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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906522/educating-executive-function
#1
REVIEW
Clancy Blair
Executive functions are thinking skills that assist with reasoning, planning, problem solving, and managing one's life. The brain areas that underlie these skills are interconnected with and influenced by activity in many different brain areas, some of which are associated with emotion and stress. One consequence of the stress-specific connections is that executive functions, which help us to organize our thinking, tend to be disrupted when stimulation is too high and we are stressed out, or too low when we are bored and lethargic...
December 1, 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906518/functional-development-of-the-brain-s-face-processing-system
#2
REVIEW
Frank Haist, Gizelle Anzures
In the first 20 years of life, the human brain undergoes tremendous growth in size, weight, and synaptic connectedness. Over the same time period, a person achieves remarkable transformations in perception, thought, and behavior. One important area of development is face processing ability, or the ability to quickly and accurately extract extensive information about a person's identity, emotional state, attractiveness, intention, and numerous other types of information that are crucial to everyday social interaction and communication...
December 1, 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906506/robustness-and-plasticity-in-development
#3
REVIEW
Patrick Bateson
Like the game of chess, the overall development of human behavior is highly regulated, and also many finer points of any particular individual life depend on early moves. The robust mechanisms that make species different from each other also impact processes that make individuals distinct from one another. Children both influence their environment and are influenced by it. As the development of any particular skill depends upon the contribution of particular environmental inputs at particular times, environmental variability can dramatically change the process...
December 1, 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903282/start-now-a-comprehensive-skills-training-programme-for-female-adolescents-with-oppositional-defiant-and-conduct-disorders-study-protocol-for-a-cluster-randomised-controlled-trial
#4
Linda Kersten, Martin Prätzlich, Sandra Mannstadt, Katharina Ackermann, Gregor Kohls, Helena Oldenhof, Daniel Saure, Katrin Krieger, Beate Herpertz-Dahlmann, Arne Popma, Christine M Freitag, Robert L Trestman, Christina Stadler
BACKGROUND: In Europe, the number of females exhibiting oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD) is growing. Many of these females live in youth welfare institutions. Consequently, there is a great need for evidence-based interventions within youth welfare settings. A recently developed approach targeting the specific needs of girls with ODD and CD in residential care is START NOW. The aim of this group-based behavioural skills training programme is to specifically enhance emotional regulation capacities to enable females with CD or ODD to appropriately deal with daily-life demands...
December 1, 2016: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900154/efficacy-of-gross-motor-skill-interventions-in-young-children-an-updated-systematic-review
#5
Sanne L C Veldman, Rachel A Jones, Anthony D Okely
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to provide an update of the evidence on the efficacy of gross motor development interventions in young children (0-5 years) from 2007 to 2015. METHODS: Searches were conducted of six electronic databases: PUBMED, Medline (Ovid), ERIC (Ebsco), Embase, SCOPUS and Psychinfo. Studies included any childcare-based, preschool-based, home-based, or community-based intervention targeting the development of gross motor skills including statistical analysis of gross motor skill competence...
2016: BMJ Open Sport & Exercise Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899268/the-effects-of-the-smart-environment-on-the-information-divide-experienced-by-people-with-disabilities
#6
Su-Jung Nam, Eun-Young Park
BACKGROUND: Information and Communication Technology (ICT) is connected with every aspect of social, cultural, economic, educational, and commercial activity. Smart devices in particular have changed society and are necessary goods for modern people. Smart device usage is rapidly growing in everyday life, so the ability to use a smart device is increasingly important, yet there is little data supporting increased digital inclusion of people with disabilities in mobile device use. OBJECTIVE/HYPOTHESIS: This study investigates the effects of the smart environment on the information divide experienced by people with disabilities...
November 16, 2016: Disability and Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899109/challenges-for-strengthening-the-health-workforce-in-the-lao-people-s-democratic-republic-perspectives-from-key-stakeholders
#7
Yi Qian, Fei Yan, Wei Wang, Shayna Clancy, Kongsap Akkhavong, Manithong Vonglokham, Somphou Outhensackda, Truls Østbye
BACKGROUND: The Lao People's Democratic Republic is facing a critical shortage and maldistribution of health workers. Strengthening of the health workforce has been adopted as one of the five priorities of the National Health Sector Strategy (2013-2025). This study aims to identify, explore, and better understand the key challenges for strengthening the Laotian health workforce. METHODS: This study applied exploratory and descriptive qualitative methods and adapted a working life-span framework...
