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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944974/granulomatous-enteritis-in-rainbow-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss-associated-with-soya-bean-meal-regardless-of-water-dissolved-oxygen-level
#1
P Mosberian-Tanha, T Landsverk, C M Press, L T Mydland, J W Schrama, M Øverland
This study investigated morphological changes associated with soya bean meal-induced enteritis (SBMIE) in distal intestine (DI) of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fed a soya bean meal (SBM)-based diet and exposed to normoxia or hypoxia created by optimal and low water flow rates, respectively. A 28-day adaption period was followed by a 42-day challenge period where 600 fish were subjected to dietary challenge and/or hypoxia. Twelve tanks each containing 50 juvenile trout were assigned randomly in triplicate to each treatment...
September 25, 2017: Journal of Fish Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944721/early-life-sugar-consumption-has-long-term-negative-effects-on-memory-function-in-male-rats
#2
Emily E Noble, Ted M Hsu, Joanna Liang, Scott E Kanoski
OBJECTIVES: Added dietary sugars contribute substantially to the diet of children and adolescents in the USA, and recent evidence suggests that consuming sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) during early life has deleterious effects on hippocampal-dependent memory function. Here, we test whether the effects of early-life sugar consumption on hippocampal function persist into adulthood when access to sugar is restricted to the juvenile/adolescent phase of development. METHODS: Male rats were given ad libitum access to an 11% weight-by-volume sugar solution (made with high fructose corn syrup-55) throughout the adolescent phase of development (post-natal day (PN) 26-56)...
September 25, 2017: Nutritional Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944445/usg-doppler-in-juvenile-idiopathic-arthritis-treatment-response-assessment-a-much-needed-objective-tool
#3
REVIEW
Manisha Jana, Arun Kumar Gupta
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 25, 2017: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944101/soluble-micb-in-plasma-and-urine-explains-population-expansions-of-nkg2d-cd4-t-cells-inpatients-with-juvenile-onset-systemic-lupus-erythematosus
#4
Satoru Hamada, Andrea Caballero-Benitez, Kate L Duran, Anne M Stevens, Thomas Spies, Veronika Groh
Abnormal NKG2D ligand expression has been implicated in the initiation and maintenance of various auto-inflammatory disorders including systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). This study's goal was to identify the cellular contexts providing NKG2D ligands for stimulation of the immunosuppressive NKG2D(+)CD4 T cell subset that has been implicated in modulating juvenile-onset SLE disease activity. Although previous observations with NKG2D(+)CD4 T cells in healthy individuals pointed towards peripheral B cell and myeloid cell compartments as possible sites of enhanced NKG2DL presence, we found no evidence for a disease-associated increase of NKG2DL-positivity among juvenile-onset SLE B cells and monocytes...
March 2017: Open Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943745/parent-and-youth-engagement-in-court-mandated-substance-use-disorder-treatment
#5
Pia M Mauro, Michael R McCart, Ashli J Sheidow, Sarah E Naeger, Elizabeth J Letourneau
While juvenile drug courts (JDCs) require treatment participation, youth and parent engagement in treatment cannot be mandated. We compared youths' and parents' self-reports of engagement in Risk Reduction Therapy for Adolescents (RRTA) and Treatment as Usual (TAU) in JDCs. Parents and youth receiving RRTA were more likely than those receiving TAU to report high engagement in treatment. High parent engagement in RRTA early in treatment predicted fewer missed appointments and lower youth substance use at 3 months...
2017: Journal of Child & Adolescent Substance Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943723/new-insights-into-the-development-of-human-tool-use
#6
Jeffrey J Lockman, Björn A Kahrs
If tool use requires higher-level cognitive abilities, how is it that many animals show the capacity to use tools? New research on the development of human tool use offers a way to resolve this paradox. The research suggests that there is a developmental synergy between affordance detection and motor learning: As juveniles continually explore affordances entailed by object-surface combinations in real time, they tune the actions that will be incorporated into tool use over developmental time. We illustrate these ideas with research on how object banging in infancy serves as the motor substrate for later developing percussive tool use...
August 2017: Current Directions in Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943230/high-energetic-cost-of-oviposition-in-an-edible-marine-gastropod
#7
Andrés Averbuj, Daniel Fernández, Pablo E Penchaszadeh, Gregorio Bigatti
The edible neogastropod Buccinanops cochlidium from Patagonia, Argentina, reproduces by means of egg capsules attached by the female to its own shell. Gravid females lay an outstanding mean of 500,000 eggs that nurse around 800 embryos, which hatch as crawling juveniles (4mm in shell length) after four months of intracapsular development. This reproductive investment could be expressed as the energy content (EC) estimated for the production of a complete egg mass (33.94±12.85 KJ), representing a conservative estimation of the total EC needed for an adult female to spawn, which is in average ∼12% of the total EC in gravid females...
