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Stefano Nardone, Dev Sharan Sams, Antonino Zito, Eli Reuveni, Evan Elliott
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a complex neuropsychiatric syndrome whose etiology includes genetic and environmental components. Since epigenetic marks are sensitive to environmental insult, they may be involved in the development of ASD. Initial brain studies have suggested a dysregulation of epigenetic marks in ASD. However, due to cellular heterogeneity in the brain, these studies have not determined if there is a true change in the neuronal epigenetic signature. Here, we report a genome-wide methylation study on fluorescence-activated cell sorting-sorted neuronal nuclei from the frontal cortex of 16 male ASD and 15 male control subjects...
September 28, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
Ramy Younes, Chiara Rosso, Salvatore Petta, Monica Cucco, Milena Marietti, Gian Paolo Caviglia, Alessia Ciancio, Maria Lorena Abate, Carlo Cammà, Antonina Smedile, Antonio Craxì, Giorgio Maria Saracco, Elisabetta Bugianesi
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The non-invasive identification of steatohepatitis (NASH) in patients with Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease is an unmet need in clinical practice. Index of NASH (ION) is a new tool for the prediction of NASH. We aimed to externally validate ION and to compare it with CK-18. Since necroinflammation precedes fibrosis, we also tested ION in combination with non-invasive tools for fibrosis. METHODS: We analyzed data from 292 Italian patients (169 Southern cohort, and 123 Northern cohort) with an histological diagnosis of NAFLD...
October 13, 2017: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
Giuseppe Rollo, Giovanni Vicenti, Roberto Rotini, Antonella Abate, Antonio Colella, Antonio D'Arienzo, Massimiliano Carrozzo, Biagio Moretti
We investigated functional and radiological outcome in 57 cases of midshaft clavicle nonunion treated with open reduction and internal fixation with plate and screws over a 13 year-period. Intercalary bone graft was used in 42 patients; opposite autologous strut graft was used in 31 cases to provide mechanical support to the host bone. Patients were analysed using chart and radiological review and assessed with DASH questionnaire obtained at the latest follow-up. 37 patients were male while 20 were females, with a mean age of 35 years (63-17)...
October 2017: Injury
Barbara Barboni, Valentina Russo, Valentina Gatta, Nicola Bernabò, Paolo Berardinelli, Annunziata Mauro, Alessandra Martelli, Luca Valbonetti, Aurelio Muttini, Oriana Di Giacinto, Maura Turriani, Antonietta Silini, Giuseppe Calabrese, Michele Abate, Ornella Parolini, Liborio Stuppia, Mauro Mattioli
Cell-based therapy hold great promise for tendon disorders, a widespread debilitating musculoskeletal condition. Even if the cell line remains to be defined, preliminary evidences have proven that amniotic-derived cells possess in vitro and in vivo a great tenogenic potential. The present study investigated the efficacy of transplanted human amniotic epithelial cells (hAECs) by testing their early regenerative properties and mechanisms involved on a validated ovine Achilles tendon partial defect performed on 29 animals...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
Eduard Anfruns-Estrada, Carmina Bruguera-Casamada, Humbert Salvadó, Enric Brillas, Ignasi Sirés, Rosa M Araujo
This work aims at comparing the ability of two kinds of electrochemical technologies, namely electrocoagulation (EC) and electro-Fenton (EF), to disinfect primary and secondary effluents from municipal wastewater treatment plants. Heterotrophic bacteria, Escherichia coli, enterococci, Clostridium perfringens spores, somatic coliphages and eukaryotes (amoebae, flagellates, ciliates and metazoa) were tested as indicator microorganisms. EC with an Fe/Fe cell at 200 A m(-2) and natural pH allowed >5 log unit removal of E...
September 29, 2017: Water Research
Raouen Rachdi, Feyda Srarfi, Najet Slim Shimi
The cactus tree, species Opuntia ficus-indica, is a primary material of many products in various domains such as cosmetics, medicine and nutrition. In the present work, we assess its potential as a flocculant. We tried a technique which adopts three sequential treatments that used coagulation, flocculation and sedimentation processes under certain operating conditions. For this purpose, we used the aluminum sulfate (AS) as coagulant and fresh cladodes juice (FCJ) as bioflocculant. All tests were carried out on high turbid urban wastewater collected from the Metlaoui's Wastewater Treatment Plant (MWTP) (in Gafsa in southwest Tunisia)...
October 2017: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
Jasmin Grayson-Collins, Michael B Gascoigne, Belinda Barton, Richard Webster, Deepak Gill, Suncica Lah
Accelerated long-term forgetting (ALF) is a recently described memory disorder characterised by adequate recall after short, but not long delays. Currently, the prevailing conceptualisation of ALF is of a seizure related phenomenon. The main aim of this study was to assess whether ALF subsides as epilepsy severity and seizures abate in children with genetic generalized epilepsy (GGE). Eighteen children with GGE were compared over time to 29 healthy controls on a range of cognitive measures. The primary outcome was a modified version of the California Verbal Learning Test for Children with a long delay (seven day) recall component...
