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Neonatal neurology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353032/clinical-assessment-and-brain-findings-in-a-cohort-of-mothers-fetuses-and-infants-infected-with-zika-virus
#1
Magdalena Sanz Cortes, Ana Maria Rivera, Mayel Yepez, Carolina V Guimaraes, Israel Diaz Yunes, Alexander Zarutskie, Ivan Davila, Anil Shetty, Arun Mahadev, Saray Maria Serrano, Nicolas Castillo, Wesley Lee, Gregory Valentine, Michael Belfort, Guido Parra, Carrie Mohila, Kjersti Aagaard, Miguel Parra
BACKGROUND: Congenital Zika virus (ZIKV) infection can be detected in both the presence and absence of microcephaly, and manifests as a number of signs and symptoms detected clinically and by neuroimaging. However, to date, qualitative and quantitative measures for the purpose of diagnosis and prognosis are limited. OBJECTIVES: Main objectives of this study conducted on fetuses and infants with confirmed congenital ZIKV infection and detected brain abnormalities are: 1) To assess the prevalence of microcephaly and the frequency of the anomalies including a detailed description based on ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in fetuses and ultrasound, MRI and computed tomography imaging postnatally; 2) To provide quantitative measures of fetal and infant brain findings by MRI using volumetric analyses and diffusion weighted imaging (DWI); 3) To obtain additional information from placental and fetal histopathological assessments and postnatal clinical evaluations...
January 15, 2018: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352657/electroencephalographic-monitoring-for-seizure-identification-and-prognosis-in-term-neonates
#2
REVIEW
Shavonne L Massey, Frances E Jensen, Nicholas S Abend
Seizures represent a manifestation of neurological disease in the neonatal period. Historically, neonatal seizures were identified by direct clinical observation. However, since most seizures are electroencephalographic (EEG)-only (subclinical, non-convulsive) and clinical manifestations may be subtle, many clinicians place increasing importance on EEG data including conventional EEG or amplitude-integrated EEG to identify seizures in neonates. Beyond seizure identification, the EEG is a robust source of information about brain function that can be useful for neurobehavioral prognostication in some neonates...
January 15, 2018: Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350350/biochemical-changes-and-clinical-outcomes-in-34-patients-with-classic-galactosemia
#3
Tatiana Yuzyuk, Krista Viau, Ashley Andrews, Marzia Pasquali, Nicola Longo
Impaired activity of galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALT) causes galactosemia, an autosomal recessive disorder of galactose metabolism. Early initiation of a galactose-restricted diet can prevent or resolve neonatal complications. Despite therapy, patients often experience long-term complications including speech impairment, learning disabilities, and premature ovarian insufficiency in females. This study evaluates clinical outcomes in 34 galactosemia patients with markedly reduced GALT activity and compares outcomes between patients with different levels of mean galactose-1-phosphate in red blood cells (GAL1P) using logistic regression: group 1 (n = 13) GAL1P ≤1...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346537/cerebral-mitochondrial-dysfunction-associated-with-deep-hypothermic-circulatory-arrest-in-neonatal-swine
#4
Constantine D Mavroudis, Michael Karlsson, Tiffany Ko, Marco Hefti, Javier I Gentile, Ryan W Morgan, Ross Plyler, Kobina G Mensah-Brown, Timothy W Boorady, Richard W Melchior, Tami M Rosenthal, Brandon C Shade, Kellie L Schiavo, Susan C Nicolson, Thomas L Spray, Robert M Sutton, Robert A Berg, Daniel J Licht, J William Gaynor, Todd J Kilbaugh
OBJECTIVES: Controversy remains regarding the use of deep hypothermic circulatory arrest (DHCA) in neonatal cardiac surgery. Alterations in cerebral mitochondrial bioenergetics are thought to contribute to ischaemia-reperfusion injury in DHCA. The purpose of this study was to compare cerebral mitochondrial bioenergetics for DHCA with deep hypothermic continuous perfusion using a neonatal swine model. METHODS: Twenty-four piglets (mean weight 3.8 kg) were placed on cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB): 10 underwent 40-min DHCA, following cooling to 18°C, 10 underwent 40 min DHCA and 10 remained at deep hypothermia for 40 min; animals were subsequently rewarmed to normothermia...
