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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29923763/novel-haemodynamic-structures-in-the-human-glomerulus
#1
Christopher R Neal, Kenton Arkill, James Stephen Bell, Kai B Betteridge, David O Bates, C Peter Winlove, Andrew Hj Salmon, Steven J Harper
To investigate human glomerular structure under conditions of physiological perfusion we have analysed fresh and perfusion fixed normal human glomeruli at physiological hydrostatic and oncotic pressures using serial resin section reconstruction, confocal, multiphoton and electron microscope imaging. Afferent and efferent arterioles (21.5{plus minus}1.2µm and 15.9{plus minus}1.2µm diameter), recognised from vascular origins, lead into previously undescribed wider regions (43.2{plus minus}2.8 µm and 38.4{plus minus}4...
June 20, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29920459/the-stability-of-chlorinated-brominated-and-iodinated-haloacetamides-in-drinking-water
#2
Shunke Ding, Wenhai Chu, Stuart W Krasner, Yun Yu, Chao Fang, Bin Xu, Naiyun Gao
Haloacetamides (HAMs), a group of nitrogenous disinfection byproducts (N-DBPs), can decompose to form corresponding intermediate products and other DBPs. The stability of ten different HAMs, including two chlorinated, five brominated, and three iodinated species was investigated with and without the presence of chlorine, chloramines, and reactive solutes such as quenching agents. The HAM basic hydrolysis and chlorination kinetics were well described by a second-order kinetics model, including first-order in HAM and hydroxide and first-order in HAM and hypochlorite, respectively, whereas the HAM neutral hydrolysis kinetic was first-order in HAM...
June 13, 2018: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789473/effect-of-sewage-irrigation-on-the-ct-measured-soil-pore-characteristics-of-a-clay-farmland-in-northern-china
#3
Xiaoming Guo, Tongqian Zhao, Lin Liu, Chunyan Xiao, Yuxiao He
Sewage irrigation has a strong influence on the physical, chemical, and biological properties of soil. However, the effects of sewage irrigation on the pore characteristics of soil are not well understood. This study compares the effects of sewage irrigation and groundwater irrigation on computed tomography (CT)-measured pore parameters and examines the relationships between CT-measured pore parameters and soil physicochemical and microbial properties. Intact soil cores were collected from S1 irrigated with sewage for 25 years, S2 irrigated with sewage for 52 years, and CK irrigated with groundwater...
May 22, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681732/the-genus-parasola-in-pakistan-with-the-description-of-two-new-species
#4
Shah Hussain, Habib Ahmad, Sadiq Ullah, Najam-Ul-Sehar Afshan, Donald H Pfister, Hassan Sher, Haidar Ali, Abdul N Khalid
Parasola is a genus of small, veil-less coprinoid mushrooms in the family Psathyrellaceae (Agaricales). The genus is not well documented in Asia, specifically in Pakistan. In this study we describe two new species Parasola glabra and P. pseudolactea from Pakistan, based on morphological and molecular data. Phylogeny based on three DNA regions: nuc rDNA region encompassing the internal transcribed spacers 1 and 2 along with the 5.8S rDNA (ITS), nuc 28S rDNA D1-D2 domains (28S) and translation elongation factor 1 α gene ( TEF1α ) show that the new taxa are clustered in a clade formed by the members of section Parasola of genus Parasola ...
2018: MycoKeys
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29553156/3d-printed-quake-style-microvalves-and-micropumps
#5
Yuan-Sheng Lee, Nirveek Bhattacharjee, Albert Folch
Here we demonstrate a 3D-printable microvalve that is transparent, built with a biocompatible resin, and has a simple architecture that can be easily scaled up into large arrays. The open-at-rest valve design is derived from Quake's PDMS valve design. We used a stereolithographic (SL) 3D printer to print a thin (25 or 10 μm-thick) membrane (1200 or 500 μm-diam.) that is pneumatically pressed (∼3-6 psi) over a bowl-shaped seat to close the valve. We used poly(ethylene diacrylate) (MW = 258) (PEG-DA-258) as the resin because it yields transparent cytocompatible prints...
