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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931025/the-clinical-and-microbiological-characteristics-of-enteric-fever-in-cambodia-2008-2015
#1
Laura M F Kuijpers, Thong Phe, Chhun H Veng, Kruy Lim, Sovann Ieng, Chun Kham, Nizar Fawal, Laetitia Fabre, Simon Le Hello, Erika Vlieghe, François-Xavier Weill, Jan Jacobs, Willy E Peetermans
BACKGROUND: Enteric fever remains a major public health problem in low resource settings and antibiotic resistance is increasing. In Asia, an increasing proportion of infections is caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Paratyphi A, which for a long time was assumed to cause a milder clinical syndrome compared to Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi. METHODOLOGY: A retrospective chart review study was conducted of 254 unique cases of blood culture confirmed enteric fever who presented at a referral adult hospital in Phnom Penh, Cambodia between 2008 and 2015...
September 20, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930183/substituting-sodium-hydrosulfite-with-sodium-metabisulfite-improves-long-term-stability-of-a-distributable-paper-based-test-kit-for-point-of-care-screening-for-sickle-cell-anemia
#2
Kian Torabian, Dalia Lezzar, Nathaniel Z Piety, Alex George, Sergey S Shevkoplyas
Sickle cell anemia (SCA) is a genetic blood disorder that is particularly lethal in early childhood. Universal newborn screening programs and subsequent early treatment are known to drastically reduce under-five SCA mortality. However, in resource-limited settings, cost and infrastructure constraints limit the effectiveness of laboratory-based SCA screening programs. To address this limitation our laboratory previously developed a low-cost, equipment-free, point-of-care, paper-based SCA test. Here, we improved the stability and performance of the test by replacing sodium hydrosulfite (HS), a key reducing agent in the hemoglobin solubility buffer which is not stable in aqueous solutions, with sodium metabisulfite (MS)...
September 20, 2017: Biosensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929734/label-free-and-high-throughput-detection-of-biomolecular-interactions-using-a-flatbed-scanner-biosensor
#3
Ugur Aygun, Oguzhan Avci, Elif Seymour, Hakan Urey, M Selim Ünlu, Ayca Yalcin Ozkumur
Fluorescence based microarray detection systems provide sensitive measurements, however variation of probe immobilization and poor repeatability negatively affect the final readout, and thus quantification capability of these systems. Here, we demonstrate a label-free and high-throughput optical biosensor that can be utilized for calibration of fluorescence microarrays. The sensor employs a commercial flatbed scanner, and we demonstrate transformation of this low cost (100 USD) system into an Interferometric Reflectance Imaging Sensor through hardware and software modifications...
September 20, 2017: ACS Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927676/a-pilot-study-to-expand-treatment-of-chronic-hepatitis-c-in-resource-limited-settings
#4
REVIEW
Poonam Mathur, Emily Comstock, Edward McSweegan, Natalia Mercer, Nongthombam Suraj Kumar, Shyamasundaran Kottilil
The past five years have seen a revolution in the treatment of chronic hepatitis C, as short duration oral regimens of direct-acting antiviral drugs (DAAs), with nearly 100% cure rates for all genotypes, have replaced longer courses of ribavirin and injected interferon. Although initially very expensive, these DAAs are now becoming available in generic equivalents in countries with large numbers of chronically infected people, such as India. However, a number of obstacles may hinder the delivery of these drugs in resource-limited settings, including lack of access to diagnostic testing and the restriction of treatment to a small number of medical specialists...
