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Olive Fast, Christina Fast, Dan Fast, Suzanne Veltjens, Zouliha Salami, Michelle White
Background: Proper sterile processing is fundamental to safe surgical practice and optimal patient outcomes. Sterile processing practices in low and middle-income countries often fall short of recommended standards. The impact of education and training on sterile processing practices in low and middle-income countries is unknown. We designed a sterile processing education course, including mentoring, and aimed to evaluate the impact on participants' personal knowledge, skills, and practices...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
Nathalie Holvoet, Dirk Van Esbroeck, Liesbeth Inberg, Lisa Popelier, Bob Peeters, Ellen Verhofstadt
Due to an increasing importance of evaluations within development cooperation, it has become all the more important to analyse if initial conditions for quality and relevant evaluations are met. This article presents the findings from an evaluability study of 40 interventions of Belgian development cooperation. A study framework was developed focusing on three key dimensions (i.e. theoretical evaluability, practical evaluability and the evaluation context) and subdivided over the different OECD/DAC criteria...
December 9, 2017: Evaluation and Program Planning
André Otti, Magali Pirson, Danielle Piette, Yves Coppieters T Wallant
INTRODUCTION: The absence of an explicit and coherent conception of the articulation between theory and practice in the reform of nursing training in Benin has resulted in poor quality clinical supervision of student nurses. The objective of this article is to analyze two interventions designed to improve the quality of supervision. METHODS: A student welcome booklet developed by means of a consultative and provocative participatory approach was tested with twelve student nurses versus a control group...
December 5, 2017: Santé Publique: Revue Multidisciplinaire Pour la Recherche et L'action
Roch Appolinaire Houngnihin, Aphee Judith Sossou
INTRODUCTION: Since 2000, in the context of the Millennium development goals, Benin has reinforced its obstetric referral system in order to reduce maternal mortality. However, structural, sociocultural and economic problems continue to affect this strategy. The Cotonou University gynaecology and obstetrics clinic (CUGO), at the top of the health pyramid, is emblematic of this situation. This study was designed to elucidate the stakes involved in referral to this hospital based on analysis of the perceptions and experiences of referral personnel...
December 5, 2017: Santé Publique: Revue Multidisciplinaire Pour la Recherche et L'action
Dereje Dengela, Aklilu Seyoum, Bradford Lucas, Benjamin Johns, Kristen George, Allison Belemvire, Angela Caranci, Laura C Norris, Christen M Fornadel
BACKGROUND: Indoor residual spraying (IRS) is the application of insecticide to the interior walls of household structures that often serve as resting sites for mosquito vectors of malaria. Human exposure to malaria vectors is reduced when IRS involves proper application of pre-determined concentrations of the active ingredient specific to the insecticide formulation of choice. The impact of IRS can be affected by the dosage of insecticide, spray coverage, vector behavior, vector susceptibility to insecticides, and the residual efficacy of the insecticide applied...
January 30, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Ogonna N O Nwankwo, Ndubuisi Mokogwu, Orighomisan Agboghoroma, Fahmi O Ahmed, Kevin Mortimer
BACKGROUND: Exposure to biomass smoke is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in Africa. Commercial food vendors in Nigeria and elsewhere in Africa are commonly exposed to biomass smoke from open fire cooking both at work and home. Little is known about the knowledge, attitudes and beliefs of food vendors about the health hazards of biomass smoke exposure in Nigeria. METHODS: We did a descriptive cross sectional survey of the knowledge, attitudes and beliefs of commercial food vendors in the cities of Benin and Calabar in Nigeria...
2018: PloS One
B G Damien, B Aguemon, D Abdoulaye Alfa, D Bocossa, A Ogouyemi-Hounto, F Remoue, J-Y Le Hesran
BACKGROUND: Artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT), used to treat uncomplicated malaria cases, is one of the main strategies of malaria control and elimination. One of the main objectives of the Benin National Malaria Control Program's (NMCP) strategic plan is to ensure that at least 80% of uncomplicated malaria is treated with ACT within 24 h. Therefore, it was of great interest to measure whether the country case management of fever amongst children under five, adhered to the NMCP's strategic plan and look into the barriers to the use of ACT...
January 22, 2018: BMC Public Health
Koutchoukalo Aleza, Grace B Villamor, Benjamin Kofi Nyarko, Kperkouma Wala, Koffi Akpagana
Vitellaria paradoxa (Gaertn C. F.), or shea tree, remains one of the most valuable trees for farmers in the Atacora district of northern Benin, where rural communities depend on shea products for both food and income. To optimize productivity and management of shea agroforestry systems, or "parklands," accurate and up-to-date data are needed. For this purpose, we monitored120 fruiting shea trees for two years under three land-use scenarios and different soil groups in Atacora, coupled with a farm household survey to elicit information on decision making and management practices...
