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Brett K J Kilb, Andrew P Kurmis, Michael Parry, Karen Sherwood, Paul Keown, Bassam A Masri, Clive P Duncan, Donald S Garbuz
BACKGROUND: Once touted as the future of hip arthroplasty, metal-on-metal (MoM) bearing surfaces have fallen sharply from favor with the emergence of a strong body of evidence demonstrating unacceptably high premature implant failure rates. The previously unpredictable development of adverse local tissue reactions (ALTRs) has been a substantive contributor to this. Although the underlying pathophysiology of these so-called "pseudotumors" is now well understood, the fundamental predisposing patient risk factors have remained elusive...
February 2018: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
John A Abraham, Barry Kenneally, Kamil Amer, David S Geller
BACKGROUND: Navigation-assisted resection has been proposed as a useful adjunct to resection of malignant tumors in difficult anatomic sites such as the pelvis and sacrum where it is difficult to achieve tumor-free margins. Most of these studies are case reports or small case series, but these reports have been extremely promising. Very few reports, however, have documented benefits of navigation-assisted resection in series of pelvic and sacral primary tumors. Because this technology may add time and expense to the surgical procedure, it is important to determine whether navigation provides any such benefits or simply adds cost and time to an already complex procedure...
March 2018: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
Yoonhee Kim, Chris Fook Sheng Ng, Yeonseung Chung, Ho Kim, Yasushi Honda, Yue Leon Guo, Youn-Hee Lim, Bing-Yu Chen, Lisa A Page, Masahiro Hashizume
BACKGROUND: There is growing evidence suggesting an association between air pollution and suicide. However, previous findings varied depending on the type of air pollutant and study location. OBJECTIVES: We examined the association between air pollutants and suicide in 10 large cities in South Korea, Japan, and Taiwan. METHODS: We used a two-stage meta-analysis. First, we conducted a time-stratified case-crossover analysis to estimate the short-term association between nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ), sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ), and particulate matter [aerodynamic diameter ≤10μm (PM10 ), aerodynamic diameter ≤2...
March 6, 2018: Environmental Health Perspectives
G Zhou, K P Wang, H W Liu, L Wang, X F Xiao, D D Dou, Y B Fan
Owing to low bearing capacity and efficiency, traditional filters or adsorbents for removal of contaminants like crystal violet (CV) dye required frequent replacement. Besides, the combination of three-dimensional (3D) printing and bionics could break the constraints of traditional configuration. In this study, a novel depth-type hybrid polylactic acid (PLA)@graphene oxide (GO)/chitosan (CS) sponge filter with bionic fish-mouth structure was prepared and fabricated, assisted by 3D printing and double freeze-drying technology, according to the theories of vertical cross-step filtration and swirling flow...
March 9, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Christina Boeck, Sophia Pfister, Alexander Bürkle, Valerie Vanhooren, Claude Libert, Juan Salinas-Manrique, Detlef E Dietrich, Iris-Tatjana Kolassa, Alexander Karabatsiakis
BACKGROUND: Glycans are short chains of saccharides linked to glycoproteins that are known to be involved in a wide range of inflammatory processes. As depression has been consistently associated with chronic low-grade inflammation, we asked whether patients with Major Depressive Disorder show alterations in the N-glycosylation pattern of serum proteins that might be linked to associated changes in inflammatory processes. METHODS: In a study cohort of 21 female patients with an acute depressive episode and 21 non-depressed female control subjects aged between 50 and 69 years, we analyzed the serum N-glycan profile by DNA Sequencer Adapted-Fluorophore Assisted Carbohydrate Electrophoresis (DSA-FACE) and assessed the serum levels of interleukin (IL)- 6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and C-reactive protein (CRP) by chemiluminescence immunoassays and nephelometry...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
Chakradhari Inampudi, Emmanuel Akintoye, Tomo Ando, Alexandros Briasoulis
Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) refers to narrowing of the peripheral arteries and atherosclerosis is the most important cause. In patients with PAD, revascularization is the preferred therapeutic strategy; nonetheless several patients are not deemed candidates for it due to advanced disease or several comorbidities. The main target of therapeutic angiogenesis is to promote development of new arterial vessels and improve perfusion of ischemic tissue. Angiogenic growth factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), fibroblast growth factor (FGF), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), administered intramuscularly or intra-arterially, have been shown to promote angiogenesis and development of collateral vasculature in preclinical studies...