September 16, 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926598/-if-he-could-speak-he-would-be-able-to-point-out-who-does-those-things-to-him-experiences-of-violence-and-access-to-child-protection-among-children-with-disabilities-in-uganda-and-malawi
#5
Lena Morgon Banks, Susan A Kelly, Nambusi Kyegombe, Hannah Kuper, Karen Devries
INTRODUCTION: There is growing evidence that children with disabilities face an increased risk of violence globally. While child protection mechanisms to prevent and respond to violence-including formal government systems and more informal programmes and activities run by local communities or NGOs-are slowly becoming operationalised in low- and- middle-income countries, little is known about whether existing mechanisms are disability-inclusive. The aim of this study is to provide a better understanding of children with disabilities' experiences of violence and their access to available child protection mechanisms in low resource settings...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926565/a-snp-panel-and-online-tool-for-checking-genotype-concordance-through-comparing-qr-codes
#6
Yonghong Du, Joshua S Martin, John McGee, Yuchen Yang, Eric Yi Liu, Yingrui Sun, Matthias Geihs, Xuejun Kong, Eric Lingfeng Zhou, Yun Li, Jie Huang
In the current precision medicine era, more and more samples get genotyped and sequenced. Both researchers and commercial companies expend significant time and resources to reduce the error rate. However, it has been reported that there is a sample mix-up rate of between 0.1% and 1%, not to mention the possibly higher mix-up rate during the down-stream genetic reporting processes. Even on the low end of this estimate, this translates to a significant number of mislabeled samples, especially over the projected one billion people that will be sequenced within the next decade...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924520/complete-remission-in-locally-advanced-breast-cancer-what-comprehensive-multi-modality-treatment-has-to-offer-in-sub-saharan-africa
#7
Gaurav Bhattacharya, Susan C Msadabwe-Chikuni, Roanne Segal, Omkar Inamdar, Catherine K Mwaba
Locally advanced breast cancer presents as a heterogeneous disease, but it is often best treated with aggressive combined modality therapy.  Commonly, it carries a more guarded prognosis. Given the above, it can be a particularly challenging entity to treat in resource-limited settings. We identify one such case with a relative lack of hormone receptor positivity in the sub-Saharan country of Zambia. Management of the disease was hampered by the challenges of resource constraints and communication gaps that are especially acute in low- to middle-income nations as compared to Western societies...
July 6, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923268/an-instrumental-case-study-examining-the-introduction-and-dissemination-of-the-baby-friendly-health-initiative-in-australia-participants-perspectives
#8
Marjorie Atchan, Deborah Davis, Maralyn Foureur
BACKGROUND: Australia experiences high breastfeeding initiation but low duration rates. UNICEF introduced the global breastfeeding strategy, the Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative, to Australia in 1992, transferring governance to the Australian College of Midwives (ACM) in 1995. In 2017 23% of facilities were registered as 'baby-friendly' accredited. AIM: To examine the introduction and dissemination of the Baby-friendly Hospital Initiative into the Australian national setting...
September 8, 2017: Women and Birth: Journal of the Australian College of Midwives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923156/functional-constructivism-in-search-of-formal-descriptors
#9
Irina Trofimova
The Functional Constructivism (FC) paradigm is an alternative to behaviorism and considers behavior as being generated every time anew, based on an individual's capacities, environmental resources and demands. Walter Freeman's work provided us with evidence supporting the FC principles. In this paper we make parallels between gradual construction processes leading to the formation of individual behavior and habits, and evolutionary processes leading to the establishment of biological systems. Referencing evolutionary theory, several formal descriptors of such processes are proposed...
October 2017: Nonlinear Dynamics, Psychology, and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922228/anesthesia-capacity-in-ghana-a-teaching-hospital-s-resources-and-the-national-workforce-and-education
#10
Mark A Brouillette, Alfred J Aidoo, Maria A Hondras, Nana A Boateng, Akwasi Antwi-Kusi, William Addison, Alec R Hermanson
BACKGROUND: Quality anesthetic care is lacking in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Global health leaders call for perioperative capacity reports in limited-resource settings to guide improved health care initiatives. We describe a teaching hospital's resources and the national workforce and education in this LMIC capacity report. METHODS: A prospective observational study was conducted at Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital (KATH) in Kumasi, Ghana, during 4 weeks in August 2016...
