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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223677/the-hypothalamus-pituitary-gonad-axis-tales-of-mice-and-men
#1
REVIEW
Athina Kaprara, Ilpo T Huhtaniemi
Reproduction is controlled by the hypothalamic - pituitary - gonadal (HPG) axis. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons play a central role in this axis through production of GnRH, which binds to a membrane receptor on pituitary gonadotrophs and stimulates the biosynthesis and secretion of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH). Multiple factors affect GnRH neuron migration, GnRH gene expression, GnRH pulse generator, GnRH secretion, GnRH receptor expression, and gonadotropin synthesis and release...
December 6, 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222425/polymorphisms-in-jmjd1c-are-associated-with-pubertal-onset-in-boys-and-reproductive-function-in-men
#2
Nina Mørup, Alexander Siegfried Busch, Anne Kirstine Bang, Loa Nordkap, John E Nielsen, Ewa Rajpert-De Meyts, Anders Juul, Niels Jørgensen, Kristian Almstrup
JMJD1C, a member of the Jumonji-domain containing histone demethylases protein family, has been associated with levels of sex-hormone binding globulin (SHBG) and testosterone in men, and knock-out rodent models show age-dependent infertility. The objective of this study was to investigate whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) nearby JMJD1C are associated with pubertal onset in boys and with male reproduction. 671 peri-pubertal boys, 1,027 young men, 315 fertile men, and 252 infertile men were genotyped for two JMJD1C SNPs (rs7910927 and rs10822184)...
December 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221424/effects-of-dehydroepiandrosterone-supplementation-on-mice-with-diminished-ovarian-reserve
#3
Xiufeng Lin, Jing Du, Yan Du, Riran Wu, Xiaowu Fang, Yuechan Liao, Song Quan
Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) has been used to improve the pregnancy rate in women with diminished ovarian reserve(DOR) during in vitro fertilization. We aimed to validate the effects of DHEA and identify the possible mechanisms. We constructed a mice model with DOR and analyzed the hormone parameters and follicle counts. In vivo experiment, FSH and LH concentrations in the serum were significantly elevated in the DOR group. However, the FSH and LH concentrations were partially reversed in the DOR + DHEA group...
December 8, 2017: Gynecological Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217167/potential-protective-effect-of-pistacia-lentiscus-oil-against-chlorpyrifos-induced-hormonal-changes-and-oxidative-damage-in-ovaries-and-thyroid-of-female-rats
#4
Samira Chebab, Fatiha Mekircha, Essaid Leghouchi
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the protective effect of Pistacia lentiscus oil (PLO), known for its antioxidant properties, on chlorpyrifos (CPF)-induced alterations in the thyroid, reproductive hormone levels, and oxidative damage in the ovaries and thyroid of adult Wistar rats. The animals were treated with orally administered PLO (2 mL/kg), CPF (6.75 mg/kg), and a combination of CPF and PLO for 30 days. Serum levels of luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), progesterone (Pg), estradiol (E2), triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) were assessed using chemiluminescence assay...
December 4, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215017/active-site-plasticity-revealed-in-the-asymmetric-dimer-of-anprx6-the-1-cys-peroxiredoxin-and-molecular-chaperone-from-anabaena-sp-pcc-7210
#5
Yogesh Mishra, Michael Hall, Roland Locmelis, Kwangho Nam, Christopher A G Söderberg, Patrik Storm, Neha Chaurasia, Lal Chand Rai, Stefan Jansson, Wolfgang P Schröder, Uwe H Sauer
Peroxiredoxins (Prxs) are vital regulators of intracellular reactive oxygen species levels in all living organisms. Their activity depends on one or two catalytically active cysteine residues, the peroxidatic Cys (CP) and, if present, the resolving Cys (CR). A detailed catalytic cycle has been derived for typical 2-Cys Prxs, however, little is known about the catalytic cycle of 1-Cys Prxs. We have characterized Prx6 from the cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain PCC7120 (AnPrx6) and found that in addition to the expected peroxidase activity, AnPrx6 can act as a molecular chaperone in its dimeric state, contrary to other Prxs...
