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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339976/effects-of-two-different-broiler-flooring-systems-on-production-performances-welfare-and-environment-under-commercial-production-conditions
#1
H Li, X Wen, R Alphin, Z Zhu, Z Zhou
Research comparing conventional litter and alternative perforated flooring (netting) systems is relatively limited under commercial production conditions. A comprehensive comparison of broiler production performances, welfare quality, and housing environment of two broiler houses with conventional litter and new perforated plastic floors was conducted over four flocks for eight months in eastern China. The two broiler houses each had 31,700 broilers per flock on average and were ventilated using a negative-pressure system...
March 3, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339432/bipolar-versus-unipolar-intraarticular-pulsed-radiofrequency-thermocoagulation-in-chronic-knee-pain-treatment-a-prospective-randomized-trial
#2
Ersel Gulec, Hayri Ozbek, Sinan Pektas, Geylan Isik
BACKGROUND: Chronic knee pain is a major widespread problem causing significant impairment of daily function. Pulsed radiofrequency has been shown to reduce severe chronic joint pain as a non-pharmacological and less invasive treatment method. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to compare the effectiveness of unipolar and bipolar intraarticular pulsed radiofrequency methods in chronic knee pain control. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective, randomized, double-blind study...
March 2017: Pain Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334648/optimizing-withdrawal-from-drinking-water-reservoirs-to-reduce-downstream-temperature-pollution-and-reservoir-hypoxia
#3
M Weber, K Rinke, M R Hipsey, B Boehrer
Sustainable management of drinking water reservoirs requires balancing the demands of water supply whilst minimizing environmental impact. This study numerically simulates the effect of an improved withdrawal scheme designed to alleviate the temperature pollution downstream of a reservoir. The aim was to identify an optimal withdrawal strategy such that water of a desirable discharge temperature can be supplied downstream without leading to unacceptably low oxygen concentrations within the reservoir. First, we calibrated a one-dimensional numerical model for hydrodynamics and oxygen dynamics (GLM-AED2), verifying that the model reproduced water temperatures and hypolimnetic dissolved oxygen concentrations accurately over a 5 year period...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334271/a-temperature-dependent-phenology-model-for-liriomyza-huidobrensis-diptera-agromyzidae
#4
Norma Mujica, Marc Sporleder, Pablo Carhuapoma, Jürgen Kroschel
Liriomyza huidobrensis (Blanchard) is an economically important and highly polyphagous worldwide pest. To establish a temperature-dependent phenology model, essential for understanding the development and growth of the pest population under a variety of climates and as part of a pest risk analysis, L. huidobrensis life-table data were collected under laboratory conditions at seven constant temperatures on its host faba bean (Vicia faba L.). Several nonlinear equations were fitted to each life stage to model the temperature-dependent population growth and species life history and finally compile an overall temperature-dependent pest phenology model using the Insect Life Cycle Modeling (ILCYM) software...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334188/climate-extremes-vegetation-change-and-decoupling-of-interactive-fire-grazing-processes-exacerbate-fly-parasitism-of-cattle
#5
John D Scasta, Justin L Talley, David M Engle, Diane M Debinski
We assessed local horn fly (Haematobia irritans L.) and face fly (Musca autumnalis De Geer) communities on cattle in 2012 and 2013 relative to vegetation and climate data to understand how parasitism of cattle is influenced by change in climate and vegetation structure. We compared heterogeneity management using spatially and temporally discrete fires (i.e., patch-burning one-third of a pasture annually) to homogeneity management (i.e., burning entire pasture in 2012 then no burning in 2013), with cattle grazing all years in both treatments...
February 17, 2017: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334135/influence-of-abiotic-factors-on-flight-initiation-by-asian-citrus-psyllid-hemiptera-liviidae
#6
Xavier Martini, Lukasz L Stelinski
Predicting the emergence and arrival of insect pests is paramount for integrated pest management. To achieve this goal, it is important to understand how abiotic factors influence pest dispersal behavior. We investigated the effects of abiotic conditions on flight initiation by the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama. We first explored the effect of barometric pressure changes on flight initiation. We used a custom-made barometric chamber and observed the activity of D. citri as measured by the number of psyllids captured on yellow cardboard panels coated with adhesive...
