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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910825/monte-carlo-studies-on-water-and-lif-cavity-properties-for-dose-reporting-quantities-when-using-x-ray-and-brachytherapy-sources
#1
Isabela Soares Lopes Branco, Paula Cristina Guimarães Antunes, Gabriel Paiva Fonseca, Hélio Yoriyaz
Model-based dose calculation algorithms (MBDCAs) are the current tools to estimate dose in brachytherapy, which takes into account heterogeneous medium, therefore, departing from water-based formalism (TG-43). One aspect associated to MBCDA is the choice of dose specification medium since it offers two possibilities to report dose: (a) dose to medium in medium, D m,m; and (b) dose to water in medium, D w,m. The discussion about the preferable quantity to be reported is underway. The dose conversion factors, DCF, between dose to water in medium, D w,m, and dose to medium in medium, D m,m, is based on cavity theory and can be obtained using different approaches...
December 21, 2016: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907921/feasibility-of-preoperative-chemotherapy-with-docetaxel-cisplatin-and-5-fluorouracil-versus-adriamycin-cisplatin-and-5-fluorouracil-for-resectable-advanced-esophageal-cancer
#2
Osamu Shiraishi, Makoto Yamasaki, Tomoki Makino, Masaaki Motoori, Hiroshi Miyata, Masayuki Shinkai, Yutaka Kimura, Motohiro Hirao, Kazumasa Fujitani, Shigeyuki Tamura, Kenji Kobayashi, Masahiko Yano, Yuichiro Doki, Takushi Yasuda
BACKGROUND: Neoadjuvant chemotherapy for resectable advanced esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) requires reassessment. We have conducted a trial aiming at the comparison between DCF and ACF concerning perioperative adverse events. METHODS: Patients were randomly assigned to receive either DCF [docetaxel 70 mg/m2, cisplatin 70 mg/m2 on day 1, and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) 700 mg/m2 for 5 days] every 3 weeks or ACF (adriamycin 35 mg/m2, cisplatin 70 mg/m2 on day 1, and 5-FU 700 mg/m2 for 7 days) every 4 weeks...
December 2, 2016: Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904274/pretreatment-of-ferulic-acid-protects-human-dermal-fibroblasts-against-ultraviolet-a-irradiation
#3
Hyung Jin Hahn, Ki Bbeum Kim, Seunghee Bae, Byung Gon Choi, Sungkwan An, Kyu Joong Ahn, Su Young Kim
BACKGROUND: Approximately 90%~99% of ultraviolet A (UVA) ray reaches the Earth's surface. The deeply penetrating UVA rays induce the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which results in oxidative stress such as photoproducts, senescence, and cell death. Thus, UVA is considered a primary factor that promotes skin aging. OBJECTIVE: Researchers investigated whether pretreatment with ferulic acid protects human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs) against UVA-induced cell damages...
December 2016: Annals of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898421/stimulation-of-erythrocyte-cell-membrane-scrambling-by-quinine
#4
Morena Mischitelli, Mohamed Jemaà, Mustafa Almasry, Caterina Faggio, Florian Lang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The analkaloid drug quinine is utilized mainly for the chemoprophylaxis of malaria. The multiple side effects of quinine include hemolytic anemia and hemolytic uremic syndrome, disorders involving suicidal erythrocyte death or eryptosis, which is characterized by cell shrinkage and cell membrane scrambling with phosphatidylserine translocation to the erythrocyte surface. Signaling contributing to stimulation of eryptosis include increase of cytosolic Ca2+ activity ([Ca2+]i), oxidative stress, ceramide and D4476 sensitive casein kinase...
November 30, 2016: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894409/the-effects-of-mitochondrial-dna-deletion-and-copy-number-variations-on-different-exercise-intensities-in-highly-trained-swimmers
#5
O Baykara, S K Sahin, F Akbas, M Guven, I Onaran
It has been suggested that heavy exercise might increase oxidative stress, causing mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations as well as DNA mutations and changes in the mtDNA copy number in cells. mtDNA4977 deletion is one of the most common deletions seen on mitochondria. We hypothesize association between exercise induced oxidative stress and mtDNA damage in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) of highly trained swimmers. Therefore we studied the mtDNA4977 deletion level, mtDNA copy number and their relationship with cellular ATP and oxidative stress status in PBLs of swimmers...
