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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535303/a-novel-goldnano-carb-test-for-rapid-phenotypic-detection-of-carbapenemases-particularly-oxa-type-in-enterobacteriaceae-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-and-acinetobacter-spp
#1
Arpasiri Srisrattakarn, Aroonlug Lulitanond, Chotechana Wilailuckana, Nicha Charoensri, Jureerut Daduang, Aroonwadee Chanawong
Objectives: To develop a simple gold nanoparticle (AuNP)-based colorimetric test, GoldNano Carb (GoldC), for detecting carbapenemase production in Gram-negative bacteria, compared with updated Carba NP (CNP) and CarbAcineto NP (CAcNP) tests by using PCR methods as gold standard. Methods: Ninety-nine carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE), Pseudomonas spp. and Acinetobacter spp. isolates and 89 non-CPE isolates were tested by the GoldC and CNP. Additionally, the CAcNP was performed in the Acinetobacter spp...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532733/a-theory-for-aftercare-of-human-trafficking-survivors-for-nursing-practice-in-low-resource-settings
#2
R L Curran, J R Naidoo, G Mchunu
Research on aftercare for human trafficking survivors highlights the limited knowledge of the needs of survivors; the evaluation of current aftercare; and the process of recovery navigated by the survivor in aftercare (Oram et al., 2012; Locke, 2010; Hacker & Cohen, 2012). Furthermore there has been a transition in aftercare where the victim or survivor, who before was seen as a passive victim of circumstance of their life and in need of therapeutic intervention, is now seen as having an active role in their recovery, thus facilitating recovery (Hacker & Cohen, 2012)...
June 2017: Applied Nursing Research: ANR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532556/ethical-challenges-in-the-provision-of-dialysis-in-resource-constrained-environments
#3
REVIEW
Valerie A Luyckx, Ingrid Miljeteig, Addisu M Ejigu, M Rafique Moosa
The number of patients requiring dialysis by 2030 is projected to double worldwide, with the largest increase expected in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Dialysis is seldom considered a high priority by health care funders, consequently, few LMICs develop policies regarding dialysis allocation. Dialysis facilities may exist, but access remains highly inequitable in LMICs. High out-of-pocket payments make dialysis unsustainable and plunge many families into poverty. Patients, families, and clinicians suffer significant emotional and moral distress from daily life-and-death decisions imposed by dialysis...
May 2017: Seminars in Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532555/integration-of-care-in-management-of-ckd-in-resource-limited-settings
#4
REVIEW
Ikechi G Okpechi, Aminu K Bello, Oluwatoyin I Ameh, Charles R Swanepoel
The prevalence of noncommunicable diseases, including chronic kidney disease (CKD), continues to increase worldwide, and mortality from noncommunicable diseases is projected to surpass communicable disease-related mortality in developing countries. Although the treatment of CKD is expensive, unaffordable, and unavailable in many developing countries, the current structure of the health care system in such countries is not set up to deliver comprehensive care for patients with chronic conditions, including CKD...
May 2017: Seminars in Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532552/nephrology-education-and-continuing-education-in-resource-limited-settings
#5
REVIEW
Tushar J Vachharajani, Aminu K Bello, Rhys Evans, Gavin Dreyer, Quentin Eichbaum
Nephrology training programs in high-income countries have transitioned from an apprenticeship model to a well-structured, resource-driven model that supports continual professional development. In contrast, in low- and middle-income countries, medical training and in particular nephrology training has lagged behind owing to resource limitations. Some of the challenges to adequately provide training to health care professionals in low- and middle-income countries include shortage of teaching faculty, difficulty in developing curricula to meet regional needs, and a lack of resources to provide competency-based medical education...