March 9, 2018: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
Alice Rees, Lewis Bott
Comprehension can be enriched by considering what a speaker could have said but did not; namely, the alternative. For example, "Betty passed some of her exams" can be interpreted as "Betty passed some but not all of her exams". This enriched interpretation is an example of a scalar implicature. We consider whether the salience and use of the alternative are independent processes in the derivation of scalar implicatures or whether use is dependent on salience. Participants completed three sentence interpretation experiments in which the sentences invited scalar implicatures...
March 9, 2018: Cognition
David Avnir
A unique materials' methodology enables the doping of metals with functional molecules, polymers, enzymes, and nanoparticles. The resulting materials have either the combined properties of the metal and the dopants, or new, sometimes synergetic properties that are not found in the separate components, emerge. Metals that have been doped so far include gold, silver, copper, iron, gallium, palladium, platinum, and several alloys. Numerous applications have been demonstrated including catalysis, biocatalysis, bioactivity, electrochemistry (including new type of batteries), corrosion resistance, induction of chirality, tailoring unconventional properties to metals, and more...
March 12, 2018: Advanced Materials
Cesar Nombela
On November 21, 2017, Professor Julio R. Villanueva died in Salamanca. Born on April 27, 1928 in Villamayor, council of Piloña (Asturias), he lived almost to the age of 90. His was an accomplished life, full of endeavors and exciting works in the world of research and teaching, which earned him very broad recognition both in Spain and the international arena. Villanueva was undoubtedly the driving force of Fundamental Microbiology in Spain. His early steps came at a time when experimental biology was arriving at an important new age, using microbial systems for experimentation that lead to general conclusions about all living beings...
December 2017: International Microbiology: the Official Journal of the Spanish Society for Microbiology
Avinash Rao, Hesham Soliman, Mayank Kaushal, Oleysa Motovylak, Aditya Vedantam, Matthew D Budde, Brian Schmit, Marjorie Wang, Shekar N Kurpad
BACKGROUND: Fractional anisotropy (FA) of the high cervical cord correlates with upper limb function in acute cervical cord injury. We investigated the correlation between preoperative FA at the level of maximal compression and functional recovery in a group of patients after decompressive surgery for cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM). OBJECTIVE: To determine the usefulness of FA as a biomarker for severity of CSM and as a prognostic biomarker for improvement after surgery...
February 23, 2018: Neurosurgery
Lisa Haushofer
In the nineteenth century, food and diet became central to a public health increasingly focused on individual behavior and on the cost of sickness. Because of its potential to impact the economic uptake of food inside individual bodies, digestion became a crucial site of physiological investigation in this context. Out of physiological research on digestion emerged a group of medicinal food products based on digestive enzymes (then referred to as digestive ferments), so-called artificially digested foods. The paper examines the creation and significance of these products, focusing on the case of Benger's Food...
February 24, 2018: Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences
Aimee Medeiros, Elizabeth Siegel Watkins
In recent years, historians have turned their attention to the emergence of anti-aging medicine, suggesting that this interest group coalesced in the wake of widespread availability of recombinant human growth hormone (HGH) after 1985. We take a longer view of modern anti-aging medicine, unearthing a nexus of scientific, medical, and cultural factors that developed over several decades in the twentieth century to produce circumstances conducive to the emergence of this medical sub-specialty established on the premise of the anti-aging effects of HGH...
February 24, 2018: Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences
Carolina Agop-Nersesian, Livia Niklaus, Rahel Wacker, Volker Heussler
Recent years have witnessed a great gain in knowledge regarding parasite-host cell interactions during Plasmodium liver stage development. It is now an accepted fact that a large percentage of sporozoite invading a hepatocyte fail to form infectious merozoites. There appears to be a delicate balance between parasite survival and elimination and we now start to understand why this is so. Plasmodium liver stages replicate within the parasitophorous vacuole (PV), formed during invasion by invagination of the host cell plasma membrane...