October 31, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893752/effect-of-butyrate-on-collagen-expression-cell-viability-cell-cycle-progression-and-related-proteins-expression-of-mg-63-osteoblastic-cells
#6
Mei-Chi Chang, Yi-Ling Tsai, Eric Jein-Wein Liou, Chia-Mei Tang, Tong-Mei Wang, Hsin-Cheng Liu, Ming-Wei Liao, Sin-Yuet Yeung, Chiu-Po Chan, Jiiang-Huei Jeng
AIMS: Butyric acid is one major metabolic product generated by anaerobic Gram-negative bacteria of periodontal and root canal infection. Butyric acid affects the activity of periodontal cells such as osteoblasts. The purposes of this study were to investigate the effects of butyrate on MG-63 osteoblasts. METHODS: MG-63 cells were exposed to butyrate and cell viability was estimated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The mRNA and protein expression of type I collagen and cell cycle-related proteins were measured by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), western blotting or immunofluorescent staining...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887776/critical-role-of-superoxide-anions-and-hydroxyl-radicals-in-hema-induced-apoptosis
#7
H Schweikl, M Godula, C Petzel, C Bolay, K A Hiller, W Buchalla
OBJECTIVE: Resin monomers such as 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) induce apoptosis because of the excess formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The portion of ROS including superoxide anions, hydrogen peroxide or hydroxyl radicals in monomer-induced apoptosis is unknown. Here, the effectiveness of superoxide anions or hydroxyl radicals was analyzed using tempol or sodium formate as radical scavengers. METHODS: RAW264.7 mouse macrophages were exposed to HEMA (0-6-8mM) in the presence of tempol (0-0...
November 22, 2016: Dental Materials: Official Publication of the Academy of Dental Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882602/the-resveratrol-derivatives-trans-3-5-dimethoxy-4-fluoro-4-hydroxystilbene-and-trans-2-4-5-trihydroxystilbene-decrease-oxidative-stress-and-prolong-lifespan-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#8
Nadine Fischer, Christian Büchter, Karoline Koch, Sabrina Albert, René Csuk, Wim Wätjen
OBJECTIVES: Resveratrol (trans-3,4',5-trihydroxystilbene (1)) was previously shown to extend the lifespan of different model organisms. However, its pharmacological efficiency is controversially discussed. Therefore, the bioactivity of four newly synthesized stilbenes (trans-3,5-dimethoxy-4-fluoro-4'-hydroxystilbene (3), trans-4'-hydroxy-3,4,5-trifluorostilbene (4), trans-2,5-dimethoxy-4'-hydroxystilbene (5), trans-2,4',5-trihydroxystilbene (6)) was compared to (1) and pterostilbene (trans-3,5-dimethoxy-4'-hydroxystilbene (2)) in the established model organism Caenorhabditis elegans...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865170/long-term-wastewater-irrigation-of-vegetables-in-real-agricultural-systems-concentration-of-pharmaceuticals-in-soil-uptake-and-bioaccumulation-in-tomato-fruits-and-human-health-risk-assessment
#9
Anastasis Christou, Popi Karaolia, Evroula Hapeshi, Costas Michael, Despo Fatta-Kassinos
Wastewater (WW) reuse for vegetable crops irrigation is regularly applied worldwide. Such a practice has been found to allow the uptake of pharmaceutical active compounds (PhACs) by plants and their subsequent entrance to the food web, representing an important alternative pathway for the exposure of humans to PhACs, with potential health implications. Herein we report the impacts of the long-term (three consecutive years) WW irrigation of a tomato crop with two differently treated effluents under real agricultural conditions, on (1) the soil concentration of selected PhACs (i...
November 10, 2016: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855523/immunomodulatory-and-cellular-anti-oxidant-activities-of-caffeic-ferulic-and-p-coumaric-phenolic-acids-a-structure-activity-relationship-study
#10
Soumaya Kilani-Jaziri, Imen Mokdad-Bzeouich, Mounira Krifa, Nouha Nasr, Kamel Ghedira, Leila Chekir-Ghedira
Many studies have been performed to assess the potential utility of natural products as immunomodulatory agents to enhance host responses and to reduce damage to the human body. To determine whether phenolic compounds (caffeic, ferulic, and p-coumaric acids) have immunomodulatory effects and clarify which types of immune effector cells are stimulated in vitro, we evaluated their effect on splenocyte proliferation and lysosomal enzyme activity. We also investigated the activity of natural killer (NK) cells and cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL)...
