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Temperature management

Alisa L Gallant, Walt Sadinski, Jesslyn F Brown, Gabriel B Senay, Mark F Roth
Assessing climate-related ecological changes across spatiotemporal scales meaningful to resource managers is challenging because no one method reliably produces essential data at both fine and broad scales. We recently confronted such challenges while integrating data from ground- and satellite-based sensors for an assessment of four wetland-rich study areas in the U.S. Midwest. We examined relations between temperature and precipitation and a set of variables measured on the ground at individual wetlands and another set measured via satellite sensors within surrounding 4 km² landscape blocks...
March 16, 2018: Sensors
Yupeng Shen, Fancy Qian Wang, Jie Liu, Yaguang Guo, Xiaoyin Li, Guangzhao Qin, Ming Hu, Qian Wang
A new two-dimensional (2D) carbon allotrope, Hexa-C20, composed of C20 fullerene is proposed. State-of-the-art first principles calculations combined with solving the linearized phonon Boltzmann transport equation confirm that the new carbon structure is not only dynamically and thermally stable, but also can withstand temperatures as high as 1500 K. Hexa-C20 possesses a quasi-direct band gap of 3.28 eV, close to that of bulk ZnO and GaN. The intrinsic lattice thermal conductivity κlat of Hexa-C20 is 1132 W m-1 K-1 at room temperature, which is much larger than those of most carbon materials such as graphyne (82...
March 16, 2018: Nanoscale
Lei Liu, Jun Ma, Qiang Xue, Jingbang Shao, Yijun Chen, Gang Zeng
The optimization design of well spacing (WS) and aeration rate (AR) is crucial to the in situ aeration system operation in under long-term and high-efficiency conditions. This optimization design aims to transport additional air into landfills and to develop an improved oxygen environment for enhancing aerobic degradation. Given the specific pore structure distribution within landfills, providing sufficient oxygen in all waste bodies in field sites through gas wells is difficult. The design of well distribution also lacks adequate criteria...
March 12, 2018: Waste Management
Henrik Staer-Jensen, Kjetil Sunde, Espen Rostrup Nakstad, Jan Eritsland, Geir Øystein Andersen
OBJECTIVES: Haemodynamic monitoring during post arrest care is important to optimise treatment. We compared stroke volume measured by minimally-invasive monitoring devices with or without thermodilution calibration, and transthoracic echocardiography (TTE), and hypothesised that thermodilution calibration would give stroke volume index (SVI) more in agreement with TTE during targeted temperature management (TTM). DESIGN: Comatose out-of-hospital cardiac arrest survivors receiving TTM (33 °C for 24 hrs) underwent haemodynamic monitoring with arterial pulse contour analyses with (PiCCO2®) and without (FloTrac® /Vigileo® monitor® ) transpulmonary thermodilution calibration...
March 16, 2018: Scandinavian Cardiovascular Journal: SCJ
Joshua D Sackett, Desiree C Huerta, Brittany R Kruger, Scott D Hamilton-Brehm, Duane P Moser
Devils Hole is the sole natural habitat of the critically endangered Devils Hole pupfish (Cyprinodon diabolis). To establish a backup population, the Ash Meadows Fish Conservation Facility (AMFCF), a full-scale replica of the uppermost 6.7 m of Devils Hole, was constructed by management agencies in the mid-2010s. Despite rigorous efforts to mimic the bathymetric and physical details of the Devils Hole environment, the biogeochemistry and microbiology of the AMFCF refuge tank remain largely unaddressed. We evaluated water physicochemistry and employed Illumina DNA sequencing of 16S rRNA gene libraries to evaluate planktonic and benthic bacterial and archaeal community composition within their respective physicochemical contexts in Devils Hole and AMFCF on the same day...
2018: PloS One
Jennifer Carns, Kondwani Kawaza, M K Quinn, Yinsen Miao, Rudy Guerra, Elizabeth Molyneux, Maria Oden, Rebecca Richards-Kortum
BACKGROUND: Neonatal hypothermia is widely associated with increased risks of morbidity and mortality, but remains a pervasive global problem. No studies have examined the impact of hypothermia on outcomes for preterm infants treated with CPAP for respiratory distress syndrome (RDS). METHODS: This retrospective analysis assessed the impact of hypothermia on outcomes of 65 neonates diagnosed with RDS and treated with either nasal oxygen (N = 17) or CPAP (N = 48) in a low-resource setting...