January 15, 2018: European Journal of Cardio-thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346139/blood-biomarkers-for-evaluation-of-perinatal-encephalopathy-state-of-the-art
#5
Ernest M Graham, Allen D Everett, Jean-Christophe Delpech, Frances J Northington
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The rapid progress in biomarker science is on the threshold of significantly changing clinical care for infants in the neonatal ICU. Infants with neonatal brain injuries will likely be the first group whose management is dramatically altered with point-of-care, rapidly available brain biomarker analysis. Providing an interim update on progress in this area is the purpose of this review. RECENT FINDINGS: Highlighted findings from the past 18 months of publications on biomarkers in neonatal brain injury include; Specific nonbrain markers of cardiac health and global asphyxia continue to provide information on brain injury after hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE)...
January 17, 2018: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344471/a-6-month-old-girl-with-incontinentia-pigmenti-presenting-as-status-epilepticus
#6
Moon Young Seo, Su Jeong You, Soung Hee Kim, Woo Ho Cho, Jong Hee Chae
Incontinentia pigmenti (IP) is an uncommon neurocutaneous syndrome. Its initial diagnosis is based primarily on characteristic papulovesicular skin lesions and early-onset neonatal seizures. In contrast to typical early neurologic manifestations, we encountered a normally developed 6-month-old female patient with hyperpigmented whorls on her body. Following respiratory syncytial virus infection and fever, the patient exhibited status epilepticus. Brain magnetic resonance imaging studies of the patient were compatible with the findings of acute encephalopathy in IP...
December 2017: Journal of Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341252/painful-procedures-can-affect-postnatal-growth-and-neurodevelopment-in-preterm-infants
#7
Caterina Coviello, Marina Popple Martinez, Livia Drovandi, Corsini Iuri, Valentina Leonardi, Clara Lunardi, Carla Antonelli, Simone Pratesi, Carlo Dani
AIM: This Italian study evaluated whether painful procedures during the first four weeks of life were related to subsequent weight gain, head circumference (HC) and neurodevelopmental outcomes in preterm infants, METHODS: We evaluated the number of invasive procedures that infants born at less than 32 weeks of gestational age (GA) underwent in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of Careggi Hospital, Florence from January to December 2015. Weight and HC were recorded at birth, 36 weeks of PMA and six and 12 months of CA...
January 17, 2018: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339258/relationship-between-very-early-brain-structure-and-neuromotor-neurological-and-neurobehavioral-function-in-infants-born-31%C3%A2-weeks-gestational-age
#8
Joanne M George, Simona Fiori, Jurgen Fripp, Kerstin Pannek, Andrea Guzzetta, Michael David, Robert S Ware, Stephen E Rose, Paul B Colditz, Roslyn N Boyd
AIM: This study aimed to examine associations between structural MRI and concurrent motor, neurological and neurobehavioral measures at 30-32 weeks postmenstrual age (PMA; 'Early'), and at term equivalent age ('Term'). METHOD: In this prospective cohort study, infants underwent Early MRI (n = 119; 73 male; median 32 weeks 1 day PMA) and Term MRI (n = 102; 61 male; median 40 weeks 4 days PMA) at 3 T. Structural images were scored generating white matter (WM), cortical gray matter, deep gray matter, cerebellar and global brain abnormality scores...
January 13, 2018: Early Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339173/neuroprotective-effects-of-topiramate-and-memantine-in-combination-with-hypothermia-in-hypoxic-ischemic-brain-injury-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#9
Elisa Landucci, Luca Filippi, Elisabetta Gerace, Serena Catarzi, Renzo Guerrini, Domenico E Pellegrini-Giampietro
Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) is a major cause of perinatal mortality and subsequent severe neurological sequelae. Mild hypothermia is a standard therapy for HIE, but is used only in selected Reference Centers and in neonates >1800 g. Since neuronal death following HIE occurs by a cascade of events triggered by activation of glutamate receptors, we used in vitro and in vivo models of HIE to examine whether the AMPA/kainate receptor antagonist topiramate and the NMDA receptor antagonist memantine could exert neuroprotective effects, alone or in combination with hypothermia...