November 18, 2016: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27828184/transmission-of-single-lane-128-gbit-s-pam-4-signals-over-an-80-km-ssmf-link-enabled-by-ddmzm-aided-dispersion-pre-compensation
#11
Qiang Zhang, Nebojsa Stojanovic, Changsong Xie, Cristian Prodaniuc, Piotr Laskowski
Direct detection systems with advanced modulation schemes are of great importance in metropolitan networks, because of their low cost and low power requirements. In particular, PAM-4 has attracted considerable attention, but has significant transmission distance limitations in the C-band. To extend its reach, we used a dual drive Mach-Zehnder modulator to generate a chromatic dispersion (CD) pre-compensated signal with an extra (j-1) multiplication to align the optical carrier and the modulated optical signal; by doing so, we achieved successful 128 Gbit/s transmission over an 80 km SSMF link, the longest reported reach of single lane 100 Gbit/s PAM-4 signals over DCF-free links...
October 17, 2016: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818195/lipophilic-but-not-hydrophilic-statin-functionally-inhibit-volume-activated-chloride-channels-by-inhibiting-nadph-oxidase-in-monocytes
#12
Zhi-Jie Fu, Xue-Zhen Zhong, Wei-Hong Ma, Wen-Dong Zhang, Cheng-Yao Shi
Volume-activated Cl(-) channels (VACCs) can be activated by hypotonic solutions and have been identified in many cell types. Here, we investigated the effects of different statins on VACCs in monocytes. Whole-cell patch clamp recordings demonstrated that a hypotonic solution induced 5-nitro-2- (3-phenylpropylamino) benzoic acid (NPPB)- and 4,4'-diisothiocyanatostilbene-2, 2'-disulfonic acid (DIDS)-sensitive VACC currents in human peripheral monocytes and RAW 264.7 cells. The VACC currents were inhibited by the lipophilic statin (simvastatin) but not by the hydrophilic simvastatin acid and pravastatin...
December 2, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27817239/modified-docetaxel-cisplatin-and-fluorouracil-therapy-as-the-first-line-treatment-for-patients-with-recurrent-metastatic-squamous-cell-carcinoma-of-the-head-and-neck-cancer-a-retrospective-study
#13
Nebi Serkan Demirci, Sercan Aksoy, Nuriye Yıldırım Özdemir, Gökmen Umut Erdem, Melike Ozcelik, Eda Tanrikulu, Tülay Eren, Yakup Bozkaya, Süleyman Sahin, Fatma Başol, Suheyla Aytac Aslan, Nurullah Zengin, İbrahim Güllü
AIM: Modified DCF (mDCF) therapy has been shown to be well-tolerated and highly effective regimen for metastatic gastric carcinoma. Herein we investigated the effectiveness of mDCF combination as the first-line treatment in patients with recurrent/metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck cancer (HNSCC). METHODS: A total of 80 patients with recurrent/metastatic HNSCC who were treated with mDCF between 2009 and 2015 were enrolled into this study. All patients were treated as the first-line with 2-6 cycles of mDCF chemotherapy which consisted of docetaxel 60 mg/m(2) intravenously (IV) on day 1, cisplatin 60 mg/m(2) IV on day 1, and 5-fluorouracil 600 mg/m(2) IV for 5 days of continuous infusion, with cycles repeated every 21 days...
November 5, 2016: Current Medical Research and Opinion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816622/electrospun-poly-l-lactide-scaffold-for-the-controlled-and-targeted-delivery-of-a-synthetically-obtained-diclofenac-prodrug-to-treat-actinic-keratosis
#14
Germano Piccirillo, Brigida Bochicchio, Antonietta Pepe, Katja Schenke-Layland, Svenja Hinderer
: Actinic Keratosis' (AKs) are small skin lesions that are related to a prolonged sun-damage, which can develop into invasive squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) when left untreated. Effective, specific and well tolerable therapies to cure AKs are still of great interest. Diclofenac (DCF) is the current gold standard for the local treatment of AKs in terms of costs, effectiveness, side effects and tolerability. In this work, an electrospun polylactic acid (PLA) scaffold loaded with a synthetic DCF prodrug was developed and characterized...
November 2, 2016: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811857/phase-ii-study-of-chemoselection-with-docetaxel-plus-cisplatin-and-5-fluorouracil-induction-chemotherapy-and-subsequent-conversion-surgery-for-locally-advanced-unresectable-oesophageal-cancer
#15
Tomoya Yokota, Ken Kato, Yasuo Hamamoto, Yasuhiro Tsubosa, Hirofumi Ogawa, Yoshinori Ito, Hiroki Hara, Takashi Ura, Takashi Kojima, Keisho Chin, Shuichi Hironaka, Takayuki Kii, Yasushi Kojima, Yasunori Akutsu, Hisayuki Matsushita, Kentaro Kawakami, Keita Mori, Yushi Nagai, Chika Asami, Yuko Kitagawa
BACKGROUND: The standard treatment for locally advanced unresectable squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the oesophagus is chemoradiation with cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil (CF-RT). This multicentre phase II trial assessed the safety and efficacy of chemoselection with docetaxel plus cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil (DCF) induction chemotherapy (ICT) and subsequent conversion surgery (CS) for initially unresectable locally advanced SCC of the oesophagus. METHODS: Patients with clinical T4 and/or unresectable supraclavicular lymph node metastasis were eligible...
