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Fetal neurology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323976/protective-effects-of-fetal-zone-steroids-are-comparable-to-estradiol-in-hyperoxia-induced-cell-death-of-immature-glia
#1
Stephanie Hübner, Donna E Sunny, Christine Pöhlke, Johanna Ruhnau, Antje Vogelgesang, Bettina Reich, Matthias Heckmann
Impaired neurodevelopment in preterm infants is caused by prematurity itself; however, hypoxia/ischemia, inflammation, and hyperoxia contribute to the extent of impairment. Because preterm birth is accompanied by a dramatic decrease in 17β-estradiol (E2) and progesterone, preliminary clinical studies have been carried out to substitute these steroids in preterm infants; however, they failed to confirm significantly improved neurological outcomes. We therefore hypothesized that the persistently high postnatal production of fetal zone steroids (mainly dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA)) until term could interfere with E2-mediated protection...
March 3, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318966/structural-biology-of-the-zika-virus
#2
REVIEW
Yi Shi, George F Gao
Zika virus (ZIKV), a Flaviviridae family member transmitted to humans by mosquitoes, has emerged as a major health concern. ZIKV infections can cause serious neurological complications in adults, and infection in pregnant women can cause congenital malformations, including fetal and newborn microcephaly. In response to this emerging concern, the structural virology field was quick to explore the features of ZIKV. These efforts have provided significant insights into ZIKV pathogenesis, and have identified targets for drug design...
March 15, 2017: Trends in Biochemical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315866/cerebrospinal-fluid-and-parenchymal-brain-development-and-growth-in-the-healthy-fetus
#3
Nickie N Andescavage, Adre DuPlessis, Robert McCarter, Gilbert Vezina, Richard Robertson, Catherine Limperopoulos
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to apply quantitative magnetic resonance imaging to characterize absolute cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) development, as well as its relative development to fetal brain parenchyma in the healthy human fetus. DESIGN: We created three-dimensional high-resolution reconstructions of the developing brain for healthy fetuses between 18 and 40 weeks' gestation, segmented the parenchymal and CSF spaces, and calculated the volumes for the lateral, third, and fourth ventricles; extra-axial CSF space; and the cerebrum, cerebellum, and brainstem...
March 18, 2017: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306540/4d-assessment-of-fetal-brain-function-in-diabetic-patients
#4
Panagiotis Antsaklis, Selma Porovic, George Daskalakis, Asim Kurjak
OBJECTIVE: To assess whether there is a difference in the behavior of fetuses of pregnant women with diabetes under treatment with insulin, compared to fetuses of pregnant women without diabetes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Kurjak's antenatal neurodevelopmental test (KANET) - a method that, by application of four-dimensional (4D) ultrasound, assesses fetal behavior in a similar way that neonatologists perform a neurological assessment in newborns - was applied from 28 to 38 weeks of gestation to 40 pregnancies with pre-existing diabetes mellitus or gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) requiring insulin (diabetic group) and to 40 non-diabetic cases, with otherwise low-risk pregnancies (non-diabetic group)...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Perinatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298846/menkes-disease-and-response-to-copper-histidine-an-indian-case-series
#5
Sangeetha Yoganathan, Sniya Valsa Sudhakar, Gautham Arunachal, Maya Thomas, Annadurai Subramanian, Renu George, Sumita Danda
BACKGROUND: Menkes disease (MD) is an X-linked recessive neurodegenerative disorder caused by mutations in ATP7A gene. Depending on the residual ATP7A activity, manifestation may be classical MD, occipital horn syndrome, or distal motor neuropathy. Neurological sparing is expected in female carriers. However, on rare occasions, females may manifest with classical clinical phenotype due to skewed X-chromosome inactivation, X-autosome translocation, and XO genotype. Here, we describe a small series of probands with MD and their response to copper histidine therapy...
January 2017: Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298291/plasmablast-response-to-primary-rhesus-cytomegalovirus-infection-in-a-monkey-model-of-congenital-cmv-transmission
#6
Qihua Fan, Cody S Nelson, Kristy M Bialas, Flavia Chiuppesi, Joshua Amos, Thaddeus C Gurley, Dawn Jones Marshall, Joshua Eudailey, Holly Heimsath, Jonathon Himes, Ashlesha Deshpande, Mark R Walter, Felix Wussow, Don J Diamond, Peter A Barry, M Anthony Moody, Amitinder Kaur, Sallie R Permar
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is the most common congenital infection worldwide, and the leading infectious cause of neurologic deficits and hearing loss in newborns. Development of a maternal HCMV vaccine to prevent vertical virus transmission is a high priority, yet protective maternal immune responses following acute infection are poorly understood. To characterize the maternal humoral immune response to primary CMV infection, we investigated the plasmablast and early antibody repertoire using a nonhuman primate model with two acutely rhesus CMV (RhCMV) infected animals - a CD4+ T cell-depleted dam that experienced fetal loss shortly after vertical RhCMV transmission and an immunocompetent dam that did not transmit RhCMV to her infant...