September 15, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
Wenqiang Gan, Jingyuan Ren, Tiegang Li, Silin Lv, Chenghe Li, Ziliang Liu, Min Yang
Inflammation has emerged as a critical biological process contributing to hypertensive cardiac remodeling. Effective pharmacological treatments targeting the cardiac inflammatory response, however, are still lacking. Prior studies suggested that the serum- and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase (SGK1) plays a key role in inflammation and cardiac remodeling. Recently, a highly selective SGK1 inhibitor, EMD638683, was developed, though whether EMD638683 can prevent hypertension-induced cardiac fibrosis and the mechanisms by which this inhibitor may alter the disease process remain unknown...
October 3, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Jianbo Che, Bing Liang, Yuan Zhang, Yi Wang, Jianyu Tang, Gongning Shi
Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) has been reported to induce apoptosis of endothelial cells (ECs) and contribute to the progression of atherosclerosis. Kaempferol has been shown to possess antiatherosclerotic effect. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of kaempferol on ox-LDL-induced apoptosis of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and its possible molecular basis. The results showed that kaempferol alleviated ox-LDL-induced apoptosis. Kaempferol increased the ratio of LC3-II/I and beclin-1 level in ox-LDL-induced HUVECs...
August 10, 2017: Cardiovascular Pathology: the Official Journal of the Society for Cardiovascular Pathology
Daniel Abate-Pella, Dana M Freund, Janet P Slovin, Adrian D Hegeman, Jerry D Cohen
Carotenoids are a large class of compounds that are biosynthesized by condensation of isoprene units in plants, fungi, bacteria, and some animals. They are characteristically highly conjugated through double bonds, which lead to many isomers as well susceptibility to oxidation and other chemical modifications. Carotenoids are important because of their potent antioxidant activity and are the pigments responsible for color in a wide variety of foods. Human consumption is correlated to many health benefits including prevention of cancer, cardiovascular disease, and age-related disease...
September 28, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Steven D Boggs, Sheila R Barnett, Richard D Urman
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Nonoperating room anesthesia (NORA) has grown from an insignificant percentage of total anesthesia cases into a major percentage of anesthesia workload over the past 30 years. This trend evidences no signs of abating. RECENT FINDINGS: With the rapid development of novel interventional techniques in cardiology, radiology, gastroenterology and pulmonary medicine and other areas, the core responsibilities of the anesthesia provider will no longer be confined to delivering care in traditional operating rooms...
October 3, 2017: Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology
Keryn I Paul, Jacqueline R England, Thomas G Baker, Shaun C Cunningham, Michael P Perring, Phil J Polglase, Brian Wilson, Timothy R Cavagnaro, Tom Lewis, Zoe Read, Dinesh B Madhavan, Tim Herrmann
Reforestation of agricultural land with mixed-species environmental plantings of native trees and shrubs contributes to abatement of greenhouse gas emissions through sequestration of carbon, and to landscape remediation and biodiversity enhancement. Although accumulation of carbon in biomass is relatively well understood, less is known about associated changes in soil organic carbon (SOC) following different types of reforestation. Direct measurement of SOC may not be cost effective where rates of SOC sequestration are relatively small and/or highly spatially-variable, thereby requiring intensive sampling...
October 2, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Stephen Gilligan
NHS England is to introduce a new Commissioning for Quality and Innovation to reduce delayed discharges from adult critical care to ward-level care. A delayed discharge is greater than 4 h, this occurred in 64.2% of patients in the critical care minimum data set database from Intensive Care National Audit & Research Centre from the last five years; 46.3% were delayed between 4 and 24 h and 17.9% were delayed more than 24 h. For those who had a delay in their discharge of greater than 24 h, the data suggests that "sicker" patients ultimately do better, since there was a reduction in expected mortality of 5892 patients to an actual mortality of 5201 patients over the five years...
May 2017: J Intensive Care Soc
Muhammad Hassan, Huawei Wei, Huijing Qiu, Syed Wajahat H Jaafry, Yinglong Su, Bing Xie
MFC was studied using young and old landfill leachate substrate to remove pollutants and produce renewable energy coupled with study of anodic microbiomes. The power output of 96.8mWm(-2) with COD removal of 90.0±1.2% was achieved at young leachate 60% in batch mode, which decreased to 75mWm(-2) having 55.5% COD abatement in continuous mode employing 100% young leachate. Power production using simulated wastewater without organic source proved that ammonium could also serve as fuel in MFC. The high ammonium dosage increased the overall system performance but beyond a certain limit, the inhibitory effect intensified...