November 29, 2016: Human Resources for Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898511/cognitive-behavioral-therapy-for-cancer-related-cognitive-dysfunction
#8
Shelly Kucherer, Robert J Ferguson
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To provide the reader with an overview of the cognitive-behavioral conceptualization of cancer-related cognitive dysfunction (CRCD) and how cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) can play an important role in treatment. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent findings show that Memory and Attention Adaptation Training (MAAT), a CBT developed to help cancer survivors develop adaptive skills to improve daily cognitive performance and emotional coping, may be an efficacious treatment of CRCD and can be delivered through videoconference technology to improve survivor access to care...
November 24, 2016: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898141/bostadsort-avg%C3%A3-r-den-palliativa-v%C3%A3-rdens-resurser-och-kvalitet-satsningar-f%C3%A3-r-att-%C3%A3-ka-kompetensen-beh%C3%A3-vs
#9
Bertil Axelsson, Bengt Sallerfors, Carl Johan Furst
Access to palliative care is unequally distributed across Sweden and thus does not meet the needs. The holistic perspective of palliative care is sometimes contrasted with the usual medical focus on organ failure and disease. Palliative consultation teams provide specialist palliative care competencies for staff caring for patients in primary care, nursing homes and in hospitals. Efforts to increase knowledge and skills in palliative care is needed at undergraduate university level and through postgraduate and specialist training...
November 22, 2016: Läkartidningen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895554/systemic-radical-scavenger-treatment-of-a-mouse-model-of-rett-syndrome-merits-and-limitations-of-the-vitamin-e-derivative-trolox
#10
Oliwia A Janc, Marc A Hüser, Katharina Dietrich, Belinda Kempkes, Christiane Menzfeld, Swen Hülsmann, Michael Müller
Rett syndrome (RTT) is a severe neurodevelopmental disorder typically arising from spontaneous mutations in the X-chromosomal methyl-CpG binding protein 2 (MECP2) gene. The almost exclusively female Rett patients show an apparently normal development during their first 6-18 months of life. Subsequently, cognitive- and motor-impairment, hand stereotypies, loss of learned skills, epilepsy and irregular breathing manifest. Early mitochondrial impairment and oxidative challenge are considered to facilitate disease progression...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893267/identity-adjustment-among-afghanistan-and-iraq-war-veterans-with-reintegration-difficulty
#11
Robert J Orazem, Patricia A Frazier, Paula P Schnurr, Heather E Oleson, Kathleen F Carlson, Brett T Litz, Nina A Sayer
Objective: To examine perceptions of identity adjustment in a diverse, national sample of U.S. veterans of the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq. Method: The authors conducted a planned thematic analysis of text written by Afghanistan and Iraq war veterans when they were asked to describe their reintegration difficulties as part of a randomized controlled trial (RCT) of online expressive writing (Sayer et al., 2015). Participants were 100 randomly selected veterans from the larger study (42 women and 58 men, 60 active duty and 38 reserves or National Guard)...
November 28, 2016: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893242/work-based-learning-a-training-model-for-state-wide-system-changes
#12
Zakia Clay, Nora Barrett, Ann Reilly, Anthony Zazzarino
TOPIC: Despite the substantial amount of money invested in staff training each year, many people trained fail to transfer what they learn to the workplace. We document a training initiative that was implemented to develop and maintain a competent workforce. PURPOSE: A work-based learning (WBL) model was used as a guide to teach the knowledge and skills necessary to effectively deliver psychiatric rehabilitation services. SOURCES USED: This training framework afforded practitioners an opportunity to acquire the critical knowledge and skills to improve the quality of life for individuals living with serious mental illnesses...
December 2016: Psychiatric Rehabilitation Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892222/diluting-hospital-nursing-skill-mix-not-in-the-public-interest
#13
(no author information available yet)
Implementing policies to dilute hospital nursing skill mix should be treated with caution because it can have life-threatening consequences for patients, say researchers.
November 23, 2016: Nursing Standard
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891062/results-from-10-years-of-a-cbt-pain-self-management-outpatient-program-for-complex-chronic-conditions
#14
Kathryn A Boschen, Edward Robinson, Kent A Campbell, Sarah Muir, Elvina Oey, Kristen Janes, Samantha R Fashler, Joel Katz
Background. Traditional unimodal interventions may be insufficient for treating complex pain, as they do not address cognitive and behavioural contributors to pain. Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) and physical exercise (PE) are empirically supported treatments that can reduce pain and improve quality of life. Objectives. To examine the outcomes of a pain self-management outpatient program based on CBT and PE at a rehabilitation hospital in Toronto, Ontario. Methods. The pain management group (PMG) consisted of 20 sessions over 10 weeks...
