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Cutaneous pathology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243020/effect-of-1064-nm-q-switched-nd-yag-laser-on-invasiveness-and-innate-immune-response-in-keratinocytes-infected-with-candida-albicans
#1
Baroni Adone, De Filippis Anna, Oliviero Giovanni, Fusco Alessandra, Perfetto Brunella, Buommino Elisabetta, Donnarumma Giovanna
Candida albicans is an opportunistic pathogen commensal in the oral cavity, vagina, and healthy skin. Common therapeutic options for fungal infections are topical or systemic antifungal drugs. Recently, in cutaneous pathologies, lasers and light-based treatments have emerged showing few contraindications and minimal side effects. The Q-switched (Nd-YAG) laser at a wavelength of 1064 nm has been shown to be useful in dermatology, dentistry, and some other medical specialties. It is used to treat onychomycoses, warts, and wounds and in some other treatments...
December 14, 2017: Lasers in Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242798/anterior-elbow-pain-caused-by-compression-of-the-lateral-antebrachial-cutaneous-nerve
#2
Sean M Booth, Abdulbaset Abosala, Chris Peach
Introduction: The complex anatomy and biomechanics of the elbow joint can lead to diagnostic uncertainty when a clinician is determining the cause of a patient's anterior elbow pain. We present a case of anterior elbow pain with an uncommon and often overlooked etiology. Elbow pain due to compression of the lateral antebrachial nerve (LACN) has an unknown incidence or prevalence. Case Report: A 27-year-old left-hand dominant male presented to our orthopedic elbow clinic complaining of bilateral elbow clicking and discomfort which had been present for several years...
September 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241759/genetics-and-the-metabolic-syndrome
#3
Emma Fanning, Donal O'Shea
Originally coined as "syndrome X" in 1988 by Gerald Reaven (1928), the metabolic syndrome (MetS) encompasses a constellation of risk factors, the coincidence of which amounts to an increased cardiovascular and diabetic risk. Rising numbers of dermatoses are being recognized as cutaneous markers of MetS. Dermatologists should look beyond treating the cutaneous condition and quantify the associated increase in cardiovascular risk. The original dermatosis associated with obesity was acanthosis nigricans-described in 1889 by Paul Gerson Unna (1850-1929) and Sigmund Pollitzer (1859-1937)...
January 2018: Clinics in Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241101/marjolin-s-ulcer-in-a-20-years-old-split-thickness-skin-graft-on-the-knee-a-case-report
#4
Iselin Saltvig, Steen H Matzen
OBJECTIVE: Marjolin's Ulcer (MU) is a rare cutaneous neoplasm arising in cikatrical tissue. Due to its typical clinical presentation as a non-healing lesion in scar tissue, the diagnosis can be delayed and even overlooked. METHODS AND RESULTS: We present the case of an elderly woman who developed an ulcerated, exophytic lesion in a split thickness skin graft (STSG) on the lateral aspect of the left knee. Histology showed a radically excised highly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) with keratine pearls and a component of basocellular carcinoma (BCC)...
December 5, 2017: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240580/prognostic-significance-of-periadnexal-extension-in-cutaneous-melanoma-and-its-implications-for-pathologic-reporting-and-staging
#5
Tristan J Dodds, Serigne Lo, Louise Jackett, Omgo Nieweg, John F Thompson, Richard A Scolyer
Tumor thickness is the strongest predictor of outcome for clinically localized melanoma. Therefore, accurate assessment is critical for appropriate staging, reliable estimation of prognosis, and management. When melanoma extends alongside skin adnexal structures more deeply than the main tumor mass (periadnexal extension), it is currently unknown whether the prognosis is more accurately reflected by the deepest point of periadnexal tumor extension or the main tumor mass. This study sought to address this question...
December 7, 2017: American Journal of Surgical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239728/wound-healing-of-cutaneous-substance-losses-based-on-infectious-inflammatory-and-traumatic-skin-disorders-the-experience-of-a-center
#6
K Khoshim, B Hersant, C Hotz, M SidAhmed-Mezi, J P Meningaud
INTRODUCTION: There is no reference available concerning the standard healing time based on dermatological diseases responsible for cutaneous substance losses. The aim of our study was to assess the healing time after surgical debridement of necrotizing fasciitis (NF), hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) and skin necrosis due to trauma (SNT) based on multiples existing co-morbidities among these patients to provide surgeons with accurate scientific data in order to inform and educate patients and nurses who are practicing care under the supervision of the surgeon...
November 24, 2017: Annales de Chirurgie Plastique et Esthétique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237707/buruli-ulcer-a-prototype-for-ecosystem-related-infection-caused-by-mycobacterium-ulcerans
#7
REVIEW
Dezemon Zingue, Amar Bouam, Roger B D Tian, Michel Drancourt
Buruli ulcer is a noncontagious disabling cutaneous and subcutaneous mycobacteriosis reported by 33 countries in Africa, Asia, Oceania, and South America. The causative agent, Mycobacterium ulcerans, derives from Mycobacterium marinum by genomic reduction and acquisition of a plasmid-borne, nonribosomal cytotoxin mycolactone, the major virulence factor. M. ulcerans-specific sequences have been readily detected in aquatic environments in food chains involving small mammals. Skin contamination combined with any type of puncture, including insect bites, is the most plausible route of transmission, and skin temperature of <30°C significantly correlates with the topography of lesions...