September 14, 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919838/adherence-to-precautions-for-preventing-the-transmission-of-microorganisms-in-primary-health-care-a-qualitative-study
#11
Michely Aparecida Cardoso Maroldi, Adriana Maria da Silva Felix, Ana Angélica Lima Dias, Julia Yaeko Kawagoe, Maria Clara Padoveze, Sílvia Alice Ferreira, Sílvia Helena Zem-Mascarenhas, Stephen Timmons, Rosely Moralez Figueiredo
BACKGROUND: Health care associated infections (HAIs) are a source of concern worldwide. No health service in any country can be considered HAI risk-free. However, there is scarcity of data on the risks to which both patients and health workers are subject in non-hospital settings. The aim of this study was to identify issues that determine the adherence of professionals to precautions for preventing transmission of microorganisms in primary health care. METHOD: This was a qualitative study, using focus groups of primary health care staff, in two Brazilian municipalities...
2017: BMC Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919246/filtered-sunlight-solar-powered-phototherapy-and-other-strategies-for-managing-neonatal-jaundice-in-low-resource-settings
#12
Tina M Slusher, Louise Tina Day, Tolulope Ogundele, Nick Woolfield, Joseph Aderinsola Owa
Challenges in treating severe neonatal jaundice in low and middle-income country settings still exist at many levels. These include: a lack of awareness of causes and prevention by families, communities and even sometimes health care professionals; insufficient, ineffective, high quality affordable diagnostic and therapeutic options; limited availability of rehabilitation provision for kernicterus. Collectively these challenges lead to an unacceptably high global morbidity and mortality from severe neonatal jaundice...
September 15, 2017: Early Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917500/economic-evaluation-of-childhood-epilepsy-in-a-resource-challenged-setting-a-preliminary-survey
#13
Aliyu Ibrahim, Umar Isa Umar, Umar Musa Usman, Lukman Femi Owolabi
BACKGROUND: Considerable disease variability exists between patients with epilepsy, and the societal costs for epilepsy care are overall high, because of high frequency in the general population especially in children from developing countries. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study where children with established diagnosis of epilepsy were interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire. Prevalence-based costs were stratified by patients' sociodemographic characteristics and socioeconomic scores (SES)...
September 13, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917388/improvised-hand-injury-treatment-using-traditional-veterinary-medicine-in-ethiopia
#14
Raf Aerts, Eva J J November, Maissa Rayyan
In remote wilderness environments, local people with traditional knowledge of medicinal plants are potentially important first-line health care providers. We present a case of a 31-year-old man who fell off a horse while trekking through a remote mountain landscape in Ethiopia and sustained blunt force trauma to the hand. A local mountain hut keeper examined the patient's hand and used heated leaves of the succulent plant Kalanchoe petitiana to treat a suspected metacarpal fracture. As first responder in a low-resource setting, the hut keeper relied on his traditional knowledge of ethnoveterinary medicine to improvise a treatment for a human injury in a remote mountain environment...
September 13, 2017: Wilderness & Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917222/validation-of-summer-and-winter-elisa-measurements-of-serum-25-hydroxyvitamin-d-concentrations-in-mongolia
#15
Sabri Bromage, Daria Tselmen, Gary Bradwin, Michael F Holick, Davaasaambuu Ganmaa
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Assay cost, quality, and availability pose challenges for vitamin D surveys in limited resource settings. This study aimed to validate an inexpensive vitamin D assay (ELISA) under real-world conditions in Mongolia, the northernmost developing country, to characterize the assay's usefulness and inform the design of epidemiologic studies in similar regions. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: We collected paired summer and winter serum samples from 120 men and women (aged 20-57 years) in urban and rural Mongolia, analyzed each sample for 25(OH)D concentration using both Immunodiagnostic Systems ELISA and DiaSorin LIAISON 25(OH)D TOTAL, and compared the assays using multiple statistics...
