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Mitral regurgitation echo ultrasound

Cristina Caldararu, Serban Balanescu
Echocardiography is the cornerstone in the diagnosis of any valvular heart disease. The accurate diagnosis of aortic stenosis, the left ventricle function and the other heart valves evaluation are currently done by ultrasound alone. Prosthetic valve choice and dimensions prior to implantation can be done solely by proper use of echocardiography. The emergence of new methods to cure aortic stenosis such as trans-catheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) emphasized the diagnostic value of cardiac ultrasound. The usefulness of echocardiography in TAVR can be divided in the baseline assessment (common to patients treated by conventional surgery), intra-procedural guidance of valve deployment and post-procedural follow-up...
December 2016: Mædica
Keniel Pierre, Sushee Gadde, Bassam Omar, G Mustafa Awan, Christopher Malozzi
We report a 42-year-old female who was admitted for abdominal pain, and also endorsed dyspnea, fatigue and chronic palpitations. Past medical history included asthma, patent ductus arteriosus repaired in childhood and ill-defined thyroid disease. Physical examination revealed blood pressure of 136/88 mm Hg and heart rate of 149 beats per minute. Cardiovascular exam revealed an irregularly irregular rhythm, and pulmonary exam revealed mild expiratory wheezing. Abdomen was tender. Electrocardiogram revealed atrial fibrillation with rapid ventricular response which responded to intravenous diltiazem...
June 2017: Cardiology Research
Olivier Villemain, Wojciech Kwiecinski, Alain Bel, Justine Robin, Patrick Bruneval, Bastien Arnal, Mickael Tanter, Mathieu Pernot, Emmanuel Messas
AIMS: Basal chordae surgical section has been shown to be effective in reducing ischaemic mitral regurgitation (IMR). Achieving this section by non-invasive mean can considerably decrease the morbidity of this intervention on already infarcted myocardium. We investigated in vitro and in vivo the feasibility and safety of pulsed cavitational focused ultrasound (histotripsy) for non-invasive chordal cutting guided by real-time 3D echocardiography. METHODS AND RESULTS: Experiments were performed on 12 sheep hearts, 5 in vitro on explanted sheep hearts and 7 in vivo on beating sheep hearts...
October 2016: European Heart Journal Cardiovascular Imaging
Sachita P Shah, Sachin P Shah, Reginald Fils-Aime, Walkens Desir, Joanel Joasil, David M Venesy, Krithika Meera Muruganandan
BACKGROUND: The diagnosis and management of acutely dyspneic patients in resource-limited developing world settings poses a particular challenge. Focused cardiopulmonary ultrasound (CPUS) may assist in the emergency diagnosis and management of patients with acute dyspnea by identifying left ventricular systolic dysfunction, pericardial effusion, interstitial pulmonary edema, and pleural effusion. We sought to assess the accuracy of emergency providers performing CPUS after a training intervention in a limited-resource setting; a secondary objective was to assess the ability of CPUS to affect change of clinician diagnostic assessment and acute management in patients presenting with undifferentiated dyspnea...
December 2016: Critical Ultrasound Journal
Daniel Engelman, Joseph H Kado, Bo Reményi, Samantha M Colquhoun, Jonathan R Carapetis, Susan Donath, Nigel J Wilson, Andrew C Steer
BACKGROUND: Echocardiographic screening for rheumatic heart disease (RHD) can identify individuals with subclinical disease who could benefit from antibiotic prophylaxis. However, most settings have inadequate resources to implement conventional echocardiography and require a feasible, accurate screening method. We aimed to investigate the accuracy of screening by non-expert operators using focused cardiac ultrasound (FoCUS). METHODS: In this prospective study of diagnostic accuracy, we recruited schoolchildren aged 5 to 15 years in Fiji to undergo two blinded tests...
June 2016: Lancet Global Health
Luigi P Badano, Marcelo H Miglioranza, Thor Edvardsen, Alexandre Siciliano Colafranceschi, Denisa Muraru, Fernando Bacal, Koen Nieman, Giacomo Zoppellaro, Fabiana G Marcondes Braga, Thomas Binder, Gilbert Habib, Patrizio Lancellotti
The cohort of long-term survivors of heart transplant is expanding, and the assessment of these patients requires specific knowledge of the surgical techniques employed to implant the donor heart, the physiology of the transplanted heart, complications of invasive tests routinely performed to detect graft rejection (GR), and the specific pathologies that may affect the transplanted heart. A joint EACVI/Brazilian cardiovascular imaging writing group committee has prepared these recommendations to provide a practical guide to echocardiographers involved in the follow-up of heart transplant patients and a framework for standardized and efficient use of cardiovascular imaging after heart transplant...
