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Cutaneous pathology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212865/casein-kinase-2-interacting-protein-1-regulates-m1-and-m2-inflammatory-macrophage-polarization
#1
Yuhan Chen, Wen Liu, Yiwu Wang, Luo Zhang, Jun Wei, Xueli Zhang, Fuchu He, Lingqiang Zhang
The importance of macrophage plasticity, albeit being discovered recently, has been highlighted in a broad spectrum of biological processes operative in physiological and pathological environments. Macrophage polarized activation and inactivation has profound effects on immune and inflammatory responses with several major pathways being elucidated in the past few years. However, transcriptional regulation mechanisms governing macrophage polarization is still preliminary. In this study, we identify the Casein Kinase 2 Interacting Protein 1 (CKIP-1) as a molecular toggle manipulating macrophage speciation...
February 14, 2017: Cellular Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209325/japanese-guidelines-for-atopic-dermatitis-2017
#2
REVIEW
Ichiro Katayama, Michiko Aihara, Yukihiro Ohya, Hidehisa Saeki, Naoki Shimojo, Shunsuke Shoji, Masami Taniguchi, Hidekazu Yamada
Given the importance of appropriate diagnosis and appropriate assessment of cutaneous symptoms in treatment of atopic dermatitis, the basics of treatment in this guideline are composed of (1) investigation and countermeasures of causes and exacerbating factors, (2) correction of skin dysfunctions (skin care), and (3) pharmacotherapy, as three mainstays. These are based on the disease concept that atopic dermatitis is an inflammatory cutaneous disease with eczema by atopic diathesis, multi-factorial in onset and aggravation, and accompanied by skin dysfunctions...
February 10, 2017: Allergology International: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Allergology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205614/cxcr2-deficient-mice-display-macrophage-dependent-exaggerated-acute-inflammatory-responses
#3
Douglas P Dyer, Kenneth Pallas, Laura Medina Ruiz, Fabian Schuette, Gillian J Wilson, Gerard J Graham
CXCR2 is an essential regulator of neutrophil recruitment to inflamed and damaged sites and plays prominent roles in inflammatory pathologies and cancer. It has therefore been highlighted as an important therapeutic target. However the success of the therapeutic targeting of CXCR2 is threatened by our relative lack of knowledge of its precise in vivo mode of action. Here we demonstrate that CXCR2-deficient mice display a counterintuitive transient exaggerated inflammatory response to cutaneous and peritoneal inflammatory stimuli...
February 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192528/cd8-t-cell-cytotoxicity-mediates-pathology-in-the-skin-by-inflammasome-activation-and-il-1%C3%AE-production
#4
Fernanda O Novais, Augusto M Carvalho, Megan L Clark, Lucas P Carvalho, Daniel P Beiting, Igor E Brodsky, Edgar M Carvalho, Phillip Scott
Deregulated CD8+ T cell cytotoxicity plays a central role in enhancing disease severity in several conditions. However, we have little understanding of the mechanisms by which immunopathology develops as a consequence of cytotoxicity. Using murine models of inflammation induced by the protozoan parasite leishmania, and data obtained from patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis, we uncovered a previously unrecognized role for NLRP3 inflammasome activation and IL-1β release as a detrimental consequence of CD8+ T cell-mediated cytotoxicity, ultimately resulting in chronic inflammation...
February 13, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191680/friends-or-foes-host-defense-antimicrobial-peptides-and-proteins-in-human-skin-diseases
#5
REVIEW
François Niyonsaba, Chanisa Kiatsurayanon, Panjit Chieosilapatham, Hideoki Ogawa
Host defense peptides/proteins (HDPs), also known as antimicrobial peptides/proteins (AMPs), are key molecules in the cutaneous innate immune system. AMPs/HDPs historically exhibit broad-spectrum killing activity against bacteria, enveloped viruses, fungi and several parasites. Recently, AMPs/HDPs were shown to have important biological functions, including inducing cell proliferation, migration and differentiation; regulating inflammatory responses; controlling the production of various cytokines/chemokines; promoting wound healing; and improving skin barrier function...
