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Cutaneous pathology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449841/langerhans-cells-sensing-the-environment-in-health-and-disease
#1
REVIEW
Julie Deckers, Hamida Hammad, Esther Hoste
In the last few decades, our understanding of Langerhans cells (LCs) has drastically changed based on novel findings regarding the developmental origin and biological functions of these epidermis-specific resident immune cells. It has become clear that LCs not only exert pivotal roles in immune surveillance and homeostasis but also impact on pathology by either inducing tolerance or mediating inflammation. Their unique capabilities to self-renew within the epidermis, while also being able to migrate to lymph nodes in order to present antigen, place LCs in a key position to sample the local environment and decide on the appropriate cutaneous immune response...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449723/an-outbreak-of-cutaneous-leishmaniasis-in-modena-province-northern-italy-report-of-35-cases
#2
A M Cesinaro, S Nosseir, E Mataca, M C Mengoli, C Cavatorta, W Gennari
Canine Leishmaniasis is a disease endemic in many parts of Europe, carried by insects of phlebotomous species. Humans are occasional hosts of the parasites. Cases of human leishmaniasis have been registered in Italy, particularly in the southern and coastal regions. In the period 1997-2016, we collected a series of 35 patients affected by cutaneous leishmaniasis, uncovered by skin biopsy and histological examination, 21 of them found in last 3 years. The patients, 28 males and 7 female, aged between 19 and 91, resided in a restricted area of Northern Italy, and none, but two, had travelled abroad...
December 2017: Pathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435284/18f-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose-positron-emission-computed-tomography-in-a-rare-cutaneous-form-of-rosai-dorfman-disease-a-case-report
#3
Joya Hadchiti, Francois G Kamar, Jean Abi Ghosn, Mohamad Haidar, Ahmad Younes, Antoine Obeid, Marwan Haddad, Fadi Farhat, Feras Chehade
Rosai-Dorfman disease (RDD), or sinus histiocytosis with massive lymphadenopathy, commonly involves the lymph nodes but may secondarily involve the skin. Purely cutaneous disease without lymphatics or internal organ involvement occurs rarely. The present report detailed a rare case of 18F-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose positron emission-computed tomography (18FDG PET-CT) performed in a 33-year-old male soldier with a purely cutaneous form of RDD. Staging with 18FDG PET-CT was ordered prior to excisional biopsies of the aforedescribed masses and pathology reported RDD...
February 2018: Molecular and Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433548/analytic-validity-of-decisiondx-melanoma-a-gene-expression-profile-test-for-determining-metastatic-risk-in-melanoma-patients
#4
Robert W Cook, Brooke Middlebrook, Jeff Wilkinson, Kyle R Covington, Kristen Oelschlager, Federico A Monzon, John F Stone
BACKGROUND: The DecisionDx-Melanoma test provides prognostic information for patients with cutaneous melanoma (CM). Using formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded primary tumor tissue, the RT-PCR-based test classifies patients into a low- (Class 1) or high-risk (Class 2) category for recurrence based on expression of 31 genes. The current study was designed to assess the analytical validity of this test. METHODS: Inter-assay, inter-instrument, and inter-operator studies were performed to evaluate reliability of the 31-gene expression test results, sample stability and reagent stability...
February 13, 2018: Diagnostic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427464/the-expression-and-function-of-galectins-in-skin-physiology-and-pathology
#5
REVIEW
Nan-Lin Wu, Fu-Tong Liu
The galectin family comprises β-galactoside-binding proteins widely expressed in many organisms. There are at least 16 family members, which can be classified into three groups based on their carbohydrate-recognition domains. Pleiotropic functions of different galectins in physiological and pathological processes through extracellular or intracellular actions have been revealed. In the skin, galectins are expressed in a variety of cells, including keratinocytes, melanocytes, fibroblasts, dendritic cells, lymphocytes, macrophages, and endothelial cells...