April 17, 2018: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439025/thermal-proximity-coaggregation-for-system-wide-profiling-of-protein-complex-dynamics-in-cells
#6
Chris Soon Heng Tan, Ka Diam Go, Xavier Bisteau, Lingyun Dai, Chern Han Yong, Nayana Prabhu, Mert Burak Ozturk, Yan Ting Lim, Lekshmy Sreekumar, Johan Lengqvist, Vinay Tergaonkar, Philipp Kaldis, Radoslaw M Sobota, Pär Nordlund
Proteins differentially interact with each other across cellular states and conditions, but an efficient proteome-wide strategy to monitor them is lacking. We report the application of thermal proximity coaggregation (TPCA) for high-throughput intracellular monitoring of protein complex dynamics. Significant TPCA signatures observed among well-validated protein-protein interactions correlate positively with interaction stoichiometry and are statistically observable in more than 350 annotated human protein complexes...
March 9, 2018: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415110/use-of-molecular-markers-to-compare-escherichia-coli-transport-with-traditional-groundwater-tracers-in-epikarst
#7
Ashley Bandy, Kimberly Cook, Alan E Fryar, Jason Polk
Bacterial contamination of karst aquifers is a global concern as water quality deteriorates in the face of decreasing water security. Traditional abiotic groundwater tracers, which do not exhibit surface properties similar to bacteria, may not be good proxies for risk assessment of bacterial transport in karst environments. This study examined the transport and attenuation of two isolates of in relation to traditional groundwater tracers (rhodamine WT dye and 1-μm-diam. latex microspheres) through ∼30 m of epikarst in western Kentucky...
January 2018: Journal of Environmental Quality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29412773/phrenic-motor-neuron-loss-in-aged-rats
#8
Matthew Joseph Fogarty, Tanya S Omar, Wen-Zhi Zhan, Carlos B Mantilla, Gary C Sieck
Sarcopenia is the age-related reduction of muscle mass and specific force. In previous studies, we found that sarcopenia of the diaphragm muscle (DIAm) is evident by 24-months of age in both rats and mice, and is associated with selective atrophy of type IIx and IIb muscle fibers and a decrease in maximum specific force. These fiber type specific effects of sarcopenia resemble those induced by DIAm denervation, leading us to hypothesize that sarcopenia is due to an age-related loss of phrenic motor neurons (PhMNs)...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29364542/drug-induced-aseptic-meningitis-a-mini-review
#9
REVIEW
Melissa Yelehe-Okouma, Julie Czmil-Garon, Elise Pape, Nadine Petitpain, Pierre Gillet
Aseptic meningitis associates a typical clinical picture of meningitis with the absence of bacterial or fungal material in the cerebrospinal fluid. Drug-induced aseptic meningitis (DIAM) may be due to two mechanisms: (i) a direct meningeal irritation caused by the intrathecal administration of drugs and (ii) an immunologic hypersensitivity reaction to a systemic administration. If the direct meningeal irritation allows a rather easy recognition, the immunologic hypersensitivity reaction is a source of challenging diagnostics...
January 24, 2018: Fundamental & Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307048/biomechanical-analysis-of-a-new-lumbar-interspinous-device-with-optimized-topology
#10
Chen-Sheng Chen, Shih-Liang Shih
Interspinous spacers used stand-alone preserve joint movement but provide little protection for diseased segments of the spine. Used as adjuncts with fusion, interspinous spacers offer rigid stability but may accelerate degeneration on adjacent levels. Our new device is intended to balance the stability and preserves motion provided by the implant. A new interspinous spacer was devised according to the results of topology optimization studies. Four finite element (FE) spine models were created that consisted of an intact spine without an implant, implantation of the novel, the device for intervertebral assisted motion (DIAM system), and the Dynesys system...
January 6, 2018: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304423/pulpal-blood-flow-recorded-from-exposed-dentine-with-a-laser-doppler-flow-meter-using-red-or-infrared-light
#11
Kanittha Kijsamanmith, Noppakun Vongsavan, Bruce Matthews
OBJECTIVE: To determine the percentage of the blood flow signal that is derived from dental pulp when recording from exposed dentine in a human premolar. DESIGN: Recordings were made from 7 healthy teeth in 5 subjects (aged 22-33 yr.) with a laser Doppler flow meter (Periflux 4001) using either a red (635 nm) or an infrared (780 nm) laser. After exposing dentine above the buccal pulpal horn (cavity diam. 1.6 mm, depth 3 mm) and isolating the crown with opaque rubber dam, blood flow was recorded alternately with infrared or red light from the exposed dentine under four conditions: before and after injecting local anaesthetic (3% Mepivacaine without vasoconstrictor) (LA) over the apex of the root of the tooth; after exposing the pulp by cutting a buccal, class V cavity in the tooth; and after sectioning the coronal pulp transversely through the exposure...