February 22, 2017: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332416/predicting-deoxynivalenol-in-oats-under-conditions-representing-scandinavian-production-regions
#7
Tomas Persson, Henrik Eckersten, Oleif Elen, Anne-Grete Roer Hjelkrem, Joel Markgren, Mats Söderström, Thomas Börjesson
Deoxynivalenol (DON) in cereals, produced by Fusarium fungi, cause poisoning in humans and animals. Fusarium infections in cereals are favoured by humid conditions. Host species are susceptible mainly during the anthesis stage. Infections are also positively correlated with a regional history of Fusarium infections, frequent cereal production and non-tillage field management practices. Here, previously developed process-based models based on relative air humidity, rain and temperature conditions, Fusarium sporulation, host phenology and mycelium growth in host tissue were adapted and tested on oats...
March 23, 2017: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331355/observing-continuous-change-in-heart-rate-variability-and-photoplethysmography-derived-parameters-during-the-process-of-pain-production-relief-with-thermal-stimuli
#8
Jing-Jhao Ye, Kuan-Ting Lee, Jing-Siang Lin, Chiung-Cheng Chuang
Continuously monitoring and efficiently managing pain has become an important issue. However, no study has investigated a change in physiological parameters during the process of pain production/relief. This study modeled the process of pain production/relief using ramped thermal stimulation (no pain: 37°C water, process of pain production: a heating rate of 1°C/min, and subject feels pain: water kept at the painful temperature for each subject, with each segment lasting 10 min). In this duration, the variation of the heat rate variability and photoplethysmography-derived parameters was observed...
2017: Journal of Pain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330142/an-overview-of-physico-chemical-mechanisms-of-biogas-production-by-microbial-communities-a-step-towards-sustainable-waste-management
#9
REVIEW
Ramansu Goswami, Pritam Chattopadhyay, Arunima Shome, Sambhu Nath Banerjee, Amit Kumar Chakraborty, Anil K Mathew, Shibani Chaudhury
Biogas is a combination of methane, CO2, nitrogen, H2S and traces of few other gases. Almost any organic waste can be biologically transformed into biogas and other energy-rich organic compounds through the process of anaerobic digestion (AD) and thus helping in sustainable waste management. Although microbes are involved in each step of AD, knowledge about those microbial consortia is limited due to the lack of phylogenetic and metabolic data of predominantly unculturable microorganisms. However, culture-independent methods like PCR-based ribotyping has been successfully employed to get information about the microbial consortia involved in AD...
June 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330139/production-of-bioethanol-as-useful-biofuel-through-the-bioconversion-of-water-hyacinth-eichhornia-crassipes
#10
Arpan Das, Priyanka Ghosh, Tanmay Paul, Uma Ghosh, Bikas Ranjan Pati, Keshab Chandra Mondal
Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) represents a promising candidate for fuel ethanol production in tropical countries because of their high availability and high biomass yield. Bioconversion of such biomass to bioethanol could be wisely managed through proper technological approach. In this work, pretreatment of water hyacinth (10 %, w/v) with dilute sulfuric acid (2 %, v/v) at high temperature and pressure was integrated in the simulation and economic assessment of the process for further enzymatic saccharification was studied...