2018: PloS One
Anuradha Jagadeesan, Ellen D Gunnarsdóttir, S Sunna Ebenesersdóttir, Valdis B Guðmundsdóttir, Elisabet Linda Thordardottir, Margrét S Einarsdóttir, Hákon Jónsson, Jean-Michel Dugoujon, Cesar Fortes-Lima, Florence Migot-Nabias, Achille Massougbodji, Gil Bellis, Luisa Pereira, Gísli Másson, Augustine Kong, Kári Stefánsson, Agnar Helgason
A genome is a mosaic of chromosome fragments from ancestors who existed some arbitrary number of generations earlier. Here, we reconstruct the genome of Hans Jonatan (HJ), born in the Caribbean in 1784 to an enslaved African mother and European father. HJ migrated to Iceland in 1802, married and had two children. We genotyped 182 of his 788 descendants using single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) chips and whole-genome sequenced (WGS) 20 of them. Using these data, we reconstructed 38% of HJ's maternal genome and inferred that his mother was from the region spanned by Benin, Nigeria and Cameroon...
January 15, 2018: Nature Genetics
Emmanuel Temiotan Ogbomida, Shouta M M Nakayama, Nesta Bortey-Sam, Balazs Oroszlany, Isioma Tongo, Alex Ajeh Enuneku, Ogbeide Ozekeke, Martins Oshioriamhe Ainerua, Iriagbonse Priscillia Fasipe, Lawrence Ikechukwu Ezemonye, Hazuki Mizukawa, Yoshinori Ikenaka, Mayumi Ishizuka
The use of free range animals for monitoring environmental health offers opportunities to detect exposure and assess the toxicological effects of pollutants in terrestrial ecosystems. Potential human health risk of dietary intake of metals and metalloid via consumption of offal and muscle of free range chicken, cattle and goats by the urban population in Benin City was evaluated. Muscle, gizzard, liver and kidney samples were analyzed for Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, and Pb concentrations using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS) while Hg was determined using Hg analyzer...
January 9, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Elisabeth Paul, Mohamed Lamine Dramé, Jean-Pierre Kashala, Armand Ekambi Ndema, Marcel Kounnou, Julien Codjovi Aïssan, Karel Gyselinck
BACKGROUND: Performance-based financing (PBF) is often proposed as a way to improve health system performance. In Benin, PBF was launched in 2012 through a World Bank-supported project. The Belgian Development Agency (BTC) followed suit through a health system strengthening (HSS) project. This paper analyses and draws lessons from the experience of BTC-supported PBF alternative approach - especially with regards to institutional aspects, the role of demand-side actors, ownership, and cost-effectiveness - and explores the mechanisms at stake so as to better understand how the "PBF package" functions and produces effects...
April 15, 2017: International Journal of Health Policy and Management
Manfred Accrombessi, Nadine Fievet, Emmanuel Yovo, Gilles Cottrell, Gino Agbota, Achille Massougbodji, Michel Cot, Valérie Briand
Background: There is a lack of data on the burden of malaria in first trimester of pregnancy in Africa mainly because pregnant women generally attend the maternity clinic late. Therefore, bed nets are rarely provided to women before the 2nd trimester of pregnancy. Besides, intermittent preventive treatment with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine is not recommended before the 2nd trimester, leaving women insufficiently or not protected in early pregnancy. Methods: To assess the burden of malaria in the first trimester, 387 women were followed-up monthly from pre-conception to delivery...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Manfred Accrombessi, Emmanuel Yovo, Gilles Cottrell, Gino Agbota, Agnès Gartner, Yves Martin-Prevel, Nadia Fanou-Fogny, Diane Djossinou, Jennifer Zeitlin, Nicaise Tuikue-Ndam, Florence Bodeau-Livinec, Sandrine Houzé, Nicola Jackson, Paul Ayemonna, Achille Massougbodji, Michel Cot, Nadine Fievet, Valérie Briand
PURPOSE: REtard de Croissance Intra-uterin et PALudisme (RECIPAL) is an original preconceptional cohort designed to assess the consequences of malaria during the first trimester of pregnancy, which is a poorly investigated period in Africa and during which malaria may be detrimental to the fetus. PARTICIPANTS: For this purpose, a total of 1214 women of reproductive age living in Sô-Ava and Akassato districts (south Benin) were followed up monthly from June 2014 to December 2016 until 411 of them became pregnant...
