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Sergio Amaro, Carlos Laredo, Arturo Renú, Laura Llull, Salvatore Rudilosso, Víctor Obach, Xabier Urra, Anna M Planas, Ángel Chamorro
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Identification of neuroprotective therapies in acute ischemic stroke is imperative. We report a predefined analysis of the URICO-ICTUS trial (Efficacy Study of Combined Treatment With Uric Acid and r-tPA in Acute Ischemic Stroke) assessing the efficacy of uric acid (UA) compared with placebo to prevent early ischemic worsening (EIW) and the relevance of collateral circulation. METHODS: URICO-ICTUS was a double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 2b trial where a total of 411 patients treated with alteplase within 4...
October 6, 2016: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
Keith W Muir, Gary A Ford, Claudia-Martina Messow, Ian Ford, Alicia Murray, Andrew Clifton, Martin M Brown, Jeremy Madigan, Rob Lenthall, Fergus Robertson, Anand Dixit, Geoffrey C Cloud, Joanna Wardlaw, Janet Freeman, Philip White
OBJECTIVE: The Pragmatic Ischaemic Thrombectomy Evaluation (PISTE) trial was a multicentre, randomised, controlled clinical trial comparing intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) alone with IVT and adjunctive intra-arterial mechanical thrombectomy (MT) in patients who had acute ischaemic stroke with large artery occlusive anterior circulation stroke confirmed on CT angiography (CTA). DESIGN: Eligible patients had IVT started within 4.5 hours of stroke symptom onset. Those randomised to additional MT underwent thrombectomy using any Conformité Européene (CE)-marked device, with target interval times for IVT start to arterial puncture of <90 min...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
Daniel F Hanley, Richard E Thompson, John Muschelli, Michael Rosenblum, Nichol McBee, Karen Lane, Amanda J Bistran-Hall, Steven W Mayo, Penelope Keyl, Dheeraj Gandhi, Tim C Morgan, Natalie Ullman, W Andrew Mould, J Ricardo Carhuapoma, Carlos Kase, Wendy Ziai, Carol B Thompson, Gayane Yenokyan, Emily Huang, William C Broaddus, R Scott Graham, E Francois Aldrich, Robert Dodd, Cristanne Wijman, Jean-Louis Caron, Judy Huang, Paul Camarata, A David Mendelow, Barbara Gregson, Scott Janis, Paul Vespa, Neil Martin, Issam Awad, Mario Zuccarello
BACKGROUND: Craniotomy, according to the results from trials, does not improve functional outcome after intracerebral haemorrhage. Whether minimally invasive catheter evacuation followed by thrombolysis for clot removal is safe and can achieve a good functional outcome is not known. We investigated the safety and efficacy of alteplase, a recombinant tissue plasminogen activator, in combination with minimally invasive surgery (MIS) in patients with intracerebral haemorrhage. METHODS: MISTIE was an open-label, phase 2 trial that was done in 26 hospitals in the USA, Canada, the UK, and Germany...
November 2016: Lancet Neurology
Lucas McCarthy
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 18, 2016: Annals of Internal Medicine
Michael R Cohen, Judy L Smetzer
These medication errors have occurred in health care facilities at least once. They will happen again-perhaps where you work. Through education and alertness of personnel and procedural safeguards, they can be avoided. You should consider publishing accounts of errors in your newsletters and/or presenting them at your inservice training programs. Your assistance is required to continue this feature. The reports described here were received through the Institute for Safe Medication Practices (ISMP) Medication Errors Reporting Program...
November 2015: Hospital Pharmacy
Meret Branscheidt, Juliane Schneider, Patrik Michel, Elissavet Eskioglou, Georg Kaegi, Robert Stark, Urs Fischer, Simon Jung, Marcel Arnold, Maria Wertli, Ulrike Held, Susanne Wegener, Andreas Luft, Hakan Sarikaya
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The impact of excess body weight on prognosis after stroke is controversial. Many studies report higher survival rates in obese patients ("obesity paradox"). Recently, obesity has been linked to worse outcomes after intravenous (IV) thrombolysis, but the number and sample size of these studies were small. Here, we aimed to assess the relationship between body weight and stroke outcome after IV thrombolysis in a large cohort study. METHODS: In a prospective observational multicenter study, we analyzed baseline and outcome data of 896 ischemic stroke patients who underwent IV thrombolysis...