September 18, 2017: Animal Reproduction Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943073/the-reliability-and-validity-of-a-venezuelan-version-of-the-bath-ankylosing-spondylitis-functional-index-basfi-and-bath-ankylosing-spondylitis-disease-activity-index-basdai
#8
Mayra Rauseo Vera, Luis Arturo Gutiérrez-González, Irama Maldonado, Soham Al Snih
INTRODUCTION: Spondyloarthropathies (SpA) are disabling diseases with a prevalence of 1.9% in the general population. The indices designed for monitoring the disease should be valid, reliable and cross-culturally adapted for decision-making concerning the appropriate treatment. Changing an adjective or pronoun in a self-administered questionnaire could be the big difference in condensing an idea in a few words and transmitting that concept to all those who share the same language. OBJECTIVES: To develop a Venezuelan version of the original English version of the BASDAI/BASFI and to evaluate its reliability and validity in Venezuelan patients with SpA...
September 21, 2017: Reumatología Clinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942922/age-dependent-alterations-in-meiotic-recombination-cause-chromosome-segregation-errors-in-spermatocytes
#9
Maciej J Zelazowski, Maria Sandoval, Lakshmi Paniker, Holly M Hamilton, Jiaying Han, Mikalah A Gribbell, Rhea Kang, Francesca Cole
Faithful chromosome segregation in meiosis requires crossover (CO) recombination, which is regulated to ensure at least one CO per homolog pair. We investigate the failure to ensure COs in juvenile male mice. By monitoring recombination genome-wide using cytological assays and at hotspots using molecular assays, we show that juvenile mouse spermatocytes have fewer COs relative to adults. Analysis of recombination in the absence of MLH3 provides evidence for greater utilization in juveniles of pathways involving structure-selective nucleases and alternative complexes, which can act upon precursors to generate noncrossovers (NCOs) at the expense of COs...
September 20, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942804/suicide-attempts-in-juvenile-bipolar-versus-major-depressive-disorders-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#10
REVIEW
Franco De Crescenzo, Giulia Serra, Francesco Maisto, Mai Uchida, Hilary Woodworth, Maria Pia Casini, Ross J Baldessarini, Stefano Vicari
OBJECTIVE: Suicide attempts are prevalent in association with major mood disorders, and risk is greater with bipolar disorder (BD) than major depressive disorder (MDD) in adults. There may be similar relationships in juvenile mood disorders, but the evidence has not been compiled systematically and quantitatively. METHOD: We searched for reports of studies comparing rates of suicide attempts in children or adolescents diagnosed with BD or MDD, and applied random-effects meta-analysis...
October 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942310/dental-and-temporomandibular-joint-pathology-of-the-north-american-brown-bear-ursus-arctos-horribilis-ursus-arctos-middendorffi-and-ursus-arctos-sitkensis
#11
J N Winer, B Arzi, S Döring, P H Kass, F J M Verstraete
Museum specimens (maxillae and mandibles) from 393 North American brown bears (Ursus arctos) from Alaska were examined macroscopically according to predefined criteria and 204 specimens were included in this study. The specimens were acquired between 1905 and 2012. There were 99 specimens (48.5%) from male animals, 87 (42.7%) from female animals and 18 (8.8%) from animals of unknown sex. The ages of the animals ranged from neonate to adult, with 92 adults (45.1%) and 112 young adults (54.9%) included and neonates/juveniles excluded from the study...
August 2017: Journal of Comparative Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942074/immunosuppression-for-the-uveitides
#12
REVIEW
Douglas A Jabs
The uveitides are a collection of more than 30 diseases characterized by intraocular inflammation. Many cases of juvenile idiopathic arthritis-associated uveitis, many cases of intermediate uveitis, and most cases of posterior and panuveitides requiring treatment are treated with corticosteroids and immunosuppression. Disease-specific, time-updated modeling of clinical data for several uveitides suggests superior prevention of ocular complications and visual outcomes with immunosuppression. These studies also suggest that oral corticosteroids at doses low enough for safe long-term therapy (i...
September 20, 2017: Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941862/tuberculosis-occurred-on-an-atlantoaxial-synovial-pannus-during-juvenile-idiopathic-arthritis-treated-with-tnf-inhibitors
#13
Khadija Baccouche, Rihab Moncer, Safaa Belghali, Zeineb Alaya, Wissem Hachfi, Hela Zeglaoui, Elyes Bouajina
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2017: Indian Journal of Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941796/development-of-juvenile-goitered-gazelle-social-behavior-during-the-hiding-period
#14
D A Blank, K Ruckstuhl, W Yang
In many ungulate species, social organization of adults is based on a linear dominance hierarchy, which in turn often positively correlates with age, body mass, and horn/antler size. In contrast to the social behavior of adults and specific mother-offspring interactions, the process of ungulate socialization in juveniles through contacts with other conspecifics is poorly understood, especially for hider species during their initial hiding period. Therefore, we investigated this process in goitered gazelle (Gazella subgutturosa), which is a typical hiding species, and analyzed all contacts between fawns and other conspecifics, omitting mother-young interactions, which are different by nature from other contacts and demands separate consideration...
