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Cutaneous pathology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652651/prediction-of-organ-involvement-in-systemic-sclerosis-by-serum-biomarkers-and-peripheral-endothelial-function
#1
Shin-Ya Kawashiri, Ayako Nishino, Takashi Igawa, Ayuko Takatani, Toshimasa Shimizu, Masataka Umeda, Shoichi Fukui, Akitomo Okada, Takahisa Suzuki, Tomohiro Koga, Naoki Iwamoto, Kunihiro Ichinose, Mami Tamai, Munetoshi Nakashima, Akinari Mizokami, Naoki Matsuoka, Kiyoshi Migita, Fumihide Ogawa, Satoshi Ikeda, Koji Maemura, Hideki Nakamura, Tomoki Origuchi, Takahiro Maeda, Atsushi Kawakami
OBJECTIVES: To identify prognostic factors among serum biomarkers and endothelial vasodilator function findings in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc). METHODS: This is a clinical observational study. We assessed 60 consecutive SSc patients (44 limited cutaneous-type, 16 diffuse cutaneous-type). Circulating growth differentiation factor-15 (GDF-15), placenta growth factor (PlGF), endostatin, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and pentraxin 3 (PTX3) were measured by ELISA...
April 12, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627521/epidermolysis-bullosa-molecular-pathology-of-connective-tissue-components-in-the-cutaneous-basement-membrane-zone
#2
REVIEW
Cristina Has, Alexander Nyström, Amir Hossain Saeidian, Leena Bruckner-Tuderman, Jouni Uitto
Epidermolysis bullosa (EB), a group of heritable skin fragility disorders, is characterized by blistering, erosions and chronic ulcers in the skin and mucous membranes. In some forms, the blistering phenotype is associated with extensive mutilating scarring and development of aggressive squamous cell carcinomas. The skin findings can be associated with extracutaneous manifestations in the ocular as well as gastrointestinal and vesico-urinary tracts. The phenotypic heterogeneity reflects the presence of mutations in as many as 20 different genes expressed in the cutaneous basement membrane zone, and the types and combinations of the mutations and their consequences at the mRNA and protein levels contribute to the spectrum of severity encountered in different subtypes of EB...
April 5, 2018: Matrix Biology: Journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618070/congenital-dermal-sinus-and-limited-dorsal-myeloschisis-spectrum-disorders-of-incomplete-dysjuction-between-cutaneous-and-neural-ectoderms
#3
Ji Yeoun Lee, Sung-Hye Park, Sangjoon Chong, Ji Hoon Phi, Seung-Ki Kim, Byung-Kyu Cho, Kyu-Chang Wang
BACKGROUND: The existence of tethering tracts in spinal dysraphism, other than congenital dermal sinus (CDS), has been recognized and has been summated into an integrated concept of limited dorsal myeloschisis (LDM). OBJECTIVE: To elucidate the underlying embryology of LDM in relation to CDS by focusing on the pathological features of special cases of tethering tracts. METHODS: Out of 389 spinal dysraphism patients who were operated on from 2010 to 2016, 5 patients who had tethering tracts composed of both CDS and LDM (or "probable LDM" if only fibrous tissue was found) were identified...
March 29, 2018: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617906/congenital-dermal-sinus-and-limited-dorsal-myeloschisis-spectrum-disorders-of-incomplete-dysjuction-between-cutaneous-and-neural-ectoderms
#4
Ji Yeoun Lee, Sung-Hye Park, Sangjoon Chong, Ji Hoon Phi, Seung-Ki Kim, Byung-Kyu Cho, Kyu-Chang Wang
BACKGROUND: The existence of tethering tracts in spinal dysraphism, other than congenital dermal sinus (CDS), has been recognized and has been summated into an integrated concept of limited dorsal myeloschisis (LDM). OBJECTIVE: To elucidate the underlying embryology of LDM in relation to CDS by focusing on the pathological features of special cases of tethering tracts. METHODS: Out of 389 spinal dysraphism patients who were operated on from 2010 to 2016, 5 patients who had tethering tracts composed of both CDS and LDM (or "probable LDM" if only fibrous tissue was found) were identified...