February 10, 2018: Experimental Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29419648/vascular-dysfunction-in-exfoliation-syndrome
#6
Gábor Holló
Both exfoliation syndrome (XFS) and exfoliation glaucoma (XFG) are associated with systemic vascular diseases and abnormalities. Though no uniform relationship between XFS/XFG and clinical systemic vascular diseases has been established across various populations, vascular dysfunction with or without clinically significant consequences has been repeatedly detected with both epidemiological and pathophysiological methods. Elevated plasma homocysteine, reduced cutaneous capillary flow reactions, damaged conduit artery dysfunction, impaired baroreflex sensitivity, parasympathetic cardiovascular neuropathy, and pathological heart rate variability indices have all been shown in XFS and XFG...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Glaucoma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29416287/hereditary-leiomyomatosis-and-renal-cell-carcinoma-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#7
Ferreira Natália, Oliveira Tiago, Oliveira Pedro, Gaspar Sandro
Hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell cancer (HLRCC) is a rare genetic disorder in which the affected individuals tend to develop cutaneous leiomyomas, uterine leiomyomas, and renal cell cancer (RCC). Within the spectrum of this syndromic disease, RCC is the most severe manifestation, occurring at a younger age compared to the sporadic form. Pathological suspicion or diagnosis of HLRCC is critical for appropriate clinical management and genetic counseling of the affected family members. In this study, we report the case of a 27-year-old misdiagnosed carrier of HLRCC phenotype, who presented with a large solitary Type II papillary RCC...
January 2018: Urology Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415312/novel-demonstration-of-the-anterior-femoral-cutaneous-nerves-using-ultrasound
#8
Christopher Pivec, Gerd Bodner, Johannes A Mayer, Peter C Brugger, Istvan Paraszti, Veith Moser, Hannes Traxler, Georg Riegler
PURPOSE: Neuropathy of the intermediate (IFCN) and medial femoral cutaneous nerve (MFCN) is a potential iatrogenic complication of thigh surgery and its diagnosis is limited. This study aimed to evaluate the possibility of the visualization and diagnostic assessment of the IFCN and MFCN with high-resolution ultrasound (HRUS). MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study, HRUS with high-frequency probes (15 - 22MHz) was used to locate the IFCN and the MFCN in 16 fresh cadaveric lower limbs...
February 7, 2018: Ultraschall in der Medizin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29413689/germline-bap1-positive-patients-the-dilemmas-of-cancer-surveillance-and-a-proposed-interdisciplinary-consensus-monitoring-strategy
#9
Phoebe Star, Annabel Goodwin, Rony Kapoor, R Max Conway, Georgina V Long, Richard A Scolyer, Pascale Guitera
The germline BAP1 (BRCA1-associated protein-1) mutation and associated cancer pre-disposition syndrome was first described in 2011. Since then, physicians have considered this diagnosis for patients with a characteristic personal or family history of BAP1-associated tumours (mainly uveal and cutaneous melanoma, pleural/peritoneal mesothelioma, renal cell carcinoma and BAP1-deficient melanocytic lesions). However, a positive germline BAP1 mutation detection creates significant uncertainty in terms of appropriate cancer surveillance...
February 2, 2018: European Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29403087/cerebellar-ataxia-dominant-phenotype-in-patients-with-ercc4-mutations
#10
Hiroshi Doi, Shigeru Koyano, Satoko Miyatake, Shinji Nakajima, Yuka Nakazawa, Misako Kunii, Atsuko Tomita-Katsumoto, Kayoko Oda, Yukie Yamaguchi, Ryoko Fukai, Shingo Ikeda, Rumiko Kato, Katsuhisa Ogata, Shun Kubota, Noriko Hayashi, Keita Takahashi, Mikiko Tada, Kenichi Tanaka, Mitsuko Nakashima, Yoshinori Tsurusaki, Noriko Miyake, Hirotomo Saitsu, Tomoo Ogi, Michiko Aihara, Hideyuki Takeuchi, Naomichi Matsumoto, Fumiaki Tanaka
Autosomal recessive cerebellar ataxias (ARCAs) are clinically and genetically heterogeneous neurological disorders. Through whole-exome sequencing of Japanese ARCA patients, we identified three index patients from unrelated families who had biallelic mutations in ERCC4. ERCC4 mutations have been known to cause xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group F (XP-F), Cockayne syndrome, and Fanconi anemia phenotypes. All of the patients described here showed very slowly progressive cerebellar ataxia and cognitive decline with choreiform involuntary movement, with young adolescent or midlife onset...