2016: PloS One
Benjamin S Misemer, Timothy F Platts-Mills, Christopher W Jones
BACKGROUND: Citation bias occurs when positive trials involving a medical intervention receive more citations than neutral or negative trials of similar quality. Several large clinical trials have studied the use of thrombolytic agents for the treatment of acute ischemic stroke with differing results, thereby presenting an opportunity to assess these trials for evidence of citation bias. We compared citation rates among positive, neutral, and negative trials of alteplase (tPA) and other thrombolytic agents for stroke...
September 28, 2016: Trials
Timothy J Fuller, Christopher M Paprzycki, Muhammad H Zubair, Lala R Hussain, Brian A Kuhn, Matthew H Recht, Patrick E Muck
BACKGROUND: Interventional strategies for massive and submassive Pulmonary Embolism (smPE) have historically included either systematic intravenous thrombolytic alteplase (IV TPA) or surgical embolectomy, both of which are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. However, with the advent of endovascular techniques, recent studies have suggested that an endovascular approach to the treatment of acute smPE may be both safe and effective with excellent outcomes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the outcomes of patients who have undergone catheter directed thrombolysis (CDT) for smPE at our institution in an effort to determine the safety of the procedure...
September 22, 2016: Annals of Vascular Surgery
Mei Zheng, Hongyan Lei, Yansen Cui, Daiqun Yang, Liquang Wang, Ziran Wang
OBJECTIVE: This study aims to observe the clinical efficacies of hyper-early low-dose alteplase thrombolysis in treating acute ischemic stroke (AIS). METHODS: Two hundred twenty AIS patients were randomly divided into group A (90 cases), group B (90 cases), and group C (40 cases). The National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) scores, mRS score-evaluated prognosis, intracranial hemorrhage, and mortality of the three groups were observed before and after the treatment...
July 2016: Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences Quarterly
Graeme J Hankey
In the past decade, the definition of stroke has been revised and major advances have been made for its treatment and prevention. For acute ischaemic stroke, the addition of endovascular thrombectomy of proximal large artery occlusion to intravenous alteplase increases functional independence for a further fifth of patients. The benefits of aspirin in preventing early recurrent ischaemic stroke are greater than previously recognised. Other strategies to prevent recurrent stroke now include direct oral anticoagulants as an alternative to warfarin for atrial fibrillation, and carotid stenting as an alternative to endarterectomy for symptomatic carotid stenosis...
September 13, 2016: Lancet
Brad A Sutherland, Jonas C Fordsmann, Chris Martin, Ain A Neuhaus, Brent M Witgen, Henning Piilgaard, Micael Lønstrup, Yvonne Couch, Nicola R Sibson, Martin Lauritzen, Alastair M Buchan
Hyperacute changes in cerebral blood flow during cerebral ischaemia and reperfusion are important determinants of injury. Cerebral blood flow is regulated by neurovascular coupling, and disruption of neurovascular coupling contributes to brain plasticity and repair problems. However, it is unknown how neurovascular coupling is affected hyperacutely during cerebral ischaemia and reperfusion. We have developed a remote middle cerebral artery occlusion model in the rat, which enables multi-modal assessment of neurovascular coupling immediately prior to, during and immediately following reperfusion...
September 14, 2016: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
Md Shahidul Islam
Clinicians need to make decisions about the use of thrombolytic (fibrinolytic) therapy for pulmonary embolism (PE) after carefully considering the risks of major complications from bleeding, and the benefits of treatment, for each individual patient. They should probably not use systemic thrombolysis for PE patients with normal blood pressure. Treatment by human recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA), alteplase, saves the lives of high-risk PE patients, that is, those with hypotension or in shock...
September 15, 2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Wei Li, Lu Lin, Meng Zhang, Ya Wu, Chengchun Liu, Xiaoshu Li, Shuhan Huang, Chunrong Liang, Yanjiang Wang, Jinhua Chen, Wuwei Feng
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: We investigated whether early initiation of tirofiban, a glycoprotein IIb/IIIa antagonist, is safe, can reduce the risk of reocclusion, and improve outcomes in acute ischemic stroke patients after alteplase. METHODS: Forty-one patients received alteplase followed by intravenous tirofiban infusion for at least 24 hours. The incidence of symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage, systematic bleedings, and death was recorded. The National Institutes of Health stroke scale score was evaluated at 24 hours and at day 7 (or discharge)...