September 20, 2017: Bioresource Technology
Xiaoyan Zhou, Jinxiao Zhu, Tao Bian, Ruiqian Wang, Fei Gao
The Runt-related transcription factor (RUNX) gene family consists of three members, RUNX1, -2 and -3, which heterodimerize with a common protein, core-binding factor β, and contain the highly conserved Runt-homology domain. RUNX1 and -2 have essential roles in hematopoiesis and osteogenesis. Runx3 protein regulates cell lineage decisions in neurogenesis and thymopoiesis. The aim of the present study was to determine the expression features of the Runx3 protein in a murine asthma model. In vivo, Runx3 protein and mRNA were found to be almost equivalently expressed in the murine lung tissue of the control, ovalbumin (OVA) and genistein groups; however, the nuclear Runx3 protein was abated in lung tissue in OVA-immunized and challenged mice...
September 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
P Quaglino, M Maule, H M Prince, P Porcu, S Horwitz, M Duvic, R Talpur, M Vermeer, M Bagot, J Guitart, E Papadavid, J A Sanches, E Hodak, M Sugaya, E Berti, P Ortiz-Romero, N Pimpinelli, O Servitje, A Pileri, P L Zinzani, T Estrach, R Knobler, R Stadler, M T Fierro, S Alberti Violetti, I Amitay-Laish, C Antoniou, C Astrua, S Chaganti, F Child, A Combalia, S Fabbro, P Fava, V Grandi, C Jonak, E Martinez-Escala, M Kheterpal, E J Kim, C McCormack, T Miyagaki, D Miyashiro, S Morris, C Muniesa, V Nikolaou, G Ognibene, F Onida, S Osella-Abate, S Porkert, C Postigo-Llorente, C Ram-Wolff, S Ribero, K Rogers, M Sanlorenzo, R Stranzenbach, N Spaccarelli, A Stevens, D Zugna, A H Rook, L J Geskin, R Willemze, S Whittaker, R Hoppe, J Scarisbrick, Y Kim
Background: Advanced-stage mycosis fungoides (MF)/Sézary syndrome (SS) patients are weighted by an unfavorable prognosis and share an unmet clinical need of effective treatments. International guidelines are available detailing treatment options for the different stages but without recommending treatments in any particular order due to lack of comparative trials. The aims of this second CLIC study were to retrospectively analyze the pattern of care worldwide for advanced-stage MF/SS patients, the distribution of treatments according to geographical areas (USA versus non-USA), and whether the heterogeneity of approaches has potential impact on survival...
October 1, 2017: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
M G Akande, U S Ahmed
The aim of the study was to determine the effects of taurine in rats exposed to subacute dichlorvos toxicity. Fifty rats were weighed and assigned into five groups of ten rats each. The groups received: distilled water, soya oil (1 ml/kg), taurine (50 mg/kg), dichlorvos (10 mg/kg) and the combination treatment group received taurine first and then dichlorvos 30 min later. The treatments were administered once daily by oral gavage for 4 weeks. The rats were euthanized and blood samples were collected after the termination of the study...
2017: Toxicology Reports
Seyed Arman Hashemi Monfared, Mohsen Dehghani Darmian, Shane A Snyder, Gholamreza Azizyan, Bahareh Pirzadeh, Mehdi Azhdary Moghaddam
Population growth, urbanization and industrial expansion are consequentially linked to increasing pollution around the world. The sources of pollution are so vast and also include point and nonpoint sources, with intrinsic challenge for control and abatement. This paper focuses on pollutant concentrations and also the distance that the pollution is in contact with the river water as objective functions to determine two main necessary characteristics for water quality management in the river. These two necessary characteristics are named assimilative capacity and dilution flow...
September 26, 2017: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
G R Salmon, K Marshall, S F Tebug, A Missohou, T P Robinson, M MacLeod
Developing countries are experiencing an increase in total demand for livestock commodities, as populations and per capita demands increase. Increased production is therefore required to meet this demand and maintain food security. Production increases will lead to proportionate increases in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions unless offset by reductions in the emissions intensity (Ei) (i.e. the amount of GHG emitted per kg of commodity produced) of livestock production. It is therefore important to identify measures that can increase production whilst reducing Ei cost-effectively...
September 27, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
N Normanno, R Esposito Abate, M Lambiase, L Forgione, C Cardone, A Iannaccone, A Sacco, A M Rachiglio, E Martinelli, D Rizzi, S Pisconti, M Biglietto, R Bordonaro, T Troiani, T P Latiano, F Giuliani, S Leo, A Rinaldi, E Maiello, F Ciardiello
Background: Liquid biopsy is an alternative to tissue for RAS testing in metastatic colorectal carcinoma (mCRC) patients. Little information is available on the predictive role of liquid biopsy RAS testing in patients treated with first-line anti-EGFR monoclonal antibody (MoAb)-based therapy. Patients and Methods: In the CAPRI-GOIM trial, 340 KRAS exon-2 wild-type mCRC patients received first-line cetuximab plus FOLFIRI. Tumor samples were retrospectively assessed by Next Generation Sequencing (NGS)...
August 7, 2017: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
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