March 29, 2018: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617304/the-pathological-spectrum-of-systemic-anaplastic-large-cell-lymphoma-alcl
#5
REVIEW
Ivonne A Montes-Mojarro, Julia Steinhilber, Irina Bonzheim, Leticia Quintanilla-Martinez, Falko Fend
Anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) represents a group of malignant T-cell lymphoproliferations that share morphological and immunophenotypical features, namely strong CD30 expression and variable loss of T-cell markers, but differ in clinical presentation and prognosis. The recognition of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) fusion proteins as a result of chromosomal translocations or inversions was the starting point for the distinction of different subgroups of ALCL. According to their distinct clinical settings and molecular findings, the 2016 revised World Health Organization (WHO) classification recognizes four different entities: systemic ALK-positive ALCL (ALK+ ALCL), systemic ALK-negative ALCL (ALK− ALCL), primary cutaneous ALCL (pC-ALCL), and breast implant-associated ALCL (BI-ALCL), the latter included as a provisional entity...
April 4, 2018: Cancers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29610176/pediatric-malignant-atrophic-papulosis
#6
Yung-Chieh Huang, Jiaan-Der Wang, Fang-Yi Lee, Lin-Shien Fu
Malignant atrophic papulosis (MAP), also known as Degos disease, is an extremely rare disease that is characterized by its unique skin presentation (namely, central, porcelain-white atrophic lesions with a telangiectatic rim). MAP has the following 2 variants: cutaneous MAP is manifested in the skin alone, whereas systemic MAP affects the gastrointestinal tract, central nervous system, lungs, and other internal organs. Some patients who presented with only cutaneous symptoms at first may develop systemic symptoms several years later...
April 2018: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29608790/increase-in-perfused-boundary-region-of-endothelial-glycocalyx-is-associated-with-higher-prevalence-of-ischemic-heart-disease-and-lesions-of-microcirculation-and-vascular-wall
#7
Alexander Y Gorshkov, Marina V Klimushina, Sergei A Boytsov, Alexander Y Kots, Nadezhda G Gumanova
OBJECTIVE: Perfused boundary region (PBR) characterizes penetration of red blood cells inside glycocalyx and its thickness can have profound impact on microcirculation and other vascular parameters. The goal of our study was to reliably quantify PBR and assess its potential use as a new marker of cardiovascular pathology. METHODS: The study included 208 patients (123 men and 85 women from 40 to 65 years of age) with various grades of cardiovascular SCORE risk index and ischemic heart disease...
April 2, 2018: Microcirculation: the Official Journal of the Microcirculatory Society, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29603324/complexities-of-perceived-and-actual-performance-in-pathology-interpretation-a-comparison-of-cutaneous-melanocytic-skin-and-breast-interpretations
#8
Patricia A Carney, Paul D Frederick, Lisa M Reisch, Linda Titus, Stevan R Knezevich, Martin A Weinstock, Michael W Piepkorn, Raymond L Barnhill, David E Elder, Donald L Weaver, Joann G Elmore
BACKGROUND: Little is known about how pathologists process differences between actual and perceived interpretations. OBJECTIVE: To compare perceived and actual diagnostic agreement before and after educational interventions. METHODS: Pathologists interpreted test sets of skin and/or breast specimens that included benign, atypical, in situ and invasive lesions. Interventions involved self-directed learning, one skin and one breast, that showed pathologists how their interpretations compared to a reference diagnoses...
March 30, 2018: Journal of Cutaneous Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29601637/using-dynamic-clamp-to-quantify-pathological-changes-in-the-excitability-of-primary-somatosensory-neurons
#9
Petri Takkala, Steven A Prescott
Primary somatosensory neurons become hyperexcitable in many chronic pain conditions. Hyperexcitability can include a switch from transient to repetitive spiking during sustained somatic depolarization. This switch results from diverse pathological processes that impact ion channel expression or function. Because multiple pathological processes co-occur, isolating how much each contributes to switching the spiking pattern is difficult. Our approach to this challenge involves adding a virtual sodium conductance via dynamic clamp...