February 5, 2018: Journal of Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29402206/validation-of-digital-microscopy-compared-with-light-microscopy-for-the-diagnosis-of-canine-cutaneous-tumors
#11
Christof A Bertram, Corinne Gurtner, Martina Dettwiler, Olivia Kershaw, Kristina Dietert, Laura Pieper, Hannah Pischon, Achim D Gruber, Robert Klopfleisch
Integration of new technologies, such as digital microscopy, into a highly standardized laboratory routine requires the validation of its performance in terms of reliability, specificity, and sensitivity. However, a validation study of digital microscopy is currently lacking in veterinary pathology. The aim of the current study was to validate the usability of digital microscopy in terms of diagnostic accuracy, speed, and confidence for diagnosing and differentiating common canine cutaneous tumor types and to compare it to classical light microscopy...
January 1, 2018: Veterinary Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29399406/deep-sequencing-of-the-t-cell-receptor-visualizes-reconstitution-of-t-cell-immunity-in-mogamulizumab-treated-adult-t-cell-leukemia
#12
Takero Shindo, Kazutaka Kitaura, Hiroshi Ureshino, Kazuharu Kamachi, Masaharu Miyahara, Kazuko Doi, Tatsuro Watanabe, Eisaburo Sueoka, Tadasu Shin-I, Ryuji Suzuki, Shinya Kimura
Although the anti-CCR4 antibody mogamulizumab (moga) shows striking antitumor activity against adult T cell leukemia (ATL), it can also cause fatal immunological pathology such as severe skin rash and graft-versus-host disease, which might be attributed to depletion of CCR4+ regulatory T cells. We previously showed that next generation sequencing enables precise analysis of the T cell receptor (TCR) repertoire, and we here used the technique to reveal the immunological dynamics in moga-treated ATL patients...
2018: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29399266/a-retrospective-analysis-of-surveillance-adherence-of-patients-after-treatment-of-primary-cutaneous-melanoma
#13
Jeave Reserva, Monica Janeczek, Cara Joyce, Amanda Goslawski, Hwala Hong, Feng-Ning Yuan, Neelam Balasubramanian, Laura Winterfield, James Swan, Rebecca Tung
BACKGROUND: Melanoma surveillance serves to identify new primary melanomas and curable locoregional or early distant recurrences. Although an optimal melanoma surveillance strategy has not been determined, several clinical guidelines exist. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to identify demographic and clinico-pathologic variables associated with poor adherence to National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) melanoma surveillance guidelines. DESIGN: We retrospectively reviewed the initial five-year dermatology follow-up visit frequencies of melanoma patients and extracted basic demographic and clinical data from their medical records...
December 2017: Journal of Clinical and Aesthetic Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29394645/-a-case-of-long-term-survival-of-cutaneous-metastasis-from-primary-gastric-cancer
#14
Junya Morita, Toru Aoyama, Shinya Amano, Yukio Maezawa, Sho Sawazaki, Masakatsu Numata, Tsutomu Sato, Takashi Oshima, Takanobu Yamada, Tsutomu Hayashi, Shouji Yamanaka, Norio Yukawa, Yasushi Rino, Munetaka Masuda
A 65-year-old female received distal gastrectomy for gastric cancer.The pathological diagnosis was well differentiated adenocarcinoma(tub1), type 2, pT3, ly: 1, v: 1, N0, H0, P0, M0, CY0, pStage II A.She had been observed without adjuvant chemotherapy.Five years after the resection, umbilical tumor and intraperitoneal nodules were detected by computed tomography. Needle biopsy cytology of umbilical tumor revealed metastasis from gastric cancer.Based on the diagnosis of umbilical metastasis and peritoneal dissemination, S-1(80mg/m / 2, day 1-21)and CDDP(60mg/m2, day 8)were administered for 7 courses...