March 2018: Archives of Oral Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259156/dual-blockade-of-the-lipid-kinase-pip4ks-and-mitotic-pathways-leads-to-cancer-selective-lethality
#12
Mayumi Kitagawa, Pei-Ju Liao, Kyung Hee Lee, Jasmine Wong, See Cheng Shang, Noriaki Minami, Oltea Sampetrean, Hideyuki Saya, Dai Lingyun, Nayana Prabhu, Go Ka Diam, Radoslaw Sobota, Andreas Larsson, Pär Nordlund, Frank McCormick, Sujoy Ghosh, David M Epstein, Brian W Dymock, Sang Hyun Lee
Achieving robust cancer-specific lethality is the ultimate clinical goal. Here, we identify a compound with dual-inhibitory properties, named a131, that selectively kills cancer cells, while protecting normal cells. Through an unbiased CETSA screen, we identify the PIP4K lipid kinases as the target of a131. Ablation of the PIP4Ks generates a phenocopy of the pharmacological effects of PIP4K inhibition by a131. Notably, PIP4Ks inhibition by a131 causes reversible growth arrest in normal cells by transcriptionally upregulating PIK3IP1, a suppressor of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway...
December 19, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186157/finite-element-simulation-and-clinical-follow-up-of-lumbar-spine-biomechanics-with-dynamic-fixations
#13
Yolanda Más, Luis Gracia, Elena Ibarz, Sergio Gabarre, Diego Peña, Antonio Herrera
Arthrodesis is a recommended treatment in advanced stages of degenerative disc disease. Despite dynamic fixations were designed to prevent abnormal motions with better physiological load transmission, improving lumbar pain and reducing stress on adjacent segments, contradictory results have been obtained. This study was designed to compare differences in the biomechanical behaviour between the healthy lumbar spine and the spine with DYNESYS and DIAM fixation, respectively, at L4-L5 level. Behaviour under flexion, extension, lateral bending and axial rotation are compared using healthy lumbar spine as reference...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156880/a-pumpless-acoustofluidic-platform-for-size-selective-concentration-and-separation-of-microparticles
#14
Husnain Ahmed, Ghulam Destgeer, Jinsoo Park, Jin Ho Jung, Raheel Ahmad, Kwangseok Park, Hyung Jin Sung
We have designed a pumpless acoustofluidic device for the concentration and separation of different sized particles inside a single-layered straight polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic channel. The proposed device comprises two parallel interdigitated transducers (IDTs) positioned underneath the PDMS microchannel. The IDTs produce high-frequency surface acoustic waves that generate semipermeable virtual acoustic radiation force field walls that selectively trap and concentrate larger particles at different locations inside the microchannel and allow the smaller particles to pass through the acoustic filter...
December 19, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153070/-the-importance-of-the-contribution-of-rapid-test-serological-and-molecular-methods-in-the-diagnosis-of-two-imported-malaria-cases-with-atypical-microscopy
#15
Orçun Zorbozan, Hüsnü Pullukçu, Esra Atalay Şahar, Muhammet Karakavuk, Hüseyin Can, Varol Tunali, Mert Döşkaya, Nevin Turgay, Seray Töz, Ahmet Özbilgin
Malaria is a widespread and life-threatening disease in tropical and subtropical regions. In patients with typical clinical symptoms, malaria is considered as a preliminary diagnosis if there is a travel history to malaria-endemic areas. The basis of the laboratory diagnosis of malaria is the microscopic examination of Giemsa stained smears. On the other hand, the diagnosis and differentiation of Plasmodium species with microscopic examination may have some difficulties. In the first case, adifferent appearance from the classical Plasmodium vivax erythrocytic forms in infected erythrocytes were detected in 1% of all erythrocytes in thin smear blood preparations of a 26-year-old male with complaints of fever and chills and a story of travel to Nigeria...