June 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324683/thermal-stress-impacts-reproductive-development-and-grain-yield-in-rice
#11
REVIEW
Muhammad Shakeel Arshad, Muhammad Farooq, Folkard Asch, Jagadish S V Krishna, P V Vara Prasad, Kadambot H M Siddique
Rice is highly sensitive to temperature stress (cold and heat), particularly during the reproductive and grain-filling stages. In this review, we discuss the effects of low- and high-temperature sensitivity in rice at various reproductive stages (from meiosis to grain development) and propose strategies for improving the tolerance of rice to terminal thermal stress. Cold stress impacts reproductive development through (i) delayed heading, due to its effect on anther respiration, which increases sucrose accumulation, protein denaturation and asparagine levels, and decreases proline accumulation, (ii) pollen sterility owing to tapetal hypertrophy and related nutrient imbalances, (iii) reduced activity of cell wall bound invertase in the tapetum of rice anthers, (iv) impaired fertilization due to inhibited anther dehiscence, stigma receptivity and ability of the pollen tube to germinate through the style towards the ovary, and (v) floret sterility, which increases grain abortion, restricts grain size, and thus reduces grain yield...
March 16, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323720/neuroprognostication-after-cardiac-arrest-in-the-light-of-targeted-temperature-management
#12
Mauro Oddo, Hans Friberg
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Delayed awakening after targeted temperature management (TTM) and sedation is frequent among cardiac arrest patients. Differentiating between prolonged coma and irreversible cerebral damage can be challenging, therefore the utilization of a multimodal approach is recommended by international guidelines. Here, we discuss indications and advantages/disadvantages of available modalities for coma prognostication and describe new tools to improve our accuracy for outcome prediction...
March 20, 2017: Current Opinion in Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323368/biotic-interactions-modify-multiple-stressor-effects-on-juvenile-brown-trout-in-an-experimental-stream-food-web
#13
Andreas Bruder, Romana K Salis, Peter E Jones, Christoph D Matthaei
Agricultural land use results in multiple stressors affecting stream ecosystems. Flow reduction due to water abstraction, elevated levels of nutrients and chemical contaminants are common agricultural stressors worldwide. Concurrently, stream ecosystems are also increasingly affected by climate change. Interactions among multiple co-occurring stressors result in biological responses that cannot be predicted from single-stressor effects (i.e. synergisms and antagonisms). At the ecosystem level, multiple-stressor effects can be further modified by biotic interactions (e...
March 21, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322436/modelling-hydraulic-transport-and-anaerobic-uptake-by-paos-and-gaos-during-wastewater-feeding-in-ebpr-granular-sludge-reactors
#14
David G Weissbrodt, Christof Holliger, Eberhard Morgenroth
New-generation bioprocesses using granular sludge aim for a high-rate removal of nutrients from wastewater with low footprint. Achieving enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) relies on the design of sludge beds and wastewater feeding conditions to optimally load the biomass and to select for polyphosphate- (PAOs) over glycogen-accumulating organisms (GAOs) and other heterotrophs. A hydraulic-metabolic mathematical model was developed to elucidate the impact of hydraulic transport patterns and environmental conditions on the PAO/GAO competition during up-flow feeding through an EBPR granular sludge bed...
March 21, 2017: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321277/clinical-outcomes-among-febrile-children-aged-2-to-59-months-with-negative-malaria-rapid-diagnostic-test-results-in-mchinji-district-malawi
#15
Dyson Mwandama, Chawanangwa Mwale, Andrew Bauleni, Themba Phiri, Joseph Chisaka, Humphreys Nsona, Don P Mathanga
BACKGROUND: Malawi malaria treatment guidelines recommend a definitive diagnosis, using a malaria rapid diagnostic test (mRDT), for all patients with fever or history of fever. Improving the management and outcomes of febrile children with negative mRDT results should be a priority. METHODS: Through a prospective cohort study designed to investigate clinical outcomes of children treated at the community level, we followed, for 7 days, children aged 2 to 59 months, who had negative mRDT results and were treated with antipyretic medication...
