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Nadine Czekalski, Stefanie Imminger, Elisabeth Salhi, Marjan Veljkovic, Karolin Kleffel, David Drissner, Frederik Hammes, Helmut Bürgmann, Urs von Gunten
Ozone, a strong oxidant and disinfectant, seems ideal to cope with future challenges of water treatment, such as micropollutants, multiresistant bacteria (MRB) and even intracellular antibiotic resistance genes (ARG), but information on the latter is scarce. In ozonation experiments we simultaneously determined kinetics and dose-dependent inactivation of Escherichia coli and its plasmid-encoded sulfonamide resistance gene sul1 in different water matrixes. Effects in E. coli were compared to an autochthonous wastewater community...
October 24, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
Dong Hoon Suh, Miseon Kim, Hak Jae Kim, Kyung Hun Lee, Jae Weon Kim
In 2015, fourteen topics were selected as major research advances in gynecologic oncology. For ovarian cancer, high-level evidence for annual screening with multimodal strategy which could reduce ovarian cancer deaths was reported. The best preventive strategies with current status of evidence level were also summarized. Final report of chemotherapy or upfront surgery (CHORUS) trial of neoadjuvant chemotherapy in advanced stage ovarian cancer and individualized therapy based on gene characteristics followed...
November 2016: Journal of Gynecologic Oncology
Miguel Anaya, Juan P Correa-Baena, Gabriel Lozano, Michael Saliba, Pablo Anguita, Bart Roose, Antonio Abate, Ullrich Steiner, Michael Grätzel, Mauricio E Calvo, Anders Hagfeldt, Hernán Míguez
Organic-inorganic perovskite structures in which lead is substituted by tin are exceptional candidates for broadband light absorption. Herein we present a thorough analysis of the optical properties of CH3NH3Sn x Pb1-x I3 films, providing the field with definitive insights about the possibilities of these materials for perovskite solar cells of superior efficiency. We report a user's guide based on the first set of optical constants obtained for a series of tin/lead perovskite films, which was only possible to measure due to the preparation of optical quality thin layers...
August 7, 2016: Journal of Materials Chemistry. A, Materials for Energy and Sustainability
Yu-Dong Ma, Varadharajan Thiyagarajan, May-Jywan Tsai, Sheng-I Lue, Yi-Chen Chia, Song-Kun Shyue, Ching-Feng Weng
Migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) contributes to intimal hyperplasia and other vascular diseases. Caveolin-1 (Cav-1) has been recognized as a proliferative inhibitor of VSMCs and is likely to be an important regulator of VSMC migration. The underlying mechanism of pyrogallol on the VSMC migration is not fully understood. This study attempted to dissect the role of Cav-1 and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) in VSMC migration and to investigate the effect of pyrogallol on VSMC mobility during carotid artery ligation mice...
October 15, 2016: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Daniel Esler, Brenda E Ballachey, Lizabeth Bowen, A Keith Miles, Rian D Dickson, John D Henderson
The authors quantified hepatic hydrocarbon-inducible cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) expression, as ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity, in wintering harlequin ducks (Histrionicus histrionicus) captured in Prince William Sound, Alaska, during 2011, 2013, and 2014 (22 to 25 years following the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill). EROD activity was compared between birds from areas oiled by the spill and those from nearby unoiled areas. This work replicated studies conducted from 1998 to 2009 that demonstrated harlequin ducks using areas that were oiled in 1989 had elevated EROD activity, indicative of oil exposure, up to 2 decades post-spill...
October 20, 2016: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Qirui Zhong, Ye Huang, Huizhong Shen, Yilin Chen, Han Chen, Tianbo Huang, Eddy Y Zeng, Shu Tao
The quantification of carbon monoxide (CO) emissions is necessary for atmospheric research and has been studied extensively. Aiming to build an inventory with both high spatial resolution and detailed source information, this study estimated the monthly nation-level CO emissions from 79 major sources from 1960 to 2013, based on which a 0.1° × 0.1° gridded emission map was developed for 2011 using a recent energy product. The high sectorial resolution of this inventory can help scientists to study the influence of socioeconomic development on emissions, help decision makers to formulate abatement strategies, and potentially benefit emission-reduction scenario modeling and cost-benefit analysis...