September 2015: European Heart Journal Cardiovascular Imaging
Hashim A Khan, Nathan E Wineinger, Poulina Q Uddin, Hirsch S Mehta, David S Rubenson, Eric J Topol
BACKGROUND: Frequently, hospitalized patients are referred for transthoracic echocardiograms. The availability of a pocket mobile echocardiography device that can be incorporated on bedside rounds by cardiologists may be a useful and frugal alternative. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study designed to compare the accuracy of pocket mobile echocardiography images with those acquired by transthoracic echocardiography in a sample of hospitalized patients. Each patient referred for echocardiography underwent pocket mobile echocardiography acquisition and interpretation by a senior cardiology fellow with level II training in echocardiography...
July 2014: American Journal of Medicine
L Schroeder, P Orchard, C B Whitley, J M Berry, J Tolar, W Miller, E A Braunlin
BACKGROUND: Serious cardiac valve disease and left ventricular hypertrophy occur in most untreated older children with severe mucopolysaccharidosis type I. Although it is assumed that early intervention prevents these processes, evaluation of cardiac findings in these infants has not yet been reported. METHODS: We reviewed echocardiograms of 13 untreated infants < 1 year of age with severe mucopolysaccharidosis type I who had undergone evaluation for hematopoietic cell transplantation...
2013: JIMD Reports
Beatriz Piva e Mattos, Marco Antonio Rodrigues Torres, Taiane Francieli Rebelatto, Melina Silva de Loreto, Fernando Luís Scolari
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is a prevalent genetic disease characterized by left ventricular hypertrophy, presenting dynamic obstruction of outflow tract with subaortic gradient happening at rest in 30% of the cases. It is attributed to the intricate interaction between the anterior mitral leaflet, the interventricular septum and altered flow vectors generated in left ventricle along with changes in outflow tract geometry. Mitral regurgitation in varying degrees is found with or without association with structural deformities of the valve apparatus...
July 2012: Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia
Jacques Cabral Tantchou Tchoumi, Jean Claude Ambassa, Gianfranco Butera
BACKGROUND: In Africa in general and in Cameroon in particular, post rheumatic cardiopathies are a health care problem, one of the causes of infertility in the women population and a major cause of death among children and adults. Management of a pregnant woman with mechanical heart valve is a complex issue for all health care providers involved in the care of such patients. PATIENT AND CASE REPORT: Miss A is 26-years old and consulted for cardiac assessment; referred from Bamenda (North-West province of Cameroon) for better management of a cardiac problem including arrhythmia and a history of recurrent tonsillitis...
2009: Pan African Medical Journal
Katarina Möberg, Sylvia De Nobele, Dan Devos, Els Goetghebeur, Patrick Segers, Bram Trachet, Chris Vervaet, Marjolijn Renard, Paul Coucke, Bart Loeys, Anne De Paepe, Julie De Backer
BACKGROUND: Aortic root dilation, dissection and rupture are major clinical problems in Marfan syndrome (MFS). Although β-blockers remain the standard of preventive treatment, preliminary results from animal studies and a selected group of severely affected MFS children show significant benefit from treatment with losartan, an angiotensin II receptor blocker with TGF-β inhibiting potential. Large-scale human trials are now needed to confirm these results. This trial aims to evaluate the combined effect of both drugs...
June 14, 2012: International Journal of Cardiology
Nikki Higgins, John P Burke, Charles J McCreery
Valvular cardiomyopathy can present a diagnostic challenge in the absence of overt cardiac symptoms. This report describes the case of a 46-year-old woman who presented with acute peritonitis associated with vomiting and abdominal distension. Subsequent abdominal computed tomography and ultrasound revealed bibasal pleural effusions, ascites, and normal ovaries. An echocardiogram revealed that all cardiac chambers were dilated with a global decrease in contractility and severe mitral, tricuspid, and aortic regurgitation...
January 2012: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
Spyridon Deftereos, Georgios Giannopoulos, Konstantinos Raisakis, Andreas Kaoukis, Charalambos Kossyvakis
A 62-year-old woman was referred for evaluation of recent-onset dyspnoea at rest and a newly found systolic heart murmur, heard best at the apex of the heart. The patient's history was notable for surgical mitral valve replacement 3 years ago, due to severe mitral regurgitation (myxomatous degeneration of the mitral valve). The transthoracic echocardiogram gave the impression of a mitral regurgitant jet, but the acoustic shadow of the prosthesis did not allow adequate evaluation of the regurgitation. A transoesophageal echocardiogram was performed showing a normally functioning mitral prosthesis, with a small periprosthetic leak (Figure 1, upper panel), disproportionate to the patient's symptoms and marked signs of haemolysis...