January 12, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337147/neuronal-pten-deletion-in-adult-cortical-neurons-triggers-progressive-growth-of-cell-bodies-dendrites-and-axons
#10
Erin A Gallent, Oswald Steward
Deletion of the phosphatase and tensin (PTEN) gene in neonatal mice leads to enlargement of the cell bodies of cortical motoneurons (CMNs) in adulthood (Gutilla et al., 2016). Here, we assessed whether PTEN deletion in adult mice would trigger growth of mature neurons. PTEN was deleted by injecting AAV-Cre into the sensorimotor cortex of adult transgenic mice with a lox-P flanked exon 5 of the PTEN gene and Cre-dependent reporter gene tdTomato. PTEN-deleted CMN's identified by tdT expression and retrograde labeling with fluorogold (FG) were significantly enlarged four months following PTEN deletion, and continued to increase in size through the latest time intervals examined (12-15 months post-deletion)...
January 11, 2018: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335781/peripartum-events-associated-with-severe-neurologic-morbidity-and-mortality-among-acidemic-neonates
#11
Sivan Zuarez-Easton, Sally Hosary, Noah Zafran, Gali Garmi, Clari Felszer, Raed Salim
PURPOSE: To identify peripartum events that may predict the development of short-term neurologic morbidity and mortality among acidemic neonates. METHODS: Retrospective case-control study conducted at a single-teaching hospital on data from January 2010 to December 2015. The study cohort group included all acidemic neonates (cord artery pH ≤ 7.1) born at ≥ 34 weeks. Primary outcome was a composite including any of the following: neonatal encephalopathy, convulsions, intra-ventricular hemorrhage, or neonatal death...
January 15, 2018: Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335023/early-neonatal-glutaric-aciduria-type-i-hidden-by-perinatal-asphyxia-a-case-report
#12
Giacomo Biasucci, Nicola Morelli, Federica Natacci, Massimo Mastrangelo
BACKGROUND: Perinatal asphyxia (PA) occurs in about 2 to 10 per 1000 live full-term births. Although neonatal epileptic seizures are observed in up to 60% of cases, PA may mimic or subtend other conditions. Hypoxia related brain injury is particularly relevant, as it may have permanent effects on neuropsychomotor development. Antepartum obstetric conditions, may, in turn, lead to hypoxic-ischemic damage to the fetus and the newborn, often underlying PA. Herein, a case of PA that hid and triggered signs and symptoms of Glutaric Aciduria type I (GA-I), is reported...
January 15, 2018: Italian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331747/dural-based-cavernous-malformation-at-the-cerebral-convexity-report-of-two-pediatric-patients
#13
Guichen Li, Xuan Zhai, Yang Zhang, Ping Liang, Xuanxuan Wu, Kun Hou
BACKGROUND: Intracranial (cavernous malformations) CMs are usually located at the cerebral parenchyma, dural-based CMs outside the middle fossa are rarely reported. To our knowledge, dural-based CMs located at the cerebral convexity are even rarer that only two pediatric cases were ever reported. In this report, we present two extremely rare cases of dural-based CMs at the cerebral convexity in pediatric patients. The clinical course, radiological and pathological features, treatment, and follow-up are described...
January 10, 2018: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328980/consequence-of-intraventricular-hemorrhage-on-neurovascular-coupling-evoked-by-speech-syllables-in-preterm-neonates
#14
Mahdi Mahmoudzadeh, Ghislaine Dehaene-Lambertz, Guy Kongolo, Marc Fournier, Sabrina Goudjil, Fabrice Wallois
Intraventricular Hemorrhage (IVH) is the leading cause of neurological and cognitive impairment in preterm neonates with an incidence that increases with increasing prematurity. In the present study, we tested how preterm neonates with IVH react to external stimulation (i.e. speech syllables). We compared their neural responses measured by electroencephalography (EEG), and hemodynamic responses measured by functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), with those of healthy preterms. A neural response to syllables was observed in these infants, but did not induce a vascular response in contrast with healthy neonates...
January 5, 2018: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328035/assessment-of-neurodevelopmental-outcomes-in-infants-6-12-months-of-age-according-to-impact-of-perinatal-risk-factors
#15
N Tskimanauri, N Khachapuridze, P Imnadze, T Chanadiri, S Bakhtadze
The purpose of this research was to investigate the developmental follow-up of infants (at age of 6 month and 12 month), exposed to separate and combination impact of perinatal risk factors, compared with not exposed cases, within the prospective cohort study. Between January 2015 and January 2017, in this research we prospectively enrolled 1018 live-born infants from the medical reports of the participating clinics in Tbilisi (capital of Republic of Georgia) and Mtskheta, Dusheti (districts of Georgia). Within postnatal follow-up, the children from whole population were assessed at 6 and 12 months of age by family doctors using the Denver Developmental Screening Test (Denver II)...