December 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214681/thyroid-hormones-alter-estrous-cyclicity-and-antioxidative-status-in-the-ovaries-of-rats
#6
Quanwei Wei, Jaafar Sulieman Fedail, Lingfa Kong, Kaizhi Zheng, Chunhua Meng, Mohamed Babo Fadlalla, Fangxiong Shi
To expand our understanding of the roles of thyroid hormones on female reproduction, we induced hypo- and hyper-T rat models to investigate the roles of thyroid hormones on estrous cyclicity, as well as the antioxidative status in the ovaries of rats. In the current study, our data show that hypothyroidism (hypo-T) and hyperthyroidism (hyper-T) led to significantly reduced body weights and ovarain weights and delayed vaginal opening day. For hyper-T, thyroxine (T4), tri-iodothyronine (T3), progesterone (P4) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) were significantly increased, while estradiol (E2) and luteinizing hormone (LH) were significantly decreased...
December 7, 2017: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210006/triiodothyronine-differentially-modulates-the-lh-and-fsh-synthesis-and-secretion-in-male-rats
#7
Renata Marino Romano, Paula Bargi-Souza, Erika Lia Brunetto, Francemilson Goulart-Silva, Renato M Salgado, Telma Maria Tenorio Zorn, Maria Tereza Nunes
Hypothyroidism and thyrotoxicosis produce adverse effects in male reproduction by unknown mechanisms. We investigated whether triiodothyronine (T3) modulates luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) synthesis/secretion, by inducing different thyroid states. In hypothyroidism, the content of Lhb and Fshb mRNAs was increased, while their association to ribosomes and the protein content were reduced and the serum LH and FSH concentrations were augmented and decreased, respectively. Thyrotoxicosis reduced Lhb mRNA and LH serum concentration, and increased Lhb mRNA translational rate...
December 5, 2017: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209278/follicle-stimulating-hormone-regulates-igfbp-gene-expression-directly-or-via-downstream-effectors-to-modulate-igf3-effects-on-zebrafish-spermatogenesis
#8
Diego Safian, Henk J G van der Kant, Diego Crespo, Jan Bogerd, Rüdiger W Schulz
Previous work showed that pharmacological inactivation of Igf-binding proteins (Igfbps), modulators of Igf activity, resulted in an excessive differentiation of type A undifferentiated (Aund) spermatogonia in zebrafish testis in tissue culture when Fsh was present in the incubation medium. Using this testis tissue culture system, we studied here the regulation of igfbp transcript levels by Fsh and two of its downstream effectors, Igf3 and 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT). We also explored how Fsh-modulated igfbp expression affected spermatogonial proliferation by adding or removing the Igfbp inhibitor NBI-31772 at different times...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208313/pursuit-of-a-method-for-single-administration-of-pfsh-for-superstimulation-in-cattle-what-we-have-learned
#9
Gabriel A Bó, Dragan R Rogan, Reuben J Mapletoft
A single dose protocol of FSH for superstimulation in cattle may improve compliance and superovulatory response. A single subcutaneous (sc) administration of pFSH was efficacious, but response depended on body condition and injection site; the adipose tissue pad behind the shoulder was most efficacious. Inconsistent results in Holsteins were partially overcome by sc administration of 75% of the total pFSH dose behind the shoulder on the first day followed by 25% 48 h later. An alternative would be to combine FSH with polymers that cause it to be released slowly over several days...
September 28, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207291/transcriptome-analysis-of-ovine-granulosa-cells-reveals-differences-between-small-antral-follicles-collected-during-the-follicular-and-luteal-phases
#10
Reza Talebi, Ahmad Ahmadi, Fazlollah Afraz, Julien Sarry, Florence Plisson-Petit, Carine Genêt, Stéphane Fabre
Ovarian follicular growth occurs in both the follicular and luteal phases of the estrous cycle but in very different endocrine contexts. In both phases, many small antral follicles with similar morphologic and histologic characteristics are present within the ovaries as a reserve for the terminal folliculogenesis. However, there are several gaps in our molecular knowledge of the gene expression profiles of small antral follicles in the follicular and luteal phases. The aim of the present study was to use RNA sequencing to compare and analyze the global transcriptional profile of ovine granulosa cells collected from small antral follicles (1-3 mm) either during the follicular or the luteal phase of the estrous cycle, with the hypothesis that they should be differential...