March 15, 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296632/severe-neurologic-disorders-in-2-fetuses-with-zika-virus-infection-colombia
#7
Jorge Acosta-Reyes, Edgar Navarro, Maria José Herrera, Eloina Goenaga, Martha L Ospina, Edgar Parra, Marcela Mercado, Pablo Chaparro, Mauricio Beltran, Maria Luz Gunturiz, Lissethe Pardo, Catalina Valencia, Sandra Huertas, Jorge Rodríguez, Germán Ruiz, Diana Valencia, Lisa B Haddad, Sarah C Tinker, Cynthia A Moore, Hernando Baquero
We report the results of pathologic examinations of 2 fetuses from women in Colombia with Zika virus infection during pregnancy that revealed severe central nervous system defects and potential associated abnormalities of the eye, spleen, and placenta. Amniotic fluid and tissues from multiple fetal organs tested positive for Zika virus.
June 15, 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293472/learning-and-memory-disabilities-in-iugr-babies-functional-and-molecular-analysis-in-a-rat-model
#8
Marta Camprubí Camprubí, Rafel Balada Caballé, Juan A Ortega Cano, Maria de Los Angeles Ortega de la Torre, Cristina Duran Fernández-Feijoo, Montserrat Girabent-Farrés, Josep Figueras-Aloy, Xavier Krauel, Soledad Alcántara
INTRODUCTION: 1Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is the failure of the fetus to achieve its inherent growth potential, and it has frequently been associated with neurodevelopmental problems in childhood. Neurological disorders are mostly associated with IUGR babies with an abnormally high cephalization index (CI) and a brain sparing effect. However, a similar correlation has never been demonstrated in an animal model. The aim of this study was to determine the correlations between CI, functional deficits in learning and memory and alterations in synaptic proteins in a rat model of IUGR...
March 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285426/fetal-growth-restriction-current-knowledge
#9
REVIEW
Luciano Marcondes Machado Nardozza, Ana Carolina Rabachini Caetano, Ana Cristina Perez Zamarian, Jaqueline Brandão Mazzola, Carolina Pacheco Silva, Vivian Macedo Gomes Marçal, Thalita Frutuoso Lobo, Alberto Borges Peixoto, Edward Araujo Júnior
BACKGROUND: Fetal growth restriction (FGR) is a condition that affects 5-10% of pregnancies and is the second most common cause of perinatal mortality. This review presents the most recent knowledge on FGR and focuses on the etiology, classification, prediction, diagnosis, and management of the condition, as well as on its neurological complications. METHODS: The Pubmed, SCOPUS, and Embase databases were searched using the term "fetal growth restriction". RESULTS: Fetal growth restriction (FGR) may be classified as early or late depending on the time of diagnosis...
March 11, 2017: Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284393/epilepsy-in-inborn-errors-of-metabolism-with-therapeutic-options
#10
Jaume Campistol
Inborn errors of metabolism (IEM) are rare conditions that represent more than 1000 diseases, with a global prevalence of approximately 1:2000 individuals. Approximately, 40%-60% of IEM may present with epilepsy as one of the main neurologic signs. Epilepsy in IEM may appear at any age (fetal, newborn, infant, adolescent, or even adult). Different pathophysiological mechanisms may be responsible for the clinical phenotype, such as disturbances in energy metabolism (mitochondrial and fatty oxidation disorders, GLUT-1, and cerebral creatine deficiency), accumulation of complex molecules (lysosomal storage disorders), toxic mechanisms (organic acidurias and urea cycle disorders), or impairment of neurotransmission...
November 2016: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281142/role-of-dna-methylation-in-imprinting-disorders-an-updated-review
#11
REVIEW
Amr Rafat Elhamamsy
Genomic imprinting is a complex epigenetic process that contributes substantially to embryogenesis, reproduction, and gametogenesis. Only small fraction of genes within the whole genome undergoes imprinting. Imprinted genes are expressed in a monoallelic parent-of-origin-specific manner, which means that only one of the two inherited alleles is expressed either from the paternal or maternal side. Imprinted genes are typically arranged in clusters controlled by differentially methylated regions or imprinting control regions...