October 19, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Rachel Scalzo, Tonya N Davis
Providing noncontingent access to a stimulus until an individual displays behavioral indicators of satiation has been used to determine when an abolishing operation is in effect, but there has been variation in its application in the literature. Four males diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder with tangibly maintained challenging behavior participated in this study. Individualized behavioral indicators were identified and verified to determine when each participant was finished playing with his/her preferred item...
October 18, 2016: Behavior Modification
Raquel Tonello, Camilla Fusi, Serena Materazzi, Ilaria M Marone, Francesco De Logu, Silvia Benemei, Muryel C Gonçalves, Elisabetta Coppi, Celio J Castro-Junior, Marcus Vinicius Gomez, Pierangelo Geppetti, Juliano Ferreira, Romina Nassini
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Peptides from venomous animals have long been important tools for understanding pain mechanisms and for the discovery of pain treatments. Here, we hypothesized that Phα1β, a peptide purified from the armed spider Phoneutria nigriventer venom, produces analgesia by blocking the transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) channel. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Cultured rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons, human IMR90 fibroblasts or HEK293 cells expressing the human TRPA1 (hTRPA1-HEK293), TRPV1 (hTRPV1-HEK293) or TRPV4 (hTRPV4-HEK293), were used for calcium imaging and electrophysiology...
October 19, 2016: British Journal of Pharmacology
Anne Rochtus, Raf Winand, Griet Laenen, Elise Vangeel, Benedetta Izzi, Christine Wittevrongel, Yves Moreau, Carla Verpoorten, Katrien Jansen, Chris Van Geet, Kathleen Freson
BACKGROUND: Neural tube defects (NTDs) are severe congenital malformations that arise from failure of neurulation during early embryonic development. The molecular basis underlying most human NTDs still remains largely unknown. Based on the hypothesis that folic acid prevents NTDs by stimulating methylation reactions, DNA methylation changes could play a role in NTDs. We performed a methylome analysis for patients with myelomeningocele (MMC). Using a candidate CpG analysis for HOX genes, a significant association between HOXB7 hypomethylation and MMC was found...
2016: Clinical Epigenetics
John H Kim, Esteban G Jobbágy, Robert B Jackson
Increasing pressures for food, fiber, and fuel continue to drive global land-use changes. Efforts to optimize ecosystem services under alternative land uses are often hampered by the complex interactions and trade-offs among them. We examined the effects of land-use changes on ecosystem carbon storage and groundwater recharge in grasslands of Argentina and the United States to (1) understand the relationships between both services, (2) predict their responses to vegetation shifts across environmental gradients, and (3) explore how market or policy incentives for ecosystem services could affect land-use changes...
September 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
Noemí Arce-Varas, Giulia Abate, Chiara Prandelli, Carmen Martínez, Fernando Cuetos, Manuel Menéndez, Mariagrazia Marziano, David Cabrera-García, María Teresa Fernández-Sánchez, Antonello Novelli, Maurizio Memo, Daniela Uberti
Many studies suggest oxidative stress as an early feature of Alzheimer's Disease (AD). However, evidence of established oxidative stress in AD peripheral cells is still inconclusive, possibly due to both, differences in the type of samples and the heterogeneity of oxidative markers used in different studies. Here we measured the activity of Superoxide Dismutase, Catalase and Glutathione Peroxidase both in the extracellular and the intracellular blood compartments of AD, MCI and control subjects. The amount of an open isoform of p53 protein (unfolded p53), resulting from oxidative modifications was also determined...
October 10, 2016: Current Alzheimer Research
Barbara Nussbaumer-Streit, Berlinda Yeoh, Ursula Griebler, Lisa M Pfadenhauer, Laura K Busert, Stefan K Lhachimi, Szimonetta Lohner, Gerald Gartlehner
BACKGROUND: Lead poisoning is associated with physical, cognitive and neurobehavioural impairment in children, and trials have tested many household interventions to prevent lead exposure. This is an update of the original review, first published in 2008. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of household interventions for preventing or reducing lead exposure in children, as measured by improvements in cognitive and neurobehavioural development, reductions in blood lead levels and reductions in household dust lead levels...