June 2010: European Journal of Echocardiography
L David Martin, Eric E Howell, Roy C Ziegelstein, Carol Martire, Quinn E Whiting-O'Keefe, Edward P Shapiro, David B Hellmann
OBJECTIVE: The traditional physical examination of the heart is relatively inaccurate. There is little information regarding whether cardiac hand-carried ultrasound performed by noncardiologists adds to the accuracy of physical examinations. The purpose of this study was to determine whether hand-carried ultrasound can add to the accuracy of hospitalists' cardiac physical examinations. METHODS: During a focused training program in hand-carried echocardiography, 10 hospitalists performed cardiac examinations of 354 general medical inpatients first by physical examination and then by hand-carried ultrasound...
January 2009: American Journal of Medicine
Quirino Ciampi, Bruno Villari
Heart failure (HF) is a complex clinical syndrome that can result from any structural or functional cardiac disorder that impairs the ability of the ventricle to fill with or eject blood. Echocardiography represents the "gold standard" in the assessment of LV systolic dysfunction and in the recognition of systolic heart failure, since dilatation of the LV results in alteration of intracardiac geometry and hemodynamics leading to increased morbidity and mortality. The functional mitral regurgitation is a consequence of adverse LV remodelling that occurs with a structurally normal valve and it is a marker of adverse prognosis...
October 2, 2007: Cardiovascular Ultrasound
Kevin S Roman, Jean-Claude Fouron, Masaki Nii, Jeffrey F Smallhorn, Rajiv Chaturvedi, Edgar T Jaeggi
Pulmonary valve stenosis or atresia with intact ventricular septum represents a spectrum of severity. This study aimed to identify ultrasound markers of biventricular versus non-biventricular outcome. The fetal echocardiograms of 41 fetuses diagnosed with pulmonary stenosis or atresia and right ventricular (RV)/left ventricular (LV) length ratios >0.4 from 17 to 31 weeks of gestation were reviewed. Of 27 live-born patients with intention to treat, 8 had non-biventricular outcomes and 19 had biventricular circulation...
March 1, 2007: American Journal of Cardiology
Derek A Fyfe, Diana Ketchum, Reginald Lewis, Jennifer Sabatier, Kirk Kanter, William Mahle, Robert Vincent
BACKGROUND: Children with orthotopic heart transplants (OHT) may die or require retransplantation due to chronic graft failure usually due to severe coronary allograft vasculopathy (CAV). Non-invasive detection of chronic transplant failure has been problematic due to lack of specific echocardiographic findings. Tissue Doppler Imaging (TDI) is a non-invasive ultrasound methodology, which measures myocardial contraction and relaxation velocities. The purposes of this study were to: 1. Determine quantitative changes of longitudinal TDI velocities characteristic to "pre-terminal" patients who subsequently either died or were listed for re-transplantation due to graft failure; 2...
May 2006: Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation
Carlos R. Vozzi, Leonard W. Pechacek, Efrain Garcia, Virendra S. Mathur, Carlos M. De Castro, Robert J. Hall
In two patients with atypical myxomas of the left atrium, two-dimensional echocardiography furnished valuable diagnostic information. In one patient, who had previously developed an embolism at the right brachial artery, M-mode echocardiography revealed an abnormal band of echoes within the left atrium. Two-dimensional echocardiography showed a globular cluster of echoes that remained within the left atrial cavity throughout the cardiac cycle; left ventricular angiography confirmed the ultrasonic findings of an intraatrial mass...
September 1980: Cardiovascular Diseases
John H Alexander, Eric D Peterson, Anita Y Chen, Tina M Harding, David B Adams, Joseph A Kisslo
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether internal medicine house staff with limited training in echocardiography can use point-of-care echocardiography to make simple, clinically important diagnoses. BACKGROUND: Availability of small, portable ultrasound devices could make point-of-care echocardiography widely available. The training required to perform point-of-care echocardiography has not been established. METHODS: Medical house staff participated in a 3-hour point-of-care echocardiography training program...
March 2004: American Heart Journal
Lissa Sugeng, Kirk T Spencer, Victor Mor-Avi, Jeanne M DeCara, James E Bednarz, Lynn Weinert, Claudia E Korcarz, Georgeanne Lammertin, Beth Balasia, David Jayakar, Valluvan Jeevanandam, Roberto M Lang
BACKGROUND: Prior studies have reconstructed mitral regurgitant flow in three dimensions displaying gray scale renditions of the jets, which were difficult to differentiate from surrounding cardiac structures. Recently, a color-coded display of three-dimensional (3D) regurgitant flow has been developed. However, this display was unable to integrate cardiac anatomy, thereby losing spatial information, which made it difficult to determine the jet origin and its spatial trajectory. To overcome this limitation, an improved method of 3D color reconstruction of regurgitant jets obtained from color flow Doppler using a transesophageal approach was developed to allow the combined display of both color flow and gray scale information...
April 2003: Echocardiography
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