May 2017: Seminars in Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532500/extending-access-to-essential-services-against-constraints-the-three-tier-health-service-delivery-system-in-rural-china-1949-1980
#6
Xing Lin Feng, Melisa Martinez-Alvarez, Jun Zhong, Jin Xu, Beibei Yuan, Qingyue Meng, Dina Balabanova
BACKGROUND: China has made remarkable progress in scaling up essential services during the last six decades, making health care increasingly available in rural areas. This was partly achieved through the building of a three-tier health system in the 1950s, established as a linked network with health service facilities at county, township and village level, to extend services to the whole population. METHODS: We developed a Theory of Change to chart the policy context, contents and mechanisms that may have facilitated the establishment of the three-tier health service delivery system in rural China...
May 23, 2017: International Journal for Equity in Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532386/extremely-low-coverage-whole-genome-sequencing-in-south-asians-captures-population-genomics-information
#7
Navin Rustagi, Anbo Zhou, W Scott Watkins, Erika Gedvilaite, Shuoguo Wang, Naveen Ramesh, Donna Muzny, Richard A Gibbs, Lynn B Jorde, Fuli Yu, Jinchuan Xing
BACKGROUND: The cost of Whole Genome Sequencing (WGS) has decreased tremendously in recent years due to advances in next-generation sequencing technologies. Nevertheless, the cost of carrying out large-scale cohort studies using WGS is still daunting. Past simulation studies with coverage at ~2x have shown promise for using low coverage WGS in studies focused on variant discovery, association study replications, and population genomics characterization. However, the performance of low coverage WGS in populations with a complex history and no reference panel remains to be determined...
May 22, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530047/what-is-it-going-to-take-to-move-youth-related-hiv-programme-policies-into-practice-in-africa
#8
Daniella Mark, Lina Taing, Lucie Cluver, Chris Collins, Kate Iorpenda, Catarina Andrade, Luann Hatane
INTRODUCTION: HIV has been reported to be the leading cause of mortality amongst adolescents in Africa. This has brought attention to the changes in service provision and health management that many adolescents living with HIV experience when transferring from specialized paediatric- or adolescent-focused services to adult care. When transition is enacted poorly, adherence may be affected and the continuum of care disrupted. As the population of HIV-infected adolescents grows, effective and supported transition increases in significance as an operational imperative...
May 16, 2017: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530039/transition-from-paediatric-to-adult-care-of-adolescents-living-with-hiv-in-sub-saharan-africa-challenges-youth-friendly-models-and-outcomes
#9
Désiré Lucien Dahourou, Chloé Gautier-Lafaye, Chloe A Teasdale, Lorna Renner, Marcel Yotebieng, Sophie Desmonde, Samuel Ayaya, Mary-Ann Davies, Valériane Leroy
INTRODUCTION: The number of adolescents with perinatally or behaviourally acquired HIV is increasing in low-income countries, and especially in sub-Saharan Africa where HIV prevalence and incidence are the highest. As they survive into adulthood in the era of antiretroviral therapy, there is a pressing need to transfer them from paediatric to adult care, known as the transition of care. We conducted a narrative review of recent evidence on their transition outcomes in Africa, highlighting the specific needs and challenges in these populations and settings, and the different models of care for transition...
May 16, 2017: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525851/a-fully-integrated-distance-readout-elisa-chip-for-point-of-care-testing-with-sample-in-answer-out-capability
#10
Dan Liu, Xingrui Li, Junkai Zhou, Shibo Liu, Tian Tian, Yanling Song, Zhi Zhu, Leiji Zhou, Tianhai Ji, Chaoyong Yang
Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is a popular laboratory technique for detection of disease-specific protein biomarkers with high specificity and sensitivity. However, ELISA requires labor-intensive and time-consuming procedures with skilled operators and spectroscopic instrumentation. Simplification of the procedures and miniaturization of the devices are crucial for ELISA-based point-of-care (POC) testing in resource-limited settings. Here, we present a fully integrated, instrument-free, low-cost and portable POC platform which integrates the process of ELISA and the distance readout into a single microfluidic chip...