November 22, 2016: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809354/shock-associated-with-endothelial-dysfunction-in-omental-microvessels
#16
Lewis B Somberg, David D Gutterman, Miura Hiroto, Raminder Nirula, Ossama A Hatoum
BACKGROUND: Impaired microvascular function leads to a poor outcome in a variety of medical conditions. Our aim was to determine if vasodilator responses to acetylcholine (Ach) are impaired in human omental arterioles from patients with severe trauma. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with massive blood loss and severe shock requiring damage control procedures were included. Tissues was collected at the first (FEL) and the second explorative laparotomy (SEL). Control tissues were collected from non-trauma patients...
November 2, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27804267/reactive-oxygen-species-and-oxidative-stress-in-obesity-recent-findings-and-empirical-approaches
#17
REVIEW
Fiona McMurray, David A Patten, Mary-Ellen Harper
OBJECTIVE: High levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) are intricately linked to obesity and associated pathologies, notably insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. However, ROS are also thought to be important in intracellular signaling, which may paradoxically be required for insulin sensitivity. Many theories have been developed to explain this apparent paradox, which have broadened our understanding of these important small molecules. While many sites for intracellular ROS production have been described, mitochondrial generated ROS remain a major contributor in most cell types...
November 2016: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27794509/effects-of-crude-hydroalcoholic-extract-of-syzygium-cumini-l-skeels-leaves-and-continuous-aerobic-training-in-rats-with-diabetes-induced-by-a-high-fat-diet-and-low-doses-of-streptozotocin
#18
G Baldissera, N D M Sperotto, H T Rosa, J G Henn, V F Peres, D J Moura, R Roehrs, E L G Denardin, P Dal Lago, R B Nunes, J Saffi
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The leaves of Syzygium cumini (L.) or Skeels (Myrtaceae) are widely used in Brazilian folk medicine to treat diabetes. AIM OF THE STUDY: The present study evaluated the functional capacity, biochemical parameters, oxidative stress and DNA damage from eight weeks of intervention with a crude hydroalcoholic extract of S. cumini leaves (EBH) and continuous aerobic training (TAC) in diabetic (D) rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A hydroalcoholic (50%) extract was prepared by ultrasound and phytochemical parameters (total phenols, total tannins and myricetin content) were analyzed...
October 26, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27763509/electrochemical-selective-and-simultaneous-detection-of-diclofenac-and-ibuprofen-in-aqueous-solution-using-hkust-1-metal-organic-framework-carbon-nanofiber-composite-electrode
#19
Sorina Motoc, Florica Manea, Adriana Iacob, Alberto Martinez-Joaristi, Jorge Gascon, Aniela Pop, Joop Schoonman
In this study, the detection protocols for the individual, selective, and simultaneous determination of ibuprofen (IBP) and diclofenac (DCF) in aqueous solutions have been developed using HKUST-1 metal-organic framework-carbon nanofiber composite (HKUST-CNF) electrode. The morphological and electrical characterization of modified composite electrode prepared by film casting was studied by scanning electronic microscopy and four-point-probe methods. The electrochemical characterization of the electrode by cyclic voltammetry (CV) was considered the reference basis for the optimization of the operating conditions for chronoamperometry (CA) and multiple-pulsed amperometry (MPA)...
October 17, 2016: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27763334/a-decision-classifier-to-classify-rivers-for-river-management-based-on-their-structure-in-china-an-example-from-the-yongding-river
#20
Yinjun Zhao, Aizhong Ding
River classification is a very useful tool for river management yet still a difficult task. This paper proposed a new decision classifier (DCF) to classify rivers for Chinese river management based on existing classification systems. Aimed at river function management, the DCF with the five-layers frame was developed on reach level in a spatially nested pattern that from top to bottom are natural province, basin, valley, reach, habitat and microhabitat. Five indexes (artificial degree, closeness, sinuosity, bed material texture, geomorphic units (GUs)) were selected and organized into the DCF according to the importance of the influence on river structure from macro to micro, large to small and top to bottom, because they represent main aspects of river structures and are easy to obtain...
October 2016: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
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