2018: PloS One
Jinzhao Song, Vikram Pandian, Michael G Mauk, Haim H Bau, Sara Cherry, Laurence C Tisi, Changchun Liu
Rapid and quantitative molecular diagnostics in the field, at home, and at remote clinics is essential for evidence-based disease management, control, and prevention. Conventional molecular diagnostics requires extensive sample preparation, complex instruments, and skilled personnel, restricting its use to centralized laboratories. To overcome these limitations, we designed a simple, inexpensive, hand-held, smartphone-based mobile detection platform, dubbed "smart-connected cup" (SCC), for rapid, connected and quantitative molecular diagnostics...
March 15, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Maxim Avanesov, Nis Jesper Wiese, Murat Karul, Helena Guerreiro, Sarah Keller, Philip Busch, Frank Jacobsen, Gerhard Adam, Jin Yamamura
OBJECTIVES: To develop a routinely applicable severity index for the management of acute appendicitis in adults using combined clinical and radiological parameters and retroperitoneal space planes (RSP). METHODS: Two hundred consecutive patients with histologically proven acute appendicitis and available presurgical CT scans were analysed retrospectively. Two radiologists assessed all CT scans for morphologic sings of appendicitis and six RSP. Clinical parameters were age, body temperature, C-reactive protein (CRP), white blood cell count, and duration of symptoms...
March 14, 2018: European Radiology
Mona Noureldein, Roxana Mardare, Jack Pickard, Hoi Lun Shing, Michael Eisenhut
BACKGROUND: It has been estimated that paediatric meningitis without elevated CSF white cell count (pleocytosis) accounts for 0.5-12% of all cases of bacterial meningitis. CSF protein and glucose measurements are therefore essential in management but may be neglected in clinical practice. In order to improve recognition of bacterial meningitis in neonates and to enable adequate management and audit, we investigated whether a systemic inflammatory response in the absence of meningitis is associated with elevated CSF protein and reduced CSF glucose levels...
March 14, 2018: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS
Bjørn Arne Rukke, Ranjeni Sivasubramaniam, Tone Birkemoe, Anders Aak
Sublethal heat stress may weaken bed bug infestations to potentially ease control. In the present study, experimental populations exposed to 34, 36 or 38°C for 2 or 3 weeks suffered significant mortality during exposure. Among survivors, egg production, egg hatching, moulting success and offspring proliferation decreased significantly in the subsequent 7 week recovery period at 22°C. The overall population success was negatively impacted by increasing temperature and duration of the stress. Such heat stress is inadequate as a single tool for eradication, but may be included as a low cost part of an integrated pest management protocol...
2018: PloS One
Christian Hassager, Ken Nagao, David Hildick-Smith
The prognosis after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) has improved in the past few decades because of advances in interventions used outside and in hospital. About half of patients who have OHCA with initial ventricular tachycardia or ventricular fibrillation and who are admitted to hospital in coma after return of spontaneous circulation will survive to discharge with a reasonable neurological status. In this Series paper we discuss in-hospital management of patients with post-cardiac-arrest syndrome. In most patients, the most important in-hospital interventions other than routine intensive care are continuous active treatment (in non-comatose and comatose patients and including circulatory support in selected patients), cooling of core temperature to 32-36°C by targeted temperature management for at least 24 h, immediate coronary angiography with or without percutaneous coronary intervention, and delay of final prognosis until at least 72 h after OHCA...
March 10, 2018: Lancet
Mackensie A Yore, Matthew C Strehlow, Lily D Yan, Elizabeth A Pirrotta, Joan L Woods, Koy Somontha, Yim Sovannra, Lauren Auerbach, Rebecca Backer, Christophe Grundmann, Swaminatha V Mahadevan
BACKGROUND: Emergency medicine is a young specialty in many low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Although many patients seeking emergency or acute care are children, little information is available about the needs and current treatment of this group in LMICs. In this observational study, we sought to describe characteristics, chief complaints, management, and outcomes of children presenting for unscheduled visits to two Cambodian public hospitals. METHODS: Children enrolled in the study presented without appointment for treatment at one of two Cambodian public referral hospitals during a 4-week period in 2012...
March 13, 2018: International Journal of Emergency Medicine
Taeyoung Yoo, Keun Ho Yang, Jungbin Kim, Inseok Park, Hyunjin Cho, Geumhee Gwak, Byung Noe Bae, Ki Hwan Kim
Purpose: The aim of this study is to determine the predictable factors that affect the clinical course, especially the hospital stay, the operation performed, and to determine factors that will be helpful in deciding whether in-hospital or outpatient treatment is appropriate. Methods: We retrospectively collected medical data for patients who had been diagnosed with acute diverticulitis at Inje University Sanggye Paik Hospital between January and December 2016. In total, 117 patients were enrolled in this study...