February 26, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
Nina Gunde-Cimerman, Ana Plemenitaš, Aharon Oren
Hypersaline environments with salt concentrations up to NaCl saturation are inhabited by a great diversity of microorganisms belonging to the three domains of life. They all must cope with the low water activity of their environment, but different strategies exist to provide osmotic balance of the cells' cytoplasm with the salinity of the medium. One option used by many halophilic Archaea and a few representatives of the Bacteria is to accumulate salts, mainly KCl and to adapt the entire intracellular machinery to function in the presence of molar concentrations of salts...
February 26, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
Brintha Parasumanna Girinathan, Junjun Ou, Bruno Dupuy, Revathi Govind
Clostridium difficile is the primary cause of nosocomial diarrhea and pseudomembranous colitis. It produces dormant spores, which serve as an infectious vehicle responsible for transmission of the disease and persistence of the organism in the environment. In Bacillus subtilis, the sin locus coding SinR (113 aa) and SinI (57 aa) is responsible for sporulation inhibition. In B. subtilis, SinR mainly acts as a repressor of its target genes to control sporulation, biofilm formation, and autolysis. SinI is an inhibitor of SinR, so their interaction determines whether SinR can inhibit its target gene expression...
March 12, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
Tomoki Nakamizo, Masahiro Yamamoto, Ken Johkura
The risk of atrial fibrillation (AF)-related stroke is usually assessed by calculating the CHA2DS2-VASc score, the components of which are various risk factors, including prior stroke. Although prior stroke is considered the strongest risk factor, the associated risk is actually inferred. Nevertheless, it implies a "freedom-from-event effect" (FEE)-the longer a patient is stroke-free, the lower the stroke risk. Although dynamic prognostication has been applied to cancer, the FEE has been ignored in AF, probably because of methodological difficulties...
2018: PloS One
Nannan Guo, Marta E Soden, Charlotte Herber, Michael TaeWoo Kim, Antoine Besnard, Paoyan Lin, Xiang Ma, Constance L Cepko, Larry S Zweifel, Amar Sahay
Memories become less precise and generalized over time as memory traces reorganize in hippocampal-cortical networks. Increased time-dependent loss of memory precision is characterized by an overgeneralization of fear in individuals with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) or age-related cognitive impairments. In the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG), memories are thought to be encoded by so-called 'engram-bearing' dentate granule cells (eDGCs). Here we show, using rodents, that contextual fear conditioning increases connectivity between eDGCs and inhibitory interneurons (INs) in the downstream hippocampal CA3 region...
March 12, 2018: Nature Medicine
Timothy J H Lathlean, Paul B Gastin, Stuart Newstead, Caroline F Finch
Well-developed physical qualities such as high jumping ability, running endurance, acceleration and speed can help aspiring junior elite Australian football (AF) players transition to the Australian Football League competition. In order to do so, players need to experience sufficient load in order to enhance their physical resilience without increasing their risk of negative outcomes in terms of impaired wellness or injury. The aim of this study was to investigate the differences in load for different levels of competition and training modes across one competitive season...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Bethany M Breck, Cory B Dennis, Skye N Leedahl
Reverse mentoring is a means to address the social work Grand Challenge of social isolation. Among older adults, reverse mentoring can improve social connection by increasing the digital competence of older adults so they can use technology for social benefit, and by facilitating intergenerational connections with young adult mentors. In this paper, reverse mentoring is examined within an intergenerational program that serves older adults and utilizes the native technological knowledge and skills of young adults who mentor older adult participants...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Gerontological Social Work
Thomas F Pettigrew
Social psychology experiences recurring so-called "crises." This article maintains that these episodes actually mark advances in the discipline; these "crises" have enhanced relevance and led to greater methodological and statistical sophistication. New statistical tools have allowed social psychologists to begin to achieve a major goal: placing psychological phenomena in their larger social contexts. This growing trend is illustrated with numerous recent studies; they demonstrate how cultures and social norms moderate basic psychological processes...
March 1, 2018: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
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