May 4, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525780/age-of-despair-or-age-of-hope-palestinian-women-s-perspectives-on-midlife-health
#11
Doaa Hammoudeh, Ernestina Coast, David Lewis, Yoke van der Meulen, Tiziana Leone, Rita Giacaman
There is limited evidence about women's experiences of the midlife, beyond a narrow - frequently biomedical - focus on the menopause. The broader (physical, social, cultural, political) dimensions of women's midlife health are poorly understood, particularly in low and middle-income countries. Our study seeks to understand how women in the West Bank (occupied Palestinian territories) conceptualise, experience and manage their health in the midlife. We generated qualitative evidence using in-depth life history interviews in 2015 with women (n = 35) living in the West Bank, analysed thematically...
May 11, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525526/critical-analysis-of-the-council-for-international-organizations-of-medical-sciences-2016-international-guidelines-for-health-related-research-involving-humans
#12
REVIEW
Miguel Hugo Kottow Lang
This paper presents a preliminary discussion of the Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences (CIOMS), recently issued “International Ethical Guidelines for Health-related Research Involving Humans” (2016) that acknowledges the document’s declared concern of the protection of human subjects and awareness of their needs and interests in “low-resource settings”. Nevertheless, guideline recommendations present exceptional situations –vulnerability, mental incompetence- wherein voluntary and consented participation may be reduced or omitted under three concurrent conditions: compelling scientific value, the need to include persons that will not benefit directly from participation, exposure to minimal or slight risks...
May 15, 2017: Medwave
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522808/plasmonics-enhanced-smartphone-fluorescence-microscopy
#13
Qingshan Wei, Guillermo Acuna, Seungkyeum Kim, Carolin Vietz, Derek Tseng, Jongjae Chae, Daniel Shir, Wei Luo, Philip Tinnefeld, Aydogan Ozcan
Smartphone fluorescence microscopy has various applications in point-of-care (POC) testing and diagnostics, ranging from e.g., quantification of immunoassays, detection of microorganisms, to sensing of viruses. An important need in smartphone-based microscopy and sensing techniques is to improve the detection sensitivity to enable quantification of extremely low concentrations of target molecules. Here, we demonstrate a general strategy to enhance the detection sensitivity of a smartphone-based fluorescence microscope by using surface-enhanced fluorescence (SEF) created by a thin metal-film...
May 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522129/provision-of-prehospital-emergency-medical-services-in-punjab-pakistan-case-study-of-a-public-sector-provider
#14
Veena M Sriram, Rizwan Naseer, Adnan A Hyder
BACKGROUND: The availability and quality of emergency medical services in low- and middle-income countries, including Pakistan, are extremely limited. New models for prehospital emergency medical services provision have recently emerged across multiple sectors, and research on these models is urgently needed to inform current and future emergency medical services systems in low-resource settings. The objective of this case study was to provide a comprehensive description of the organizational structure and service delivery model of a public sector provider in the Punjab Province of Pakistan, Rescue 1122, with a focus on operations in Lahore...
May 15, 2017: Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521751/an-integrated-intervention-to-reduce-intimate-partner-violence-and-psychological-distress-with-refugees-in-low-resource-settings-study-protocol-for-the-nguvu-cluster-randomized-trial
#15
Wietse A Tol, M Claire Greene, Samuel Likindikoki, Lusia Misinzo, Peter Ventevogel, Ann G Bonz, Judith K Bass, Jessie K K Mbwambo
BACKGROUND: Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a critical public health and human rights concern globally, including for refugee women in low-resource settings. Little is known about effective interventions for this population. IPV and psychological distress have a bi-directional relationship, indicating the potential benefit of a structured psychological component as part of efforts to reduce IPV for women currently in violent relationships. METHODS: This protocol describes a cluster randomized controlled trial aimed at evaluating an 8-session integrated psychological and advocacy intervention (Nguvu) with female adult survivors of past-year IPV displaying moderate to severe psychological distress...