February 2018: Annals of Coloproctology
Patrick J Lindsay, Danielle Buell, Damon C Scales
BACKGROUND: Mild therapeutic hypothermia (TH), or targeted temperature management, improves survival and neurological outcomes in patients after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). International guidelines strongly support initiating TH for all eligible individuals presenting with OHCA; however, the timing of cooling initiation remains uncertain. This systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted with all available randomised controlled trials (RCTs) included to explore the efficacy and safety of initiating pre-hospital TH in patients with OHCA...
March 13, 2018: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
Yong Soo Cho, Byung Kook Lee, Dong Hun Lee, Yong Hun Jung, Sung Min Lee, Jung Soo Park, Kyung Woon Jeung
PURPOSE: The optimal timing for measurement of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) level to predict acute kidney injury (AKI) and prognosis in cardiac arrest (CA) survivors has not been elucidated. We aimed to compare the diagnostic and prognostic performance of NGAL levels after return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) and at 48 h after CA. METHODS: We included 231 adult cardiac arrest survivors who underwent targeted temperature management between May 2013 and December 2016...
March 13, 2018: Biomarkers: Biochemical Indicators of Exposure, Response, and Susceptibility to Chemicals
Greg Keir, Nevenka Bulovic, Neil McIntyre
Setting limits on groundwater extractions is important to ensure sustainable groundwater management. Lack of extraction data can affect interpretations of historical pressure changes, predictions of future impacts, accuracy of groundwater model calibration, and identification of sustainable management options. Yet, many groundwater extractions are unmetered. Therefore, there is a need for models that estimate extraction rates and quantify model outputs uncertainties arising due to a lack of data. This paper develops such a model within the Generalised Linear Modelling (GLM) framework, using a case study of stock and domestic extractions in the Surat Cumulative Management Area, a predominantly cattle farming region in eastern Australia...
March 13, 2018: Ground Water
Mohd Firdaus Mohd Radi, Jamal Hisham Hashim, Mohd Hasni Jaafar, Rozita Hod, Norfazilah Ahmad, Azmawati Binti Mohammed Nawi, Gul Muhammad Baloch, Rohaida Ismail, Nur Izzah Farakhin Ayub
Severe floods increase the risk of leptospirosis outbreaks in endemic areas. This study determines the spatial-temporal distribution of leptospirosis in relation to environmental factors after a major flooding event in Kelantan, Malaysia. We conducted a cross-sectional study involving incident leptospirosis cases, from the 3 months before, during, and three months after flood, in reference to the severe 2014 Kelantan flooding event. Geographical information system was used to determine the spatial distribution while climatic factors that influenced the cases were also analyzed...
March 12, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Maik Rehnus, Kurt Bollmann, Dirk R Schmatz, Klaus Hackländer, Veronika Braunisch
Alpine and Arctic species are considered to be particularly vulnerable to climate change, which is expected to cause habitat loss, fragmentation and-ultimately-extinction of cold-adapted species. However, the impact of climate change on glacial relict populations is not well understood, and specific recommendations for adaptive conservation management are lacking. We focused on the mountain hare (Lepus timidus) as a model species and modelled species distribution in combination with patch and landscape-based connectivity metrics...
March 13, 2018: Global Change Biology
Mallory Van Wyngaarden, Paul V R Snelgrove, Claudio DiBacco, Lorraine C Hamilton, Naiara Rodríguez-Ezpeleta, Luyao Zhan, Robert G Beiko, Ian R Bradbury
Environmental factors can influence diversity and population structure in marine species and accurate understanding of this influence can both improve fisheries management and help predict responses to environmental change. We used 7163 SNPs derived from restriction site-associated DNA sequencing genotyped in 245 individuals of the economically important sea scallop, Placopecten magellanicus , to evaluate the correlations between oceanographic variation and a previously identified latitudinal genomic cline...
March 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Isabelle Beuchat, Daria Solari, Jan Novy, Mauro Oddo, Andrea O Rossetti
INTRODUCTION: Standardized EEG patterns according to the American Clinical Neurophysiology Society (ACNS) ("highly malignant", "malignant" and "benign") demonstrated good correlation with outcome after cardiac arrest (CA). However, this approach relates to EEGs after target temperature management (TTM), and correlation to other recognized outcome predictors remains unknown. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the relationship between categorized EEG and other outcome predictors, during and after TTM, at different temperatures...
March 9, 2018: Resuscitation
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