October 2017: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054043/systematic-approaches-for-targeting-an-atom-probe-tomography-sample-fabricated-in-a-thin-tem-specimen-correlative-structural-chemical-and-3-d-reconstruction-analyses
#16
Sung-Il Baik, Dieter Isheim, David N Seidman
Atom-probe tomography (APT) is a unique analysis tool that enables true three-dimensional (3-D) analyses with sub-nano scale spatial resolution. Recent implementations of the local-electrode atom-probe (LEAP) tomograph with ultraviolet laser pulsing have significantly expanded the research applications of APT. The small field-of-view of a needle-shaped specimen with a less than 100 nm diam. is, however, a major limitation for analyzing materials. The systematic approaches for site-specific targeting of an APT nanotip in a transmission electron microscope (TEM) of a thin sample are introduced to solve the geometrical limitations of a sharpened APT nanotip...
October 12, 2017: Ultramicroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942329/investigation-of-quad-energy-high-rate-photon-counting-for-x-ray-computed-tomography-using-a-cadmium-telluride-detector
#17
Hiroshi Matsukiyo, Eiichi Sato, Yasuyuki Oda, Satoshi Yamaguchi, Yuichi Sato, Osahiko Hagiwara, Toshiyuki Enomoto, Manabu Watanabe, Shinya Kusachi
To obtain four kinds of tomograms at four different X-ray energy ranges simultaneously, we have constructed a quad-energy (QE) X-ray photon counter with a cadmium telluride (CdTe) detector and four sets of comparators and microcomputers (MCs). X-ray photons are detected using the CdTe detector, and the event pulses produced using amplifiers are sent to four comparators simultaneously to regulate four threshold energies of 20, 33, 50 and 65keV. Using this counter, the energy ranges are 20-33, 33-50, 50-65 and 65-100keV; the maximum energy corresponds to the tube voltage...
December 2017: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937328/biomechanical-effects-of-hybrid-stabilization-on-the-risk-of-proximal-adjacent-segment-degeneration-following-lumbar-spinal-fusion-using-an-interspinous-device-or-a-pedicle-screw-based-dynamic-fixator
#18
Chang-Hyun Lee, Young Eun Kim, Hak Joong Lee, Dong Gyu Kim, Chi Heon Kim
OBJECTIVE Pedicle screw-rod-based hybrid stabilization (PH) and interspinous device-based hybrid stabilization (IH) have been proposed to prevent adjacent-segment degeneration (ASD) and their effectiveness has been reported. However, a comparative study based on sound biomechanical proof has not yet been reported. The aim of this study was to compare the biomechanical effects of IH and PH on the transition and adjacent segments. METHODS A validated finite element model of the normal lumbosacral spine was used...
December 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery. Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932617/visceral-leishmaniasis-malaria-coinfection-and-their-associated-factors-in-patients-attending-metema-hospital-northwest-ethiopia-suggestion-for-integrated-vector-management
#19
Getachew Ferede, Ermias Diro, Sisay Getie, Gebeyaw Getnet, Yegnasew Takele, Anteneh Amsalu, Yitayih Wondimeneh
BACKGROUND: Despite high prevalence of visceral leishmaniasis and malaria in the study area, their coinfection remains unknown. Therefore, this study was aimed to document VL-malaria coinfections and their associated factors. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among clinical suspected VL patients attending Metema hospital, Northwest Ethiopia, from January 2014 to June 2014. Blood sample was tested by rk39 antigen-based DiaMed IT-Leish dipstick and Giemsa stain microscopic examination of thick and thin blood smears for malaria detection was performed...
2017: Malaria Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866438/observations-on-fluid-flow-from-exposed-dentine-in-primary-teeth-an-in-vitro-study
#20
Monticha Rangcharoen, Varisara Sirimaharaj, Sitthichai Wanachantararak, Noppakun Vongsavan, Bruce Matthews
OBJECTIVE: To investigate fluid flow through dentine in primary teeth in vitro using the replica technique, and to compare the results with those obtained from permanent dentine. DESIGN: The experiments were carried out on 22 extracted, mandibular, primary, incisor teeth. The incisal edge was removed to 1mm below the dentino-enamel junction and half the exposed surface etched with phosphoric acid. The exposed dentine was blotted dry and the pressure in the pulp cavity held at 0, 15, 30 or 45cm H2O above atmospheric for 30s...
August 25, 2017: Archives of Oral Biology
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