November 2017: Gan to Kagaku Ryoho. Cancer & Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29392502/mosaic-capillaroscopic-findings-in-systemic-sclerosis
#15
Sevdalina Nikolova Lambova, Ulf Müller-Ladner
A 67-year-old woman with triphasic Raynaud's phenomenon since 2 years was diagnosed as having limited cutaneous systemic sclerosis (SSc) 1 year ago based on puffy fingers, positive antinuclear and anti-Scl-70 autoantibodies, and initial pulmonary fibrosis. Capillaroscopic examination revealed "mosaic" capillaroscopic findings that included normal pattern; "scleroderma"-type capillaroscopic pattern "early" phase, with single giant capillaries and haemorrhages, preserved capillary distribution; and "scleroderma"-type capillaroscopic pattern "active" phase, with high number of giant capillary loops and haemorrhages, moderately disturbed distribution...
February 1, 2018: Wiener Medizinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29391911/evaluation-of-18f-fdg-pet-ct-parameters-for-detection-of-lymph-node-metastasis-in-cutaneous-melanoma
#16
Jongtae Cha, Soyoung Kim, Jiyoung Wang, Mijin Yun, Arthur Cho
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the value of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG PET/CT) parameters in the detection of regional lymph node (LN) metastasis in patients with cutaneous melanoma. Methods: We evaluated patients with cutaneous melanoma who underwent FDG PET/CT for initial staging or recurrence evaluation. A total of 103 patients were enrolled, and 165 LNs were evaluated. LNs that were confirmed pathologically or by follow-up imaging were included in this study...
February 2018: Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29389234/duration-of-anti-programmed-death-1-therapy-in-advanced-melanoma-how-much-of-a-good-thing-is-enough
#17
Nikhil I Khushalani
The Oncology Grand Rounds series is designed to place original reports published in the Journal into clinical context. A case presentation is followed by a description of diagnostic and management challenges, a review of the relevant literature, and a summary of the authors' suggested management approaches. The goal of this series is to help readers better understand how to apply the results of key studies, including those published in Journal of Clinical Oncology, to patients seen in their own clinical practice...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29386839/intensely-pruritic-papules-and-plaques-in-waldenstrom-s-macroglobulinemia
#18
Solam Lee, Noo Ri Lee, Sung Jay Choe, Beom Jun Kim, Minseob Eom, Eung Ho Choi
Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia (WM) is lymphoplasmacytoid malignancy that affects B lymphocytes. Cutaneous involvement of WM is rare, but various cutaneous manifestations have been reported. These findings are due to various pathological processes including direct invasion of tumor cells into the skin, deposition of paraproteins, hyperviscosity syndrome, and cryoglobulinemia. A 64-year-old man presented with a 10-day history of pruritic erythematous papules and plaques on his trunk and elbows. The clinical features were suspicious for eczematous dermatitis...
February 2018: Annals of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29385676/naturally-occurring-canine-melanoma-as-a-predictive-comparative-oncology-model-for-human-mucosal-and-other-triple-wild-type-melanomas
#19
REVIEW
Belen Hernandez, Hibret A Adissu, Bih-Rong Wei, Helen T Michael, Glenn Merlino, R Mark Simpson
Melanoma remains mostly an untreatable fatal disease despite advances in decoding cancer genomics and developing new therapeutic modalities. Progress in patient care would benefit from additional predictive models germane for human disease mechanisms, tumor heterogeneity, and therapeutic responses. Toward this aim, this review documents comparative aspects of human and naturally occurring canine melanomas. Clinical presentation, pathology, therapies, and genetic alterations are highlighted in the context of current basic and translational research in comparative oncology...
January 30, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29383319/xanthoma-disseminatum-presenting-with-hoarseness
#20
Biswanath Behera, Munisamy Malathi, Devinder-Mohan Thappa, Hemanth Vamanshankar, Pradipta-Kumar Parida, Debasis Gochhait
Introduction: Xanthoma disseminatum (XD) is a rare, benign, non-Langerhans cell histiocytic disorder with unknown etio-pathology. It manifests with multiple, grouped, red-brown to yellow papules and nodules involving the skin, mucous membranes, and internal organs with a predilection for flexures and the face. Case Report: We report a patient who presented with disseminated xanthomatous papules and nodules involving the face, neck, trunk, axilla, groin, and oral cavity, along with hoarseness of voice...
November 2017: Iranian Journal of Otorhinolaryngology
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