December 2016: Malawi Medical Journal: the Journal of Medical Association of Malawi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320966/tropical-dead-zones-and-mass-mortalities-on-coral-reefs
#16
Andrew H Altieri, Seamus B Harrison, Janina Seemann, Rachel Collin, Robert J Diaz, Nancy Knowlton
Degradation of coastal water quality in the form of low dissolved oxygen levels (hypoxia) can harm biodiversity, ecosystem function, and human wellbeing. Extreme hypoxic conditions along the coast, leading to what are often referred to as "dead zones," are known primarily from temperate regions. However, little is known about the potential threat of hypoxia in the tropics, even though the known risk factors, including eutrophication and elevated temperatures, are common. Here we document an unprecedented hypoxic event on the Caribbean coast of Panama and assess the risk of dead zones to coral reefs worldwide...
March 20, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318964/slow-pyrolysis-enhances-the-recovery-and-reuse-of-phosphorus-and-reduces-metal-leaching-from-biosolids
#17
David A Roberts, Andrew J Cole, Anna Whelan, Rocky de Nys, Nicholas A Paul
In this study, biochar is produced from biosolids with and without alum at a range of temperatures and simulated oxidative aging of the biochars is conducted to quantify the long-term leaching of P and metals. While biosolids containing alum had negligible amounts of plant-available P, after pyrolysis >90% of the P became immediately available for plant growth. When biosolids with no alum were converted into biochar there was a small increase in the availability of P but a larger pool was available after oxidation...
March 16, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318004/the-conflicting-role-of-buckled-structure-in-phonon-transport-of-2d-group-iv-and-group-v-materials
#18
Bo Peng, Dequan Zhang, Hao Zhang, Hezhu Shao, Gang Ni, Yongyuan Zhu, Heyuan Zhu
Controlling heat transport through material design is one important step toward thermal management in 2D materials. To control heat transport, a comprehensive understanding of how structure influences heat transport is required. It has been argued that a buckled structure is able to suppress heat transport by increasing the flexural phonon scattering. Using a first principles approach, we calculate the lattice thermal conductivity of 2D mono-elemental materials with a buckled structure. Somewhat counterintuitively, we find that although 2D group-V materials have a larger mass and higher buckling height than their group-IV counterparts, the calculated κ of blue phosphorene (106...
March 20, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316573/a-production-calendar-based-on-water-temperature-spat-size-and-husbandry-practices-reduce-oshv-1-%C3%AE-var-impact-on-cultured-pacific-oyster-crassostrea-gigas-in-the-ebro-delta-catalonia-mediterranean-coast-of-spain
#19
Noèlia Carrasco, Ignasi Gairin, Josu Pérez, Karl B Andree, Ana Roque, Margarita Fernández-Tejedor, Chris J Rodgers, Cristobal Aguilera, M Dolors Furones
Since 2006, the production of Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas in the Ebro Delta area has dramatically declined from around 800 metric tons (MT) per year to 138 MT in 2011. This decline in production has had a significant socio-economic impact in a region where the shellfish sector is a traditional economic activity for many families. The identified agent responsible for this reduction in C. gigas production was Ostreid Herpesvirus microvar (OsHV-1 μvar), which has been associated with C. gigas spat mortalities in France, and in many other countries...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316286/brassica-aphid-hemiptera-aphididae-populations-are-conditioned-by-climatic-variables-and-parasitism-level-a-study-case-of-tri%C3%A3-ngulo-mineiro-brazil
#20
M V Sampaio, A P Korndörfer, J Pujade-Villar, J E A Hubaide, S E Ferreira, S O Arantes, D M Bortoletto, C M Guimarães, J A Sánchez-Espigares, B Caballero-López
Cosmopolitan pests such as Brevicoryne brassicae, Lipaphis pseudobrassicae, and Myzus persicae (Aphididae) cause significant damage to Brassicaceae crops. Assessment of the important biotic and abiotic factors that regulate these pests is an essential step in the development of effective Integrated Pest Management programs for these aphids. This study evaluated the influence of leaf position, precipitation, temperature, and parasitism on populations of L. pseudobrassicae, M. persicae, and B. brassicae in collard greens fields in the Triângulo Mineiro region (Minas Gerais state), Brazil...
March 20, 2017: Bulletin of Entomological Research
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