November 27, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207191/novel-evidence-that-pituitary-sex-hormones-regulate-migration-adhesion-and-proliferation-of-embryonic-stem-cells-and-teratocarcinoma-cells
#11
Zachariah Payne Sellers, Kamila Bujko, Gabriela Schneider, Magdalena Kucia, Mariusz Z Ratajczak
The pituitary sex hormones (SexHs): follicle‑stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), and prolactin (PRL) regulate several functions crucial for reproduction, including oogenesis, spermatogenesis, and lactation. An important source of prolactin-like hormones, known as lactogens, is the placenta, and lactogens bind to the PRL receptor (PRLR) with high affinity and thereby mimic the actions of PRL. Recently, it has been demonstrated that pituitary SexHs were involved in metastatic lung cancer, certain sarcomas, and leukemia...
November 24, 2017: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206944/the-direct-and-indirect-effects-of-kisspeptin-54-on-granulosa-lutein-cell-function
#12
L A Owens, A Abbara, A Lerner, S O'floinn, G Christopoulos, S Khanjani, R Islam, K Hardy, A C Hanyaloglu, S A Lavery, W S Dhillo, S Franks
STUDY QUESTION: What are the in vivo and in vitro actions of kisspeptin-54 on the expression of genes involved in ovarian reproductive function, steroidogenesis and ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) in granulosa lutein (GL) cells when compared with traditional triggers of oocyte maturation? SUMMARY ANSWER: The use of kisspeptin-54 as an oocyte maturation trigger augmented expression of genes involved in ovarian steroidogenesis in human GL cells including, FSH receptor (FSHR), LH/hCG receptor (LHCGR), steroid acute regulatory protein (STAR), aromatase, estrogen receptors alpha and beta (ESR1, ESR2), 3-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (3BHSD2) and inhibin A (INHBA), when compared to traditional maturation triggers, but did not alter markers of OHSS...
December 1, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205794/biallelic-mutations-in-lars2-can-cause-perrault-syndrome-type-2-with-neurologic-symptoms
#13
Rika Kosaki, Reiko Horikawa, Eriko Fujii, Kenjiro Kosaki
Perrault syndrome represents a genetically heterogeneous disorder characterized by sensorineural hearing loss in males and females and ovarian dysfunction in females. Causative genes include HARS2, HSD17B4, CLPP, C10orf2, and LARS2. Some patients with Perrault syndrome exhibit neurologic features including learning disability, cerebellar ataxia, and peripheral neuropathy and are classified as type 2 and are clinically separate from those without neurological symptoms other than a hearing loss (type 1). To date, all reported patients with LARS2 mutations (15 patients in 8 families) have been classified as type 1...
December 3, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204869/estrogen-treatment-in-infertile-women-with-premature-ovarian-insufficiency-in-transitional-phase-a-retrospective-analysis
#14
Sara Pinelli, Paolo Giovanni Artini, Stefano Basile, Maria Elena Rosa Obino, Claudia Sergiampietri, Diana Giannarelli, Giovanna Simi, Vito Cela
PURPOSE: During the transitional phase of premature ovarian insufficiency (POI), sporadic resumption of ovulation is possible because of fluctuation of hormonal levels but the chance of spontaneous pregnancy is low, and the main perspective of childbearing in these women is egg donation or adoption. The purpose of the study was to verify whether treatment with estrogens in POI patients in transitional phase could reduce FSH levels and to evaluate if this pre-treatment could improve reproductive outcomes of in vitro fertilization (IVF)...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202975/diminished-ovarian-reserve-as-measured-by-means-of-baseline-follicle-stimulating-hormone-and-antral-follicle-count-is-not-associated-with-pregnancy-loss-in-younger-in%C3%A2-vitro-fertilization-patients
#15
Lauren A Bishop, Kevin S Richter, George Patounakis, Leslie Andriani, Kimberly Moon, Kate Devine
OBJECTIVE: To assess the relationship between diminished ovarian reserve and pregnancy outcomes in a large cohort of women achieving pregnancy through in vitro fertilization (IVF). We evaluated antral follicle count (AFC) and baseline FSH as a measure of ovarian reserve. Secondarily, we assessed whether diminished ovarian reserve was associated with aneuploidy among spontaneous abortions. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Multicenter private practice...