May 18, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520838/effect-of-the-prepare-website-vs-an-easy-to-read-advance-directive-on-advance-care-planning-documentation-and-engagement-among-veterans-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#16
Rebecca L Sudore, John Boscardin, Mariko A Feuz, Ryan D McMahan, Mary T Katen, Deborah E Barnes
Importance: Documentation rates of patients' medical wishes are often low. It is unknown whether easy-to-use, patient-facing advance care planning (ACP) interventions can overcome barriers to planning in busy primary care settings. Objective: To compare the efficacy of an interactive, patient-centered ACP website (PREPARE) with an easy-to-read advance directive (AD) to increase planning documentation. Design, Setting, and Participants: This was a comparative effectiveness randomized clinical trial from April 2013 to July 2016 conducted at multiple primary care clinics at the San Francisco VA Medical Center...
May 18, 2017: JAMA Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520780/towards-a-point-of-care-strip-test-to-diagnose-sickle-cell-anemia
#17
Meaghan Bond, Brady Hunt, Bailey Flynn, Petri Huhtinen, Russell Ware, Rebecca Richards-Kortum
A rapid test to identify patients with sickle cell disease could have important benefits in low-resource settings. Sickle cell anemia (SCA) affects about 300,000 newborns each year, the majority of whom are born in sub-Saharan Africa. Low-cost therapies are available to treat SCA, but most countries in sub-Saharan Africa lack robust neonatal screening programs needed to identify patients in need of treatment. To address this need, we developed and evaluated a competitive lateral flow assay that identifies patients with SCA (genotype HbSS) in 15 minutes using undiluted whole blood...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515779/higher-resource-level-promotes-virulence-in-an-environmentally-transmitted-bacterial-fish-pathogen
#18
Hanna Kinnula, Johanna Mappes, Janne K Valkonen, Katja Pulkkinen, Lotta-Riina Sundberg
Diseases have become a primary constraint to sustainable aquaculture, but remarkably little attention has been paid to a broad class of pathogens: the opportunists. Opportunists often persist in the environment outside the host, and their pathogenic features are influenced by changes in the environment. To test how environmental nutrient levels influence virulence, we used strains of Flavobacterium columnare, an environmentally transmitted fish pathogen, to infect rainbow trout and zebra fish in two different nutrient concentrations...
June 2017: Evolutionary Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515305/cell-cycle-dependent-expression-of-aav2-rep-in-hsv-1-co-infections-gives-rise-to-a-mosaic-of-cells-replicating-either-aav2-or-hsv-1
#19
Francesca D Franzoso, Michael Seyffert, Rebecca Vogel, Artur Yakimovich, Bruna de Andrade Pereira, Anita F Meier, Sereina O Sutter, Kurt Tobler, Bernd Vogt, Urs F Greber, Hildegard Büning, Mathias Ackermann, Cornel Fraefel
Adeno-associated virus 2 (AAV2) depends for productive replication on the simultaneous presence of a helper virus such as herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1). At the same time, AAV2 efficiently blocks the replication of HSV-1, which would eventually limit its own replication by diminishing the helper virus reservoir. This discrepancy begs the question how AAV2 and HSV-1 can co-exist in a cell population. Here we show that in co-infected cultures, AAV2 DNA replication takes place almost exclusively in S/G2 cells, while HSV-1 DNA replication is restricted to G1...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515181/measuring-ability-to-assess-claims-about-treatment-effects-the-development-of-the-claim-evaluation-tools
#20
Astrid Austvoll-Dahlgren, Daniel Semakula, Allen Nsangi, Andrew David Oxman, Iain Chalmers, Sarah Rosenbaum, Øystein Guttersrud
OBJECTIVES: To describe the development of the Claim Evaluation Tools, a set of flexible items to measure people's ability to assess claims about treatment effects. SETTING: Methodologists and members of the community (including children) in Uganda, Rwanda, Kenya, Norway, the UK and Australia. PARTICIPANTS: In the iterative development of the items, we used purposeful sampling of people with training in research methodology, such as teachers of evidence-based medicine, as well as patients and members of the public from low-income and high-income countries...
May 17, 2017: BMJ Open
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