February 13, 2017: Experimental Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186689/enhanced-mrna-expression-of-plasminogen-activator-inhibitor-1-in-livedoid-vasculopathy-lesions
#6
Mehmet Agirbasli, Fatih Göktay, Irem Peker, Pembegul Gunes, Fugen Vardar Aker, Mustafa Akkiprik
AIM: Thrombosis and inflammation play an important role in pathophysiology of livedoid vasculopathy (LV). Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is the main physiological inhibitor of fibrinolysis and is a pivotal modulator in a broad range of biological processes. METHOD: The study specimens were retrospectively selected from archives of pathology department. We investigated PAI-1 mRNA expression in the paraffin blocks of patients with biopsy proven LV and controls...
February 10, 2017: Cardiovascular Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177971/cutaneous-leiomyosarcoma-the-clinical-experience-of-taipei-veterans-general-hospital-revisited
#7
Wen-Chieh Liao, Yu-Chen Wang, Hsu Ma
BACKGROUND: Cutaneous leiomyosarcoma (CLM) is a rare soft tissue tumor of smooth muscle derivation. We report the clinical treatment, long-term outcomes, and prognostic findings of CLM in our institution. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We revisited and carried out a retrospective chart review of 16 consecutive patients with CLM treated from 1991 through 2015. Patient demographic data, tumor size, location, previous treatment, follow-up data, and the presence or absence of recurrence were evaluated...
February 8, 2017: Annals of Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162204/-evidence-based-clinical-practice-guidelines-for-the-treatment-of-dural-tears-and-the-consequent-cerebrospinal-fluid-leak-during-spine-surgery
#8
(no author information available yet)
Dural tears (DT) and the consequent cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) leak are not rare in spine surgeries. CSF leak can be troublesome, leading to pseudomeningocele, cutaneous CSF fistula, and meningitis. Revision surgery is unavoidable in some cases. The reported incidences of DT and CSF leak are different according to the various pathologies. Ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament, revision spine surgery and multi-segment laminectomy have higher risks for DT. Various techniques have been described to manage this complication, such as bed rest, repair with dural substitutes, fibrin glue, gelatin sponge, lumbar drain, muscle flap, etc...
February 1, 2017: Zhonghua Wai Ke za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Surgery]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28156019/excessive-angiogenesis-associated-with-psoriasis-as-a-cause-for-cardiovascular-ischaemia
#9
Nina Malecic, Helen S Young
Psoriasis, a common disease affecting 2-3% of the UK population, produces significant impairment of quality of life and is an immense burden on sufferers and their families. Psoriasis is associated with significant cardiovascular co-morbidity and the metabolic syndrome. Angiogenesis, a relatively under-researched component of psoriasis, is a key factor in pathogenesis of psoriasis and also contributes to the development of atherosclerosis. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a well established mediator of pathological angiogenesis which is upregulated in psoriasis...
February 3, 2017: Experimental Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151902/clinical-pathological-and-genetic-evaluations-of-chinese-patient-with-otodental-syndrome-and-multiple-complex-odontoma-case-report
#10
Anqi Liu, Meiling Wu, Xiaohe Guo, Hao Guo, Zhifei Zhou, Kewen Wei, Kun Xuan
Otodental syndrome is a rare autosomal-dominant disease characterized by globodontia, associated with sensorineural, high-frequency hearing loss. Here, we describe the clinical, pathological, and genetic evaluations of a 9-year-old girl with otodental syndrome and multiple complex odontoma.The patient presented with a draining sinus tract in her left cheek, globodontia, and hearing loss. The odontomas which caused the cutaneous sinus tracts were extracted because of the odontogenic infection. The extracted odontoma and primary tooth was studied by micro-CT and further observed histopathologically...
February 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149657/evaluation-of-olfactory-function-in-beh%C3%A3-et-s-disease
#11
Lütfi Akyol, Emre Günbey, Rıfat Karlı, Soner Önem, Metin Özgen, Mehmet Sayarlıoğlu
OBJECTIVE: Behçet's disease (BD) is a chronic, relapsing type of vasculitis of unknown etiology and is characterized by oral and urogenital ulcers and ocular inflammation with cutaneous, musculoskeletal, vascular, and nervous system manifestations. Few cases involving the nasal mucosa have been reported in the literature, and the true prevalence of BD remains unknown. Neurological involvement associated with BD might play a more important role in causing olfactory dysfunction than mucosal involvement, but sufficient clinical data are not available on the effect of BD on olfaction in adults...