March 30, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29596772/-tick-infestation-of-the-eyelid-case-report-and-literature-review
#10
Jorge Moreira, Tiago Maio, Filipa Sampaio
Tick infestation is rarely seen in ophthalmological practice. We report the case of a 73-year-old woman who presented with edema and erythema of her right upper eyelid. Biomicroscopic examination revealed a tick firmly attached to the eyelid margin. The tick was successfully removed using fine tweezers, and within a few days, the patient had fully recovered without sequelae. Ticks are a threat to public health as they are known vectors of numerous infectious agents responsible for serious pathologies such as Lyme disease...
February 28, 2018: Acta Médica Portuguesa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593997/hereditary-leiomyomatosis-and-renal-cell-cancer-cutaneous-lesions-atypical-fibroids
#11
Pietro Bortoletto, Jennifer L Lindsey, Liping Yuan, Bradley J Quade, Antonio R Gargiulo, Cynthia C Morton, Elizabeth A Stewart, Raymond M Anchan
Objective: To report a diagnosis of hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell cancer (HLRCC) syndrome following initial presentation with multiple cutaneous lesions. Design: Case report. Design classification: N/A. Setting: Academic tertiary care center. Patients: 27-year-old nulligravid woman who presented with multiple red-brown lesions on her skin found to have cutaneous and uterine leiomyoma...
July 2017: Case Reports in Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29579452/research-techniques-made-simple-two-photon-intravital-imaging-of-the-skin
#12
Peyman Obeidy, Philip L Tong, Wolfgang Weninger
Over the last few years, intravital two-photon microscopy has matured into a powerful technology helping basic and clinical researchers obtain quantifiable details of complex biological mechanisms in live and intact tissues. Two-photon microscopy provides high spatial and temporal resolution in vivo with little phototoxicity that is unattainable by other optical tools like confocal microscopy. Using ultrashort laser pulses, two-photon microscopy allows the visualization of molecules, cells, and extracellular structures up to depths of 1 mm within tissues...
April 2018: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29573327/imaging-of-non-accidental-injury-what-is-clinical-best-practice
#13
REVIEW
Amy Nguyen, Robin Hart
Non-accidental injury (NAI) remains the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in children. Fractures are the second most common findings of NAI, after cutaneous lesions such as bruises and contusions. Imaging in NAI remains a controversial issue with little agreement concerning how, when and what imaging modalities should be used in the investigation of suspected cases. This review addresses the radiological investigations and findings of NAI, and the differential diagnoses of these findings. Adherence to the international guidelines for skeletal survey imaging is recommended...
March 24, 2018: Journal of Medical Radiation Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29572176/perineural-spread-of-non-melanoma-skin-cancer-to-the-brachial-plexus-identifying-an-anatomical-pathway-s
#14
Tomas Marek, B Matthew Howe, Kimberly K Amrami, Robert J Spinner
BACKGROUND: Perineural spread leading to brachial plexopathy has recently been described in cases of melanoma. The occurrence and mechanism for non-melanoma skin cancer spread to the brachial plexus is poorly understood. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective chart review of Mayo Clinic database was conducted to identify patients with non-melanoma skin cancer and brachial plexopathy between 2000 and 2017. Inclusion criteria were a history of non-melanoma skin cancer, a clinical diagnosis of brachial plexopathy, imaging features of perineural spread, and a positive biopsy showing tumor in a skin nerve...