January 8, 2018: BMJ Open
Paul Franck Adjou Moumouni, Gilbert Luc Aplogan, Hirotaka Katahira, Yang Gao, Huanping Guo, Artemis Efstratiou, Charoonluk Jirapattharasate, Guanbo Wang, Mingming Liu, Aaron Edmond Ringo, Rika Umemiya-Shirafuji, Hiroshi Suzuki, Xuenan Xuan
Babesiosis, theileriosis, anaplasmosis, and heartwater are tick-borne diseases (TBD) that threaten livestock production in sub-Saharan Africa including Benin. This country has been faced with an invasion of Rhipicephalus microplus, a major vector for babesiosis, theileriosis, and anaplasmosis over the last decade. Yet, data on TBD and the impact of the invasive ticks are lacking, making risk level evaluation and disease control arduous. In this study, epidemiological features of Babesia bovis, B. bigemina, Theileria spp...
December 28, 2017: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
Andrea L Benin, Gina Lockwood, Tracy Creatore, Donna Donovan, Maggi Predmore, Susan MacArthur
The objective was to describe qualitatively the attitudes among employees toward mandatory vaccination against influenza to ultimately improve such programs and prevent hospital-acquired influenza. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 21 employees at a freestanding children's hospital. Analysis of interview transcripts used grounded theory and the constant comparative method; codes were iteratively revised and refined as themes emerged. Themes emerged elucidating promoters and concerns. Promoters included a desire to protect self, family, and patients; perception of vaccination as part of professional responsibility; and free vaccination as a benefit from the organization...
December 1, 2017: American Journal of Medical Quality: the Official Journal of the American College of Medical Quality
Rajesh Gopal, Lalkrishna Raveendran, Sonia P Pathrose, Benin Paulaian
Reattachment of the tooth fragment is an ultraconservative technique for managing coronal tooth fractures when the tooth fragment is available, and there is minimal violation of the biological width. The advances in adhesive dentistry have allowed dentists to use the patient's own fragment to restore the fractured tooth which provides fast and esthetically pleasing results. This article reports fragment reattachment technique and presents two clinical cases of complicated crown fracture.
November 2017: Journal of Pharmacy & Bioallied Sciences
James R Garcia-Ayala, Willian M Ohara, Murilo N L Pastana, Ricardo C Benine
Brachychalcinus reisi, a new species of characid fish, is described from the rio Curuá, tributary of rio Iriri, rio Xingu basin, Serra do Cachimbo, Pará State, Brazil. The new species can be distinguished from its congeners by the presence of a series of longitudinal black wavy stripes on the entire body and by a lower number of longitudinal scale rows between dorsal-fin origin and lateral line (7-8 vs. 8-12). Additionally, the new species differs from B. copei, B. parnaibae, and B. retrospina by the lower number of branched dorsal-fin rays (9 vs...
December 7, 2017: Zootaxa
Martin Häckel
Revised are Afrotropical species of the Craspedophorus strachani and C. brevicollis groups. New taxa are C. dicranulothorax n. sp. (Cameroon), C. lemariei n. sp. (Gabon), C. phenacoides n. sp. (Cameroon), C. ruficroides n. sp. (Guinea), C. cuneatus rotundatus n. ssp. (Cameroon, central Africa), C. ruficroides thomsoni n. ssp. (Cameroon, central Africa, Gabon), C. strachani bamendanus n. ssp. (Cameroon), C. tetrastigma morettoi n. ssp. (west Africa) and C. brevicollis beninensis n. ssp. (Benin).   C. ruficrus (Laferté-Sénectere, 1851) and C...
October 11, 2017: Zootaxa
Abigail Donner, Allison Belemvire, Ben Johns, Keith Mangam, Elana Fiekowsky, Jayleen Gunn, Mary Hayden, Kacey Ernst
BACKGROUND: One of the primary control measures for malaria transmission is indoor residual spraying (IRS). Historically, few women have worked in IRS programs, despite the income-generating potential. Increasing women's roles in IRS requires understanding the barriers to women's participation and implementing measures to address them. The U.S. President's Malaria Initiative (PMI) Africa Indoor Residual Spraying (AIRS) Project is the largest implementer of IRS globally. To address gender inequity in IRS operations, PMI AIRS assessed the barriers to the participation of women and developed and implemented policies to address these barriers...
December 14, 2017: Global Health, Science and Practice
Olive Fast, Christina Fast, Dan Fast, Suzanne Veltjens, Zouliha Salami, Michelle C White
It is highly difficult to perform safe surgery without sterile instruments, yet the capacity to adequately clean, disinfect and sterilise surgical instruments in low-income and middle-income countries is largely unknown. Sterile Processing Education Charitable Trust developed an assessment tool and, in partnership with Mercy Ships, evaluated the sterile processing capacity in 59 facilities in Madagascar, Benin and the Republic of Congo. This data-driven analysis paper illustrates how lack of sterile processing capacity acts as a barrier to safe surgical care...
2017: BMJ Global Health
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