January 2018: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237158/dermoscopy-of-morphea-and-cutaneous-lichen-sclerosus-clinicopathological-correlation-study-and-comparative-analysis
#8
Enzo Errichetti, Aimilios Lallas, Zoe Apalla, Alessandro Di Stefani, Giuseppe Stinco
BACKGROUND: Dermoscopy of morphea and cutaneous lichen sclerosus (CLS) has been described by various studies, with none of them considering variability according to clinical phases and investigating dermoscopic-histological correlations. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate dermoscopic features in general and according to clinical stage, identify possible distinctive dermoscopic clues, and assess dermoscopy accuracy in detecting subclinical alterations in morphea and CLS. METHODS: A representative dermoscopic image of target lesions was evaluated for the presence of specific features, correlating them with clinical subtype (inflammatory, inflammatory-sclerotic, sclerotic, or sclerotic-atrophic)...
December 14, 2017: Dermatology: International Journal for Clinical and Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234716/physiologic-changes-of-pregnancy-a-review-of-the-literature
#9
REVIEW
Catherine C Motosko, Amy Kalowitz Bieber, Miriam Keltz Pomeranz, Jennifer A Stein, Kathryn J Martires
Throughout pregnancy, the body undergoes a variety of physiologic changes. The cutaneous findings can be most noticeable and often worrisome to both physicians and patients. Obstetricians and dermatologists must be able to differentiate between changes that are benign and those that may be pathologic. Most physicians recognize benign changes that are commonly described in literature such as hyperpigmentation, melasma, striae gravidarum, and telogen effluvium; however, they may be unaware of changes that tend to be less frequently discussed...
December 2017: International Journal of Women's Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231330/-hypothesis-of-sinew-meridian-system
#10
Nongyu Liu
The author provides the hypothesis on the "sinew-meridian system" in terms of the physiology, pathology, diagnosis and treatment of meridians and sinew-meridians. Meridians are nourished with blood and sinew-meridians are softened with yang qi. Meridians are circulated in linear form and sinew-meridians are distributed in centripetal state. Meridians are communicated externally and internally and sinew-meridians are connected with tendons and bones. Meridians pertain to zangfu organs and sinew-meridians stabilize zangfu organs...
January 12, 2017: Zhongguo Zhen Jiu, Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226159/immunohistopathological-findings-of-severe-cutaneous-adverse-drug-reactions
#11
REVIEW
Mari Orime
Diagnosis of severe cutaneous adverse drug reactions should involve immunohistopathological examination, which gives insight into the pathomechanisms of these disorders. The characteristic histological findings of erythema multiforme (EM), Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS), and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) provide conclusive evidence demonstrating that SJS/TEN can be distinguished from EM. Established SJS/TEN shows full-thickness, extensive keratinocyte necrosis that develops into subepidermal bullae. Drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome (DIHS) and exanthema in drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) each display a variety of histopathological findings, which may partly correlate with the clinical manifestations...
2017: Journal of Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219948/asperosaponin-vi-promotes-angiogenesis-and-accelerates-wound-healing-in-rats-via-up-regulating-hif-1%C3%AE-vegf-signaling
#12
Cheng-Gui Wang, Yi-Ting Lou, Min-Ji Tong, Li-Lian Zhang, Zeng-Jie Zhang, Yong-Zeng Feng, Shi Li, Hua-Zi Xu, Cong Mao
Wound therapy remains a clinical challenge due to the complexity of healing pathology and high demand of achieving functional and aesthetically satisfactory scars. Newly formed blood vessels are essential for tissue repair since they can support cells at the wound site with nutrition and oxygen. In this study, we investigated the effects of Asperosaponin VI (ASA VI) isolated from a traditional Chinese medicine, the root of Dipsacus asper Wall, in promoting angiogenesis, as well as its function in wound therapeutics...
December 7, 2017: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214093/should-skin-biopsies-be-performed-in-patients-suspected-of-having-parkinson-s-disease
#13
REVIEW
Timo Siepmann, Ana Isabel Penzlin, Ben Min-Woo Illigens, Heinz Reichmann
In patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), the molecularly misfolded form of α-synuclein was recently identified in cutaneous autonomic nerve fibers which displayed increased accumulation even in early disease stages. However, the underlying mechanisms of synucleinopathic nerve damage and its implication for brain pathology in later life remain to be elucidated. To date, specific diagnostic tools to evaluate small fiber pathology and to discriminate neurodegenerative proteinopathies are rare. Recently, research has indicated that deposition of α-synuclein in cutaneous nerve fibers quantified via immunohistochemistry in superficial skin biopsies might be a valid marker of PD which could facilitate early diagnosis and monitoring of disease progression...
2017: Parkinson's Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209571/complete-regression-of-cutaneous-metastases-with-systemic-immune-response-in-a-patient-with-triple-negative-breast-cancer-receiving-p53mva-vaccine-with-pembrolizumab
#14
Yuan Yuan, Ferdynand J Kos, Ting-Fang He, Hongwei H Yin, Mengsha Li, Nicola Hardwick, Kathryn Zurcher, Daniel Schmolze, Peter Lee, Raju K Pillai, Vincent Chung, Don J Diamond
A heavily pretreated patient with triple negative breast cancer distinguished by cutaneous metastases received p53MVA vaccine in combination with pembrolizumab. Her cutaneous metastases regressed and after 2 cycles of therapy, a skin biopsy showed a complete pathological response. Systemic response was confirmed with restaging CT and bone scans. Activation of p53-specific T cell responses and elevation of multiple immune response genes in peripheral blood correlated with the rapid clinical response which lasted for 6 months after the initiation of combined therapy...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205403/increased-th17-functions-are-accompanied-by-tregs-activities-in-lupoid-leishmaniasis
#15
Nafiseh Sadat Nabavi, Fakhrozzaman Pezeshkpoor, Narges Valizadeh, Sanaz Ahmadi Ghezeldasht, Seyyed Abdolrahim Rezaee
The immunopathogenesis of