March 20, 2018: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29568990/necrobiotic-xanthogranuloma-a-30-year-single-center-experience
#15
Talal Hilal, David J DiCaudo, Suzanne M Connolly, Craig B Reeder
To characterize the clinical features, associated disorders, and treatment of necrobiotic xanthogranuloma (NXG), a rare non-Langerhans cell histiocytosis, we conducted a retrospective review of pathologically confirmed NXG at Mayo Clinic Arizona from 1987 to June 2017. Data on clinical findings, laboratory findings, associated disorders, therapy, and response to therapy were extracted. Nineteen patients were identified. Mean age was 54 years (range, 17-84) with equal gender distribution. Median follow-up was 5...
March 22, 2018: Annals of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29563288/age-associated-differences-in-infection-of-human-skin-in-the-scid-mouse-model-of-varicella-zoster-virus-pathogenesis
#16
Leigh Zerboni, Phillip Sung, Gordon Lee, Ann Arvin
Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is the skin-tropic human alphaherpesvirus responsible for both varicella and herpes zoster. Varicella and herpes zoster skin lesions have similar morphology but herpes zoster occurs disproportionally in older individuals and is often associated with a more extensive local rash and severe zoster-related neuralgia. We hypothesized that skin aging could also influence the outcome of the anterograde axonal transport of VZV to skin. We utilized human skin xenografts maintained in immunodeficient (SCID) mice to study VZV-induced skin pathology in vivo in fetal and adult skin xenografts...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29560294/basal-cell-carcinoma-with-myoepithelial-differentiation-case-report-and-literature-review
#17
Philip R Cohen
Basal cell carcinoma is the most common skin cancer. Myoepithelial cells are specialized epithelial cells. Basal cell carcinoma with myoepithelial differentiation is a rare tumor. A 71-year-old man with a basal cell carcinoma with myoepithelial differentiation that presented as an asymptomatic red papule of two months duration on his forehead is described. Including the reported patient, this variant of basal cell carcinoma has been described in 16 patients: 11 men and five women. The patients ranged in age at diagnosis from 43 years to 83 years; the median age at diagnosis was 66 years...
January 17, 2018: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29556963/proceedings-of-the-nashnp-companion-meeting-march-18th-2018-vancouver-bc-canada-salivary-neuroendocrine-carcinoma-an-overview-of-a-rare-disease-with-an-emphasis-on-determining-tumor-origin
#18
Rebecca D Chernock, Eric J Duncavage
Salivary neuroendocrine carcinomas are rare and the overwhelming majority is high-grade. The parotid gland is the most commonly involved site followed by the submandibular gland. Most arise de novo but rare examples occurring as a high-grade transformation of another type of salivary gland neoplasm exist. There is significant morphologic and immunophenotypic overlap with neuroendocrine carcinomas of other sites, especially the skin. Like cutaneous neuroendocrine (or Merkel cell) carcinomas, approximately three-fourths are cytokeratin 20 positive...
March 20, 2018: Head and Neck Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29556962/update-on-merkel-cell-carcinoma
#19
Michael T Tetzlaff, Priyadharsini Nagarajan
Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is an aggressive cutaneous neuroendocrine carcinoma. Incidence of MCC continues to rise, and risk factors include advanced age, pale skin, chronic sun exposure, and immune suppression. Diagnosing MCC utilizes a combination of morphology and immunohistochemistry. Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) is present in approximately 70-80% of MCCs and represents a key pathogenic driver in those MCCs. In contrast, MCPyV-negative MCCs arise through progressive accumulation of ultraviolet-light induced somatic mutations...
March 20, 2018: Head and Neck Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29549903/metastases-to-the-parotid-gland-a-review-of-the-clinicopathological-evolution-molecular-mechanisms-and-management
#20
REVIEW
James Badlani, Ruta Gupta, Joel Smith, Bruce Ashford, Sydney Ch'ng, Michael Veness, Jonathan Clark
Metastases to the parotid gland are the commonest cause of parotid malignancies in many regions of the world including Australia. The most common etiology of these metastases is head and neck cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (HNcSCC) followed by melanoma of the head and neck. This article focuses on the management of the aforementioned pathologies including Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC).
March 2018: Surgical Oncology
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