2017: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915890/barriers-and-enablers-for-the-development-and-implementation-of-allied-health-clinical-practice-guidelines-in-south-african-primary-healthcare-settings-a-qualitative-study
#16
J M Dizon, K Grimmer, Q Louw, S Machingaidze, H Parker, H Pillen
BACKGROUND: The South African allied health (AH) primary healthcare (PHC) workforce is challenged with the complex rehabilitation needs of escalating patient numbers. The application of evidence-based care using clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) is one way to make efficient and effective use of resources. Although CPGs are common for AH in high-income countries, there is limited understanding of how to do this in low- to middle-income countries. This paper describes barriers and enablers for AH CPG uptake in South African PHC...
September 15, 2017: Health Research Policy and Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915850/-love-me-parents-impact-evaluation-of-a-national-social-and-behavioral-change-communication-campaign-on-maternal-health-outcomes-in-tanzania
#17
Michelle R Kaufman, Jennifer J Harman, Marina Smelyanskaya, Jennifer Orkis, Robert Ainslie
BACKGROUND: Despite marked improvements over the last few decades, maternal mortality in Tanzania remains among the world's highest at 454 maternal deaths per 100,000 live births. Many factors contribute to this disparity, such as a lack of attendance at antenatal care (ANC) services and low rates of delivery at a health facility with a skilled provider. The Wazazi Nipendeni (Love me, parents) social and behavioral change communication campaign was launched in Tanzania in 2012 to improve a range of maternal health outcomes, including individual birth planning, timely ANC attendance, and giving birth in a healthcare facility...
September 15, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915827/evaluating-the-impact-of-a-walking-program-in-a-disadvantaged-area-using-the-re-aim-framework-by-mixed-methods
#18
Camila Tiome Baba, Isabela Martins Oliveira, Adriele Evelyn Ferreira Silva, Leonardo Moreira Vieira, Natalia Caroline Cerri, Alex Antonio Florindo, Grace Angélica de Oliveira Gomes
BACKGROUND: The positive health impact of physical activity (PA) is well known, yet a large proportion of the world's population remains sedentary. General PA programs are common as health promotion initiatives. However, effectiveness evaluations of such PA programs on individual and organizational aspects, which could inform the decision-making process of public health bodies are still lacking, particularly in the most socially disadvantaged areas, where health promotion schemes are particularly needed...
September 15, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914083/the-importance-of-context-in-early-autism-intervention-a-qualitative-south-african-study
#19
Jessy Guler, Petrus J de Vries, Noleen Seris, Nokuthula Shabalala, Lauren Franz
The majority of individuals with autism spectrum disorder live in low- and middle-income countries and receive little or no services from health or social care systems. The development and validation of autism spectrum disorder interventions has almost exclusively occurred in high-income countries, leaving many unanswered questions regarding what contextual factors would need to be considered to ensure the effectiveness of interventions in low- and middle-income countries. This study qualitatively explored contextual factors relevant to the adaptation of a caregiver-mediated early autism spectrum disorder intervention in a low-resource South African setting...
September 1, 2017: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912964/is-the-south-african-triage-scale-valid-for-use-in-afghanistan-haiti-and-sierra-leone
#20
Mohammed Dalwai, Pola Valles, Michele Twomey, Yvonne Nzomukunda, Prince Jonjo, Manoj Sasikumar, Masood Nasim, Abdul Razaaq, Olivia Gayraud, Pierre Ronald Jecrois, Lee Wallis, Katie Tayler-Smith
OBJECTIVE: To assess the validity of the South African Triage Scale (SATS) in four Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF)-supported emergency departments (ED, two trauma-only sites, one mixed site (both medical and trauma cases) and one paediatric-only site) in Afghanistan, Haiti and Sierra Leone. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study conducted between June 2013 and June 2014. Validity was assessed by comparing patients' SATS ratings with their final ED outcome (ie, hospital admission, death or discharge)...
2017: BMJ Global Health
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