December 2017: Fertility and Sterility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202959/antim%C3%A3-llerian-hormone-levels-and-antral-follicle-counts-are-not-reduced-compared-with-community-controls-in-patients-with-rigorously-defined-unexplained-infertility
#16
Eleni A Greenwood, Marcelle I Cedars, Nanette Santoro, Esther Eisenberg, Chia-Ning Kao, Daniel J Haisenleder, Michael P Diamond, Heather G Huddleston
OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that women with unexplained infertility demonstrate evidence of diminished ovarian reserve when compared with a population of community controls. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Multicenter university-based clinical practices. PATIENT(S): Study participants included 277 healthy, normo-ovulatory female partners with rigorously defined unexplained infertility randomly selected from a multicenter trial (Assessment of Multiple Intrauterine Gestations from Ovarian Stimulation)...
December 2017: Fertility and Sterility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201666/occult-form-of-premature-ovarian-insufficiency-in-women-with-infertility-and-oligomenorrhea-as-assessed-by-poor-ovarian-response-criteria
#17
Rubina Izhar, Samia Husain, Suhaima Tahir, Sonia Husain
Background: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ability of poor ovarian response criteria to classify women presenting with infertility and oligomenorrhea as having "occult" premature ovarian insufficiency. Methods: This was a cross sectional study conducted at Aziz Medical Center, Karachi, Pakistan from 1st August 2015 to 31st July 2016. Women with infertility and oligomenorrhea were included. All eligible women underwent day 2 FSH level and an early follicular phase transvaginal ultrasound to assess the antral follicular count (AFC)...
October 2017: Journal of Reproduction & Infertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201506/protective-role-of-resveratrol-on-testicular-germ-cells-in-mice-with-testicular-toxicity
#18
Fikriye Yasemin Özatik, Orhan Özatik, Semra Yiğitaslan, Çiğdem Çengelli Ünel, Kevser Erol
Objective: The aim of the present study was to investigate the possible beneficial effects of resveratrol in mice subjected to vinyl cyclohexene dieposide (VCD) -induced testicular toxicity. Material and methods: A total of thirty- six Swiss albino male mice aged 28-days were used in the present study. The study was composed of two stages where mice which received or did not receive VCD (320 mg/kg/day) were administered resveratrol. The animals were assigned into control and resveratrol-treated groups in the first stage and into groups of VCD- and VCD+resveratrol-treated groups in the second stage...
December 2017: Turkish Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198847/first-delivery-in-a-leukemia-survivor-after-transplantation-of-cryopreserved-ovarian-tissue-evaluated-for-leukemia-cells-contamination
#19
Moran Shapira, Hila Raanani, Iris Barshack, Ninette Amariglio, Sanaz Derech-Haim, Meital Nagar Marciano, Eyal Schiff, Raoul Orvieto, Dror Meirow
OBJECTIVE: To describe a successful autologous ovarian tissue re-transplantation in a sterile leukemia survivor after evaluation for minimal residual disease and provide a review of the current literature. DESIGN: Presentation of a carefully designed workup taken to evaluate tissue for minimal residual disease, its limitations, and applicability to other patients. To date, there have not been any publications of auto-transplantations in leukemia survivors, owing to an estimated high risk for malignancy induction...
November 29, 2017: Fertility and Sterility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198759/lowered-reference-limits-for-hcg-improve-follow-up-of-patients-with-hcg-producing-tumors
#20
Ragnhild V Nome, TTrine Bjøro, Elisabeth Paus, Johan Bjerner, Sophie D Fosså, Rita Steen, Kjell Nustad, Nils Bolstad
BACKGROUND: Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG) is produced by germ cell tumors, but can also be elevated in benign conditions such as primary hypogonadism, where hCG is produced by the pituitary gland. In our experience, the reference limits for hCG (Elecsys hCG+β-assay, Roche Diagnostics), were unnecessarily high and did not reflect levels encountered in clinical practice. We wanted to establish new reference limits to increase the clinical utility of the hCG-assay. METHODS: We analysed hCG in serum samples from a healthy adult population and in a cohort of testicular cancer survivors...
November 30, 2017: Clinical Biochemistry
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