December 2016: European Journal of Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149646/vasculitic-syndromes-in-hepatitis-c-virus-a-review
#12
REVIEW
Gaafar Ragab, Mohamed A Hussein
Vasculitis is a remarkable presentation of the extrahepatic manifestations of HCV. According to the presence or absence of cryoglobulins it is subdivided into two main types: cryoglobulinemic vasculitis and non cryoglobulinemic vasculitis based on the attribution of vasculitis to serum cryoglobulins as a pathogenic factor. The attribution of cryoglobulinemia to HCV represents a success story in the history of immunology, microbiology, and clinical medicine. HCV can bind to and invade lymphocytes, consequently triggering an immune response through different mechanisms...
March 2017: Journal of Advanced Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135150/phase-iii-randomized-study-of-4-weeks-of-high-dose-interferon-%C3%AE-2b-in-stage-t2bno-t3a-bno-t4a-bno-and-t1-4n1a-2a-microscopic-melanoma-a-trial-of-the-eastern-cooperative-oncology-group-american-college-of-radiology-imaging-network-cancer-research-group-e1697
#13
Sanjiv S Agarwala, Sandra J Lee, Waiki Yip, Uma N Rao, Ahmad A Tarhini, Gary I Cohen, Douglas S Reintgen, Terry L Evans, Joanna M Brell, Mark R Albertini, Michael B Atkins, Shaker R Dakhil, Robert M Conry, Jeffrey A Sosman, Lawrence E Flaherty, Vernon K Sondak, William E Carson, Michael G Smylie, Alberto S Pappo, Richard F Kefford, John M Kirkwood
Purpose To test the efficacy of 4 weeks of intravenous (IV) induction with high-dose interferon (IFN) as part of the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group regimen compared with observation (OBS) in patients with surgically resected intermediate-risk melanoma. Patients and Methods In this intergroup international trial, eligible patients had surgically resected cutaneous melanoma in the following categories: (1) T2bN0, (2) T3a-bN0, (3) T4a-bN0, and (4) T1-4N1a-2a (microscopic). Patients were randomly assigned to receive IFN α-2b at 20 MU/m(2)/d IV for 5 days (Monday to Friday) every week for 4 weeks (IFN) or OBS...
January 30, 2017: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134732/unusual-interface-dermatoses-distributed-along-blaschko-s-lines-in-adult-patients
#14
J M Suárez-Peñaranda, O Figueroa, I Rodríguez-Blanco, C Aliste, L Casas
Linear dermatoses are unusual entities whose distribution reflects cutaneous mosaicism, even when they occur in adult life. Adult blaschkitis (AB) and lichen striatus (LS) always follow this peculiar distribution. Although usually referred to as distinct entities, the clinical and histopathological presentation of lichen striatus in adults may be similar to those of adult blaschkitis. Moreover, some cases with overlapping features between lichen striatus and linear lichen planus have been published, making precise diagnosis very difficult...
February 2017: American Journal of Dermatopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134655/a-central-role-for-r7bp-in-the-regulation-of-itch-sensation
#15
Mritunjay Pandey, Jian-Hua Zhang, Santosh K Mishra, Poorni R Adikaram, Benjamin Harris, John F Kahler, Anna Loshakov, Roxanne Sholevar, Allison Genis, Claire Kittock, Juraj Kabat, Sundar Ganesan, Richard R Neubig, Mark A Hoon, William F Simonds
Itch is a protective sensation producing a desire to scratch. Pathologic itch can be a chronic symptom of illnesses such as uremia, cholestatic liver disease, neuropathies and dermatitis, however current therapeutic options are limited. Many types of cell surface receptors, including those present on cells in the skin, on sensory neurons and on neurons in the spinal cord, have been implicated in itch signaling. The role of G protein signaling in the regulation of pruriception is poorly understood. We identify here two G protein signaling components whose mutation impairs itch sensation...
