vetuschi Zuccolini
Thermodynamic and thermophysical properties of Na2SiO3 in the Cmc21 structural state are computed ab-initio using the hybrid B3LYP density functional method. The static properties at the athermal limit are first evaluated through a symmetry-preserving relaxation procedure. The thermodynamic properties that depend on vibrational frequencies viz, heat capacities, thermal expansion, thermal derivative of the bulk modulus, thermal correction to internal energy, enthalpy, Gibbs free energy, are then computed in the framework of quasi-harmonic approximation...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
Samer Toume, Amit Gefen, Daphne Weihs
We observed that radially stretching cell monolayers at a low level (3%) increases the rate at which they migrate to close a gap formed by in vitro injury. Wound healing has been shown to accelerate in vivo when deformations are topically applied, for example, by negative pressure wound therapy. However, the direct effect of deformations on cell migration during gap closure is still unknown. Thus, we have evaluated the effect of radially applied, sustained (static) tensile strain on the kinematics of en mass cell migration...
October 17, 2016: International Wound Journal
Daniel Pelaez, Zenith Acosta Torres, Tsz Kin Ng, Kwong Wai Choy, Chi Pui Pang, Herman S Cheung
Cellular therapies for the treatment of myocardial infarction have proven to be an invaluable tool in recent years and provide encouraging evidence for the possibility to restore normal heart function. However, questions still remain as to the optimal cell source, pre-conditioning methods and delivery techniques for such an application. This study explores the use of a population of stem cells arising from the neural crest and isolated from adult human periodontal ligament along with short-term mechanical strain as an inducer of cardiomyogenesis and possibly pre-conditioning stimulus for cellular cardiomyoplasty...
October 17, 2016: Cell and Tissue Research
Hsuan Su, Nai-Jen Chang, Wen-Lan Wu, Lan-Yuen Guo, I-Hua Chu
CONTEXT: Foam rolling has been proposed to improve muscle function, performance, and joint range of motion (ROM). However, whether a foam rolling protocol can be adopted as a warm-up to improve flexibility and muscle strength is unclear. OBJECTIVE: To examine and compare the acute effects of foam rolling, static stretching, and dynamic stretching used as part of warm-up on flexibility and muscle strength of knee flexion and extension. DESIGN: Crossover study...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Sport Rehabilitation
Alexandre Poulin, Cansaran Saygili Demir, Samuel Rosset, Tatiana V Petrova, Herbert Shea
We demonstrate the use of dielectric elastomer actuators (DEAs) for mechanical stimulation of cells in vitro. The development of living tissues is regulated by their mechanical environment through the modification of fundamental cellular functions such as proliferation, differentiation and gene expression. Mechanical cues have been linked to numerous pathological conditions, and progress in cellular mechanobiology could lead to better diagnosis and treatments of diseases such as atherosclerosis and cancers...
September 21, 2016: Lab on a Chip
Chung-Hsuan Huang, Marcio S Carvalho, Satish Kumar
Transfer of liquid from one surface to another plays a key role in printing processes. During liquid transfer, a liquid bridge is formed and then undergoes significant extensional motion while its contact lines are free to move on the bounding solid surfaces. In this work, we develop one-dimensional (1D) slender-jet and two-dimensional (2D) axisymmetric models of this phenomenon and compare the resulting predictions with previously published experimental data. For very low capillary numbers (Ca) (quasi-static stretching), predictions from both models of the amount of liquid transferred agree well with the experimental data, provided that the difference in receding contact angles (|Δθr|) between the two surfaces is sufficiently large...
September 13, 2016: Soft Matter
Michel Destrade, Yibin Fu, Andrea Nobili
The equations governing the appearance of flexural static perturbations at the edge of a semi-infinite thin elastic isotropic plate, subjected to a state of homogeneous bi-axial pre-stress, are derived and solved. The plate is incompressible and supported by a Winkler elastic foundation with, possibly, wavenumber dependence. Small perturbations superposed onto the homogeneous state of pre-stress, within the three-dimensional elasticity theory, are considered. A series expansion of the plate kinematics in the plate thickness provides a consistent expression for the second variation of the potential energy, whose minimization gives the plate governing equations...