October 16, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Jim Antturi, Otto Hänninen, Jukka-Pekka Jalkanen, Lasse Johansson, Marje Prank, Mikhail Sofiev, Markku Ollikainen
The maximum allowable fuel sulphur content for shipping in the Baltic Sea dropped from 1%S to 0.1%S in 1 January 2015. We provide a cost-benefit analysis of the sulphur reduction policy in the Baltic Sea Sulphur Emission Control Area (SECA). We calculated the abatement costs based on shipowners' optimal decision-making in choosing between low-sulphur fuel and a sulphur scrubber, and the benefits were modelled through a high-resolution impact pathway analysis, which took into account the formation and dispersion of the emissions, and considered the positive health impacts resulting from lowered ambient PM2...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Environmental Management
Qilong Wang, Miao Zhang, Gloria Torres, Shengnan Wu, Changhan Ouyang, Zhonglin Xie, Ming-Hui Zou
Metformin is a widely used anti-diabetic drug that exerts cardiovascular protective effects in patients with diabetes. How metformin protects diabetes-related cardiovascular diseases remains poorly understood. Here, we show that metformin abated the progression of diabetes-accelerated atherosclerosis by inhibiting mitochondrial fission in endothelial cells.Metformin treatments markedly reduced mitochondrial fragmentation, mitigated mitochondrial-derived superoxide release, improved endothelial-dependent vasodilation, inhibited vascular inflammation, and suppressed atherosclerotic lesions in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic ApoE(-/-) mice...
October 13, 2016: Diabetes
Malkeet Kumar, Kawaljit Singh, Krupa Naran, Fahreta Hamzabegovic, Daniel F Hoft, Digby F Warner, Peter Ruminski, Getahun Abate, Kelly Chibale
Efflux pumps are considered a major potential contributor to the development of various forms of resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis leading to the emergence of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (TB). Verapamil (VER) and tricyclic chemosensitizers such as the phenothiazines are known to possess efflux pump inhibition properties and have demonstrated significant efficacy in various TB disease models. Novel hybrid molecules based on fusion of the VER substructure with various tricyclic, as well as nontricyclic, chemosensitizer cores or their structural motifs are described...
October 14, 2016: ACS Infectious Diseases
Fassil Shiferaw, Mekitew Letebo, Abate Bane
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 10, 2016: BMC Public Health
Christie Mayo, Bradley Mullens, E Paul Gibbs, N James MacLachlan
Within Northern California, Culicoides sonorensis is the major vector of Bluetongue virus (BTV) and annual infection of livestock is distinctly seasonal (typically July‑November). Our recent studies compare the population dynamics of C. sonorensis midges with occurrence of BTV infection of C. sonorensis and sentinel dairy cattle throughout both the seasonal and interseasonal ('overwintering') periods of BTV activity. Spring emergence and seasonal abundance of adult C. sonorensis on the sampled farms coincided with rising vernal temperature...
September 30, 2016: Veterinaria Italiana
Yuqing Sun, Season S Chen, Daniel C W Tsang, Nigel J D Graham, Yong Sik Ok, Yujie Feng, Xiang-Dong Li
Zero-valent iron (ZVI) was tested for the removal of 150 μg L(-1) As(V) and 350 μg L(-1) Se(VI) in high-salinity (ionic strength 0.35-4.10 M) flowback water of hydraulic fracturing. Over 90% As(V) and Se(VI) was removed by 2.5 g L(-1) ZVI in Day-14 flowback water up to 96-h reaction, with the remaining concentration below the maximum contaminant level for As(V) and criterion continuous concentration for Se(VI) recommended by US EPA. The kinetics of As(V) and Se(VI) removal followed a pseudo-second-order rate expression with the observed rates of 4...
October 5, 2016: Chemosphere
Nazmiye Cemre Birben, Ayse Tomruk, Miray Bekbolet
Solar photocatalytic disinfection efficiency of novel visible light activated (VLA) photocatalysts was evaluated with the aim of assessing inactivation of Escherichia coli as the pathogen indicator organism present in drinking water. Influence of humic acid (HA) on the photocatalytic disinfection efficiency of the specified VLA TiO2 specimens i.e., N-doped, Se-doped, and Se-N co-doped TiO2 was also investigated. Photocatalytic disinfection efficiency was assessed by the enumeration of bacteria following selected irradiation periods...
October 6, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
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