October 2016: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
Christopher Timmis, Elliot Epstein, Mohmad Salim
Orolingual angioedema (OLA) is a known complication of intravenous alteplase used to treat ischaemic stroke. The incidence may be as high as 5.1%. ACE inhibitors are thought to increase the risk of developing this potentially life-threatening complication. This case report demonstrates how we may improve in the identification of risk factors in the history; the counselling of patients appropriately; in seeking alternative therapies such as mechanical thrombectomy; and in the monitoring of patients for signs of OLA once alteplase has been given...
2016: BMJ Case Reports
Neeharika L Mathukumalli, Ram Murti Susarla, Mridula R Kandadai, Suryaprabha Turaga, Jabeen A Shaik, Suvarna Alladi, Meena A Kanikannan, Rupam Borgohain, Subhash Kaul
BACKGROUND: Intrasinus thrombolysis (IST) is believed to improve outcome in patients of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) unresponsive to heparin. PURPOSE: The purpose of this article is to describe our experience with IST in patients of CVST unresponsive to heparin. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Hospital databases were searched, and patients with CVST who underwent IST from May 2011 to March 2014 were identified. Data on clinical presentation, duration of symptoms, and indications and dosage of IST were retrieved and outcomes analyzed...
July 2016: Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology
Serge Bracard, Xavier Ducrocq, Jean Louis Mas, Marc Soudant, Catherine Oppenheim, Thierry Moulin, Francis Guillemin
BACKGROUND: Intravenous thrombolysis with alteplase alone cannot reperfuse most large-artery strokes. We aimed to determine whether mechanical thrombectomy in addition to intravenous thrombolysis improves clinical outcome in patients with acute ischaemic stroke. METHODS: THRACE is a randomised controlled trial done in 26 centres in France. Patients aged 18-80 years with acute ischaemic stroke and proximal cerebral artery occlusion were randomly assigned to receive either intravenous thrombolysis alone (IVT group) or intravenous thrombolysis plus mechanical thrombectomy (IVTMT group)...
October 2016: Lancet Neurology
Darren Fernandes, Udayaraj Umasankar
Ischaemic stroke can result in approximately 2 million brain neurones being damaged for each minute that it is left untreated. Various trials and studies such as the National Institute of Neurologic Disorders (NINDS) trial, the European Cooperative Acute Stroke Study (ECASS), ECASS II, and the Alteplase Thrombolysis for Acute Noninterventional Therapy in Ischemic Stroke (ATLANTIS) study have clearly demonstrated the beneficial effects of intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) for treatment of acute stroke...
2016: BMJ Quality Improvement Reports
E McIlveen, A Jackson, J Bowie, C Stirling, A Downie, D Kingsmore
INTRODUCTION: Acute renal transplant emboli can be disastrous and result in loss of the renal transplant. This case was successfully treated with thrombolysis. CASE PRESENTATION: A 66-year-old female underwent a right-sided deceased heart-beating donor renal transplant. She had excellent transplant function but presented acutely three years later with pain in the transplanted kidney, an acute rise in serum creatinine and new onset atrial fibrillation. Bedside ultrasound scan demonstrated absent transplant perfusion...
August 19, 2016: Scottish Medical Journal
Steven Tversky, Richard B Libman, Marina L Reppucci, Andrea M Tufano, Jeffrey M Katz
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Our knowledge of the safety of thrombolytic therapy in pregnancy stems from individual case reports and series. We report the successful use of intravenous alteplase (tissue plasminogen activator; tPA) thrombolysis in a pregnant woman with acute cardioembolic stroke presumed to be paradoxical embolism through a patent foramen ovale. METHODS: A literature review found several case reports and case series of pregnant patients treated with either intravenous or intra-arterial tPA for acute ischemic stroke...
October 2016: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
J Jones, P Schweder, K J Drummond, A H Kaye
A 51-year-old woman with a history of idiopathic aqueduct stenosis, treated initially with insertion of a ventriculo peritoneal shunt, presented to our institution with shunt dysfunction. She had previously undergone multiple shunt revisions for shunt infection, shunt blockage and low-pressure symptoms, most recently with conversion to a ventriculo atrial (VA) shunt. Her VA shunt was again revised, with replacement of the ventricular catheter, however surgery was complicated by a large intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH) requiring placement of an external ventricular drain (EVD)...
August 10, 2016: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
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