December 2017: Georgian Medical News
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323105/enterovirus-d68-virus-like-particles-expressed-in-pichia-pastoris-potently-induce-neutralizing-antibody-responses-and-confer-protection-against-lethal-viral-infection-in-mice
#16
Chao Zhang, Xueyang Zhang, Wei Zhang, Wenlong Dai, Jing Xie, Liping Ye, Hongli Wang, Huan Chen, Qingwei Liu, Sitang Gong, Lanlan Geng, Zhong Huang
Enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) has been increasingly associated with severe respiratory illness and neurological complications in children worldwide. However, no vaccine is currently available to prevent EV-D68 infection. In the present study, we investigated the possibility of developing a virus-like particle (VLP)-based EV-D68 vaccine. We found that co-expression of the P1 precursor and 3CD protease of EV-D68 in Pichia pastoris yeast resulted in the generation of EV-D68 VLPs, which were composed of processed VP0, VP1, and VP3 capsid proteins and were visualized as ~30 nm spherical particles...
January 10, 2018: Emerging Microbes & Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319634/hyperoxia-and-hypocapnia-during-pediatric-extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation-associations-with-complications-mortality-and-functional-status-among-survivors
#17
Katherine Cashen, Ron Reeder, Heidi J Dalton, Robert A Berg, Thomas P Shanley, Christopher J L Newth, Murray M Pollack, David Wessel, Joseph Carcillo, Rick Harrison, J Michael Dean, Robert Tamburro, Kathleen L Meert
OBJECTIVES: To determine the frequency of hyperoxia and hypocapnia during pediatric extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and their relationships to complications, mortality, and functional status among survivors. DESIGN: Secondary analysis of data collected prospectively by the Collaborative Pediatric Critical Care Research Network. SETTING: Eight Collaborative Pediatric Critical Care Research Network-affiliated hospitals. PATIENTS: Age less than 19 years and treated with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation...
January 9, 2018: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318119/mild-hypothermia-therapy-for-moderate-or-severe-hypoxicischemic-encephalopathy-in-neonates
#18
Weihua Liao, Huiying Xu, Jing Ding, Hong Huang
Background: To study the nursing method of mild hypothermia therapy for moderate or severe hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) in neonates. Methods: According to the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 48 patients were selected from Nanfang Hospital from December 2015 to October 2016 and randomly divided into the control group (n=24) and observation group (n=24). The control group received routine treatment and nursing, while the observation group received the same treatment as the control group combined with mild hypothermia treatment and nursing...
January 2018: Iranian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317193/an-essential-role-for-neuregulin-4-in-the-growth-and-elaboration-of-developing-neocortical-pyramidal-dendrites
#19
Blanca Paramo, Sean Wyatt, Alun M Davies
Neuregulins, with the exception of neuregulin-4 (NRG4), have been shown to be extensively involved in many aspects of neural development and function and are implicated in several neurological disorders, including schizophrenia, depression and bipolar disorder. Here we provide the first evidence that NRG4 has a crucial function in the developing brain. We show that both the apical and basal dendrites of neocortical pyramidal neurons are markedly stunted in Nrg4-/- neonates in vivo compared with Nrg4+/+ littermates...
January 6, 2018: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310577/epidemiology-of-invasive-group-b-streptococcal-disease-in-infants-from-urban-area-of-south-china-2011-2014
#20
Xiaoshan Guan, Xiaoping Mu, Wenjing Ji, Chunlei Yuan, Ping He, Lian Zhang, Yanfen Huang, Juan Li, Jianfeng Chen, Huamin Zhong, Shuyin Pang, Nan Tan, Qiulian Deng, Kankan Gao, Yu-Ping Huang, Chien-Yi Chang, Haiying Liu
BACKGROUND: Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in infants in both developed and developing countries. To our knowledge, only a few studies have been reported the clinical features, treatment and outcomes of the GBS disease in China. The severity of neonatal GBS disease in China remains unclear. Population-based surveillance in China is therefore required. METHODS: We retrospectively collected data of <3 months old infants with culture-positive GBS in sterile samples from three large urban tertiary hospitals in South China from Jan 2011 to Dec 2014...
January 8, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
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