March 9, 2017: Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280063/surveillance-report-of-zika-virus-among-canadian-travellers-returning-from-the-americas
#12
Andrea K Boggild, Jennifer Geduld, Michael Libman, Cedric P Yansouni, Anne E McCarthy, Jan Hajek, Wayne Ghesquiere, Yazdan Mirzanejad, Jean Vincelette, Susan Kuhn, Pierre J Plourde, Sumontra Chakrabarti, David O Freedman, Kevin C Kain
BACKGROUND: Widespread transmission of Zika virus in the Americas has occurred since late 2015. We examined demographic and travel-related characteristics of returned Canadian travellers with Zika infection acquired in the Americas to illuminate risk factors for acquisition and the clinical spectrum. METHODS: We analyzed demographic and travel-related data for returned Canadian travellers who presented to a CanTravNet site between October 2015 and September 2016 for care of Zika virus acquired in the Americas...
March 6, 2017: CMAJ: Canadian Medical Association Journal, Journal de L'Association Medicale Canadienne
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278235/a-novel-zika-virus-mouse-model-reveals-strain-specific-differences-in-virus-pathogenesis-and-host-inflammatory-immune-responses
#13
Shashank Tripathi, Vinod R M T Balasubramaniam, Julia A Brown, Ignacio Mena, Alesha Grant, Susana V Bardina, Kevin Maringer, Megan C Schwarz, Ana M Maestre, Marion Sourisseau, Randy A Albrecht, Florian Krammer, Matthew J Evans, Ana Fernandez-Sesma, Jean K Lim, Adolfo García-Sastre
Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito borne flavivirus, which was a neglected tropical pathogen until it emerged and spread across the Pacific Area and the Americas, causing large human outbreaks associated with fetal abnormalities and neurological disease in adults. The factors that contributed to the emergence, spread and change in pathogenesis of ZIKV are not understood. We previously reported that ZIKV evades cellular antiviral responses by targeting STAT2 for degradation in human cells. In this study, we demonstrate that Stat2-/- mice are highly susceptible to ZIKV infection, recapitulate virus spread to the central nervous system (CNS), gonads and other visceral organs, and display neurological symptoms...
March 9, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276873/the-hidden-niemann-pick-type-c-patient-clinical-niches-for-a-rare-inherited-metabolic-disease
#14
Christian J Hendriksz, Mathieu Anheim, Peter Bauer, Olivier Bonnot, Anupam Chakrapani, Jean-Christophe Corvol, Tom J de Koning, Anna Degtyareva, Carlo Dionisi-Vici, Sarah Doss, Thomas Duning, Paola Giunti, Rosa Iodice, Tracy Johnston, Dierdre Kelly, Hans-Hermann Klünemann, Stefan Lorenzl, Alessandro Padovani, Miguel Pocovi, Matthis Synofzik, Alta Terblanche, Florian Then Bergh, Meral Topçu, Christine Tranchant, Mark Walterfang, Christian Velten, Stefan A Kolb
BACKGROUND: Niemann-Pick disease type C (NP-C) is a rare, inherited neurodegenerative disease of impaired intracellular lipid trafficking. Clinical symptoms are highly heterogeneous, including neurological, visceral, or psychiatric manifestations. The incidence of NP-C is under-estimated due to under-recognition or misdiagnosis across a wide range of medical fields. New screening and diagnostic methods provide an opportunity to improve detection of unrecognized cases in clinical sub-populations associated with a higher risk of NP-C...
March 2, 2017: Current Medical Research and Opinion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270583/a-reverse-genetics-platform-that-spans-the-zika-virus-family-tree
#15
Douglas G Widman, Ellen Young, Boyd L Yount, Kenneth S Plante, Emily N Gallichotte, Derek L Carbaugh, Kayla M Peck, Jessica Plante, Jesica Swanstrom, Mark T Heise, Helen M Lazear, Ralph S Baric
Zika virus (ZIKV), a mosquito-borne flavivirus discovered in 1947, has only recently caused large outbreaks and emerged as a significant human pathogen. In 2015, ZIKV was detected in Brazil, and the resulting epidemic has spread throughout the Western Hemisphere. Severe complications from ZIKV infection include neurological disorders such as Guillain-Barré syndrome in adults and a variety of fetal abnormalities, including microcephaly, blindness, placental insufficiency, and fetal demise. There is an urgent need for tools and reagents to study the pathogenesis of epidemic ZIKV and for testing vaccines and antivirals...