September 2016: Proceedings. Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
Wanlop Kunanusornchai, Chatchai Muanprasat, Varanuj Chatsudthipong
Joint mobilization is known to be beneficial in osteoarthritis (OA) patients. This study aimed to investigate the effect of stretching on adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activity and its role in modulating inflammation in rabbit synovial fibroblasts. Uniaxial stretching of isolated rabbit synovial fibroblasts for ten min was performed. Stretching-induced AMPK activation, its underlying mechanism, and its anti-inflammatory effect were investigated using Western blot. Static stretching at 20 % of initial length resulted in AMPK activation characterized by expression of phosphorylated AMPK and phosphorylated acetyl-Co A carboxylase...
September 30, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
Maud Pradines, Ingrid Masson, Raphaël Portero, Caroline Giroux, Jean-Michel Gracies
OBJECTIVE: To explore changes in muscle architectural parameters of the muscle-tendon unit of soleus and medial gastrocnemius (GM) in patients with chronic hemiparesis, after 1 year of rehabilitation. MATERIAL/PATIENTS AND METHODS: In this prospective study, 20 chronic hemiparetic patients (8W, mean age: 56 [12], time since lesion 9 [8]) were evaluated. Muscle architectural parameters including muscle fascicle length, pennation angle, thickness, tendon and muscle belly lengths were evaluated in vivo using ultrasonography in passive condition (verified by electromyographic recording) in a seated patient with ankle, knee and hip on the paretic side at 90°...
September 2016: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
Imen Fekhfekh, Abdelmoneem Yahia, Mokhtar Chaabene, Salma Jribi, Nizar Suissi, Mohamed Habib Elleuch, Sameh Ghroubi
OBJECTIVE: To study the acute effect of static and dynamic stretching on the knee muscle strength and postural capacity in athletes. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Fifteen judokas performed 2 stretching protocols (static and dynamic) on the muscles of both lower limbs with an interval of 48hours in a random order. An evaluation of the dominant knee muscle strength with an isokinetic dynamometer CybexNormII was performed before and after each stretching protocol in a concentric mode at a speed of 60 and 180°/s...
September 2016: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
W C Ian Janes, Brandon B G Snow, Caisie E Watkins, Elecia A L Noseworthy, Jonathan C Reid, David G Behm
Much of the static stretching (SS) literature reports performance impairments with prolonged SS. However, it has been acknowledged that a limitation of these studies is participants' knowledge or bias. Since many participants have knowledge of the literature, their performance may be subconsciously influenced by expectations. Hence, the objective of this study was to examine the effect of stretching knowledge or deception on subsequent force output following SS. Two groups of male participants who were either aware (BIASED: 14) or unaware (DECEPTION: 14) of the SS literature participated...
October 2016: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
Masatoshi Nakamura, Tome Ikezoe, Hiroki Umegaki, Takuya Kobayashi, Satoru Nishishita, Noriaki Ichihashi
CONTEXT: Static Stretching (SS) is commonly performed within a warm-up routine to increase the range of motion (ROM) of a joint and to decrease muscle stiffness. However, the time course of changes in ankle dorsiflexion (DF) ROM and muscle stiffness during a routine SS program is unclear. OBJECTIVE: The present study investigated changes in ankle DF ROM, passive torque at DF ROM, and muscle stiffness during a routine SS program performed three times weekly for 4 weeks...