September 20, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941795/avoiding-escalation-from-play-to-aggression-in-adult-male-rats-the-role-of-ultrasonic-calls
#15
Candace J Burke, Theresa M Kisko, Sergio M Pellis, David R Euston
Play fighting is most commonly associated with juvenile animals, but in some species, including rats, it can continue into adulthood. Post-pubertal engagement in play fighting is often rougher and has an increased chance of escalation to aggression, making the use of play signals to regulate the encounter more critical. During play, both juvenile and adult rats emit many 50-kHz calls and some of these may function as play facilitating signals. In the present study, unfamiliar adult male rats were introduced in a neutral enclosure and their social interactions were recorded...
September 20, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941753/construct-validity-of-pixel-by-pixel-dce-mri-correlation-with-conventional-mri-scores-in-juvenile-idiopathic-arthritis
#16
Robert Hemke, Charlotte M Nusman, J Merlijn van den Berg, Cristina Lavini, Dieneke Schonenberg-Meinema, Koert M Dolman, Taco W Kuijpers, Mario Maas
OBJECTIVES: To assess the capability of the pixel-by-pixel DCE-MRI time intensity curve (TIC)-shape analysis method in the evaluation of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) disease activity by correlating DCE-MRI parameters with semi-quantitative conventional-MRI scores of synovitis. METHODS: Clinical, laboratory, and (DCE)-MRI datasets of 85 JIA patients were prospectively obtained. TIC-shapes of each voxel were classified into one of seven predefined color-coded TIC shape categories...
September 2017: European Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941714/intravenous-injection-of-unfunctionalized-carbon-based-nanomaterials-confirms-the-minimal-toxicity-observed-in-aqueous-and-dietary-exposures-in-juvenile-rainbow-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss
#17
David Boyle, Paul A Sutton, Richard D Handy, Theodore B Henry
Numerous ecotoxicology studies of carbon-based nanomaterials (CNMs) have been conducted in fishes; however, different approaches have been used to make CNM dispersions and dose tanks for aqueous exposures, and to prepare food containing CNMs for dietary studies. This diversity of experimental methods has led to conflicting results and difficulties in comparing studies. The objective of the present study was to evaluate intravenous injection of unfunctionalized CNMs in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), as a means of delivering a known internal dose, on tissue biochemistry and histopathological lesions; then, subsequently, to compare the results with our previous work on aqueous and dietary exposures of rainbow trout to CNMs...
September 20, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941526/pediatric-myasthenia-gravis
#18
Jason H Peragallo
Myasthenia gravis is a disorder of neuromuscular transmission that leads to fatigue of skeletal muscles and fluctuating weakness. Myasthenia that affects children can be classified into the following 3 forms: transient neonatal myasthenia, congenital myasthenic syndromes, and juvenile myasthenia gravis (JMG). JMG is an autoimmune disorder that has a tendency to affect the extraocular muscles, but can also affect all skeletal muscles leading to generalized weakness and fatigability. Respiratory muscles may be involved leading to respiratory failure requiring ventilator support...
May 2017: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941524/juvenile-macular-degenerations
#19
Pablo Altschwager, Lucia Ambrosio, Emily A Swanson, Anne Moskowitz, Anne B Fulton
In this article, we review the following 3 common juvenile macular degenerations: Stargardt disease, X-linked retinoschisis, and Best vitelliform macular dystrophy. These are inherited disorders that typically present during childhood, when vision is still developing. They are sufficiently common that they should be included in the differential diagnosis of visual loss in pediatric patients. Diagnosis is secured by a combination of clinical findings, optical coherence tomography imaging, and genetic testing...
May 2017: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941523/a-review-of-visual-and-oculomotor-outcomes-in-children-with-posterior-fossa-tumors
#20
Crandall E Peeler
Tumors of the posterior fossa represent the most common solid malignancy of childhood and can affect the visual system in several ways. This article outlines the relevant visual anatomy affected by these tumors and reviews the visual and oculomotor outcomes associated with the following 3 most common tumor types-medulloblastoma, juvenile pilocytic astrocytoma, and ependymoma. The available data suggest that the rate of permanent vision loss is low (5.9%-8.3%), with patients having juvenile pilocytic astrocytoma demonstrating the best outcomes...
May 2017: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology
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