2016: Pain Research & Management: the Journal of the Canadian Pain Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891024/palliative-care-and-the-indian-neurologist
#15
REVIEW
Roop Gursahani
End-of-life care is an integral part of neurology practice, and neuropalliative medicine is an emerging neurology subspeciality. This begins with serious illness communication as a protocol-based process that depends on an evaluation of patient autonomy and accurate prognostication. Communication needs vary between chronic, life-limiting neurologic illnesses and acute brain injury. In an ideal situation, the patient's wishes are spelled out in advance care plans and living wills, and surrogates have only limited choices for implementation...
October 2016: Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887622/learning-to-care-medical-students-reported-value-and-evaluation-of-palliative-care-teaching-involving-meeting-patients-and-reflective-writing
#16
EDITORIAL
Erica Borgstrom, Rachel Morris, Diana Wood, Simon Cohn, Stephen Barclay
BACKGROUND: Over recent years there has been an increase in teaching of both palliative care and reflective practice in UK medical schools. The palliative care teaching at the University of Cambridge School of Clinical Medicine is multi-faceted and involves students writing reflective essays after individually meeting patients approaching the end of life during their final year general practice and hospital medicine placements. This paper draws on two studies examining this teaching element to analyse what the students found valuable about it and to comment on the practice of meeting patients and subsequent reflective writing...
November 25, 2016: BMC Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886250/shared-somatosensory-and-motor-functions-in-musicians
#17
Moe Hosoda, Shinichi Furuya
Skilled individuals are characterized by fine-tuned perceptual and motor functions. Here, we tested the idea that the sensory and motor functions of highly-trained individuals are coupled. We assessed the relationships among multifaceted somatosensory and motor functions of expert pianists. The results demonstrated a positive covariation between the acuity of weight discrimination and the precision of force control during piano keystrokes among the pianists but not among the non-musicians. However, neither the age of starting musical training nor the total amount of life-long piano practice was correlated with these sensory-motor functions in the pianists...
November 25, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885962/parental-history-of-moderate-to-severe-infantile-malnutrition-is-associated-with-cognitive-deficits-in-their-adult-offspring
#18
Deborah P Waber, Cyralene P Bryce, Jonathan M Girard, Laura K Fischer, Garrett M Fitzmaurice, Janina R Galler
OBJECTIVES: We compared the IQ and academic achievement of the young adult offspring of parents malnourished in infancy and those of a healthy control group in order to test the hypothesis that the offspring of previously malnourished individuals would show IQ and academic deficits that could be related to reduced parental socioeconomic status. METHODS: We conducted a group comparison study based on a community sample in Barbados (Barbados Nutrition Study). Participants were adult children ≥16 years of age whose parents had been malnourished during the first year of life (n = 64; Mean age 19...
November 25, 2016: Nutritional Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885889/the-assessment-of-skin-picking-in-adolescence-psychometric-properties-of-the-skin-picking-scale-revised-german-version
#19
Christina Gallinat, Nancy J Keuthen, Annette Stefini, Matthias Backenstrass
BACKGROUND: Skin picking disorder has received growing attention since the release of DSM-5, yet there are no evidence-based assessment instruments for adolescent samples. AIM: The present study examines the psychometric properties of the Skin Picking Scale-Revised (SPS-R, German version) in adolescents. METHODS: A total of 76 adolescents (96% female) completed the SPS-R, the Clinical Psychological Diagnostic System (KPD-38), and a questionnaire assessing demographics and clinical characteristics online...
November 25, 2016: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883985/a-systematic-review-of-passive-exposure-to-cannabis
#20
REVIEW
Aurélie Berthet, Mariangela De Cesare, Bernard Favrat, Frank Sporkert, Marc Augsburger, Aurélien Thomas, Christian Giroud
Passive exposure to cannabis smoke may induce effects on behavior and psychomotor skills, and have legal consequences, including the risk of being falsely considered as a cannabis user. This can become a concern, especially in occupational contexts or when driving vehicles. In order to enable a differentiation between a passive and an active exposure to cannabis and to limit the likeliness to be detected positive following passive exposure, this review identified specific biomarkers of passive exposure in urine, blood, oral fluid, hair, and sebum...
November 16, 2016: Forensic Science International
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