March 7, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268486/identifying-stereotypic-evolving-micro-scale-seizures-sems-in-the-hypoxic-ischemic-eeg-of-the-pre-term-fetal-sheep-with-a-wavelet-type-ii-fuzzy-classifier
#16
Hamid Abbasi, Laura Bennet, Alistair J Gunn, Charles P Unsworth
Perinatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) around the time of birth due to lack of oxygen can lead to debilitating neurological conditions such as epilepsy and cerebral palsy. Experimental data have shown that brain injury evolves over time, but during the first 6-8 hours after HIE the brain has recovered oxidative metabolism in a latent phase, and brain injury is reversible. Treatments such as therapeutic cerebral hypothermia (brain cooling) are effective when started during the latent phase, and continued for several days...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265476/takayasu-s-arteritis-in-pregnancy-a-rare-case-report-from-a-tertiary-care-infirmary-in-india
#17
Sheeba Marwah, Monika Rajput, Ritin Mohindra, Harsha S Gaikwad, Manjula Sharma, Sonam R Topden
Background. Takayasu's arteritis (TA) is a rare, chronic, inflammatory, progressive, idiopathic arteriopathy, afflicting young women of reproductive age group, causing narrowing, occlusion, and aneurysms of systemic and pulmonary arteries, especially the aorta and its branches. During pregnancy, such patients warrant special attention. An interdisciplinary collaboration of obstetricians, cardiologists, and neurologists is necessary to improve maternal and fetal prognosis. Here a case is reported where a patient with diagnosis of TA, complicated by neurological sequelae, successfully fought the vagaries of the condition twice to deliver uneventfully...
2017: Case Reports in Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263141/use-of-blood-donor-screening-data-to-estimate-zika-virus-incidence-puerto-rico-april-august-2016
#18
Michelle S Chevalier, Brad J Biggerstaff, Sridhar V Basavaraju, M Cheryl Bañez Ocfemia, Jose O Alsina, Consuelo Climent-Peris, Robin R Moseley, Koo-Whang Chung, Brenda Rivera-García, Melissa Bello-Pagán, Lisa L Pate, Susan A Galel, Phillip Williamson, Matthew J Kuehnert
Puerto Rico has been heavily impacted by Zika virus, a mosquitoborne flavivirus that emerged in the Americas during 2015. Although most persons with Zika virus show no symptoms, the virus can cause neurologic and other complications, including fetal microcephaly. Local Zika virus transmission in Puerto Rico has been reported since December 2015. To prevent transfusion-associated transmission, local blood collection ceased in March 2016 but resumed in April 2016 after Zika virus screening of blood donations became available...
May 15, 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261663/zika-virus-causes-testicular-atrophy
#19
Ryuta Uraki, Jesse Hwang, Kellie Ann Jurado, Sarah Householder, Laura J Yockey, Andrew K Hastings, Robert J Homer, Akiko Iwasaki, Erol Fikrig
Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging mosquito-borne flavivirus that has recently been found to cause fetal infection and neonatal abnormalities, including microcephaly and neurological dysfunction. ZIKV persists in the semen months after the acute viremic phase in humans. To further understand the consequences of ZIKV persistence in males, we infected Ifnar1(-/-) mice via subcutaneous injection of a pathogenic but nonlethal ZIKV strain. ZIKV replication persists within the testes even after clearance from the blood, with interstitial, testosterone-producing Leydig cells supporting virus replication...
February 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249134/treatment-of-subclinical-hypothyroidism-or-hypothyroxinemia-in-pregnancy
#20
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Brian M Casey, Elizabeth A Thom, Alan M Peaceman, Michael W Varner, Yoram Sorokin, Deborah G Hirtz, Uma M Reddy, Ronald J Wapner, John M Thorp, George Saade, Alan T N Tita, Dwight J Rouse, Baha Sibai, Jay D Iams, Brian M Mercer, Jorge Tolosa, Steve N Caritis, J Peter VanDorsten
Background Subclinical thyroid disease during pregnancy may be associated with adverse outcomes, including a lower-than-normal IQ in offspring. It is unknown whether levothyroxine treatment of women who are identified as having subclinical hypothyroidism or hypothyroxinemia during pregnancy improves cognitive function in their children. Methods We screened women with a singleton pregnancy before 20 weeks of gestation for subclinical hypothyroidism, defined as a thyrotropin level of 4.00 mU or more per liter and a normal free thyroxine (T4) level (0...
March 2, 2017: New England Journal of Medicine
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