January 27, 2017: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28133306/-effectiveness-of-irinotecan-s-1-and-bevacizumab-for-rectal-cancer-with-lung-and-skin-metastases-after-adjuvant-chemotherapy
#16
Kiyotaka Hagihara, Masataka Ikeda, Sakae Maeda, Mamoru Uemura, Kazuyoshi Yamamoto, Masakazu Miyake, Naoki Hama, Kazuhiro Nishikawa, Atsushi Miyamoto, Hideyasu Omiya, Michihiko Miyazaki, Motohiro Hirao, Koji Takami, Shoji Nakamori, Mitsugu Sekimoto
A 50-year-old woman with a chief complaint of bloody stools was diagnosed with rectal cancer via colonoscopy. Laparoscopic rectal anterior resection with D3 lymph node dissection was performed in June 2014. The pathological diagnosis was pStage III a(Ra, pT3, N1)cancer, and the patient received 8 courses of XELOX as postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy. During follow-up at 12 months after surgery, chest computed tomography revealed a mass in the left lingular segment measuring 25mm in diameter and multiple small nodules in both the lungs, indicating lung metastases...
November 2016: Gan to Kagaku Ryoho. Cancer & Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132159/analysis-of-sentinel-node-positivity-in-primary-cutaneous-melanoma-an-8-year-single-institution-experience
#17
K M Joyce, N M McInerney, R P Piggott, F Martin, D M Jones, A J Hussey, M J Kerin, J L Kelly, P J Regan
BACKGROUND: Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) is a standard method for determining the pathologic status of the regional lymph nodes. AIMS: The aim of our study was to determine the incidence and clinicopathologic factors predictive of SLN positivity, and to evaluate the prognostic importance of SLNB in patients with cutaneous melanoma. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of a prospectively maintained database of all patients who underwent SLNB for primary melanoma at our institution from 2005 to 2012...
January 28, 2017: Irish Journal of Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128277/primary-cutaneous-aggressive-epidermotropic-cytotoxic-t-cell-lymphomas-reappraisal-of-a-provisional-entity-in-the-2016-who-classification-of-cutaneous-lymphomas
#18
Joan Guitart, M Estela Martinez-Escala, Antonio Subtil, Madeleine Duvic, Melissa P Pulitzer, Elise A Olsen, Ellen Kim, Alain H Rook, Sara S Samimi, Gary S Wood, Michael Girardi, Jacqueline Junkins-Hopkins, Doina S Ivan, M Angelica Selim, Kimberly A Sable, Pooja Virmani, Laura B Pincus, Michael T Tetzlaff, Jinah Kim, Youn H Kim
Primary cutaneous CD8-positive aggressive epidermotropic T-cell lymphoma is a rare and poorly characterized variant of cutaneous lymphoma still considered a provisional entity in the latest 2016 World Health Organization Classification of Cutaneous lymphomas. We sought to better characterize and provide diagnostic and therapeutic guidance of this rare cutaneous lymphoma. Thirty-four patients with a median age of 77 years (range 19-89 years) presented primarily with extensive annular necrotic plaques or tumor lesions with frequent mucous membrane involvement...
January 27, 2017: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28121927/primary-cerebral-malignant-melanoma-a-case-report-with-literature-review
#19
Kai Tang, Xiangyi Kong, Gengsheng Mao, Ming Qiu, Haibo Zhu, Lei Zhou, Qingbin Nie, Yi Xu, Shiwei Du
Primary intracranial melanomas are uncommon and constitute approximately 1% of all melanoma cases and 0.07% of all brain tumors. In nature, these primary melanomas are very aggressive and can spread to other organs.We report an uncommon case of primary cerebral malignant melanoma-a challenging diagnosis guided by clinical presentations, radiological features, and surgical biopsy results, aiming to emphasize the importance of considering primary melanoma when making differential diagnoses of intracranial lesions...
January 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115669/characterization-of-the-histopathologic-features-in-patients-in-the-early-and-late-phases-of-cutaneous-leishmaniasis
#20
Maíra G Saldanha, Adriano Queiroz, Paulo Roberto L Machado, Lucas P de Carvalho, Phillip Scott, Edgar M de Carvalho Filho, Sérgio Arruda
Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL), characterized by an ulcerated lesion, is the most common clinical form of human leishmaniasis. Before the ulcer develops, patients infected with Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis develop a small papule at the site of the sandfly bite, referred to as early cutaneous leishmaniasis (E-CL). Two to four weeks later the typical ulcer develops, which is considered here as late CL (L-CL). Although there is a great deal known about T-cell responses in patients with L-CL, there is little information about the in situ inflammatory response in E-CL...
January 23, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
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