August 24, 2016: Journal of Sport Rehabilitation
Robert J Bonser, Christy L Hancock, Bethany L Hansberger, Rick A Loutsch, Eric K Stanford, Alli K Zeigel, Russell T Baker, James May, Alan Nasypany, Scott Cheatham
Clinical Scenario: Hamstring tightness is a common condition leading to dysfunctional or restricted movement that is often treated with stretching. Neurodynamics has been proposed as an alternative to stretching by targeting the neural system rather than muscle tissue. Focused Clinical Question: In an active population, what is the effect of using neurodynamic sliders compared to stretching on traditional measures of range of motion? Summary of Key Findings: The authors of a well-designed study identified that neurodynamic sliders were more effective than static stretching, while the authors of two less well-designed studies reported no difference with static stretching or that proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation stretching was more effective than neurodynamic sliders...
August 24, 2016: Journal of Sport Rehabilitation
Christopher J Burcal, Alejandra Y Trier, Erik A Wikstrom
CONTEXT: Both balance training and selected interventions meant to target sensory structures (STARS) have been shown to be effective at restoring deficits associated with chronic ankle instability (CAI). Clinicians often utilize multiple treatment modalities in patients with CAI. However, evidence for combined intervention effectiveness in CAI patients remains limited. OBJECTIVE: To determine if augmenting a balance training protocol with STARS (BTS) results in greater improvements than balance training (BT) alone in those with CAI...
August 24, 2016: Journal of Sport Rehabilitation
Andrea B Rosskopf, Elias Bachmann, Jess G Snedeker, Christian W A Pfirrmann, Florian M Buck
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to compare the reliability of SW velocity measurements of two different ultrasound systems and their correlation with the tangent traction modulus in a non-static tendon strain model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A bovine tendon was fixed in a custom-made stretching device. Force was applied increasing from 0 up to 18 Newton. During each strain state the tangent traction modulus was determined by the stretcher device, and SW velocity (m/s) measurements using a Siemens S3000 and a Supersonic Aixplorer US machine were done for shear modulus (kPa) calculation...
November 2016: Skeletal Radiology
Aaron J Rogers, Vladimir G Fast, Palaniappan Sethu
Induced pluripotent stem cell derived cardiomyocytes (iPSC-CMs) provide a human source of cardiomyocytes for use in cardiovascular research and regenerative medicine. However, attempts to use these cells in vivo have resulted in drastic cell death caused by mechanical, metabolic, and/or exogenous factors. To explore this issue, we designed a Biomimetic Cardiac Tissue Model (BCTM) where various parameters associated with heart function including heart rate, peak-systolic pressure, end-diastolic pressure and volume, end-systolic pressure and volume, and ratio of systole to diastole can all be precisely manipulated to apply hemodynamic loading to culture cells...
October 4, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
Minmin Jiang, Juhui Qiu, Lingling Zhang, Dongyuan Lü, Mian Long, Li Chen, Xiangdong Luo
Wound healing is a complicated but highly organized process in which cell migration and proliferation are actively involved. However, the process by which mechanical stretch regulates the proliferation and migration of human skin fibroblasts (HFs) and keratinocytes is poorly understood. Using a house built mechanical stretch device, we examined the HFs extracellular matrix (ECM) components changes under non-stretch, static stretch or cyclic stretch conditions. We further investigated the changes in ECM component protein expression levels in keratinocytes and analyzed the effects of individual ECM component on keratinocyte proliferation and migration...
September 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Finn Johannsen, Philip Hansen, Sandra Stallknecht, Michael Skovdal Rathleff, Stine Hangaard, Janus Damm Nybing, Mikael Boesen
BACKGROUND: Positional MRI (pMRI) allows for three-dimensional visual assessment of navicular position. In this exploratory pilot study pMRI was validated against a stretch sensor device, which measures movement of the medial plantar arch. We hypothesized that a combined pMRI measure incorporating both vertical and medial displacement of the navicular bone induced by loading would be correlated with corresponding stretch sensor measurements. METHODS: 10 voluntary participants were included in the study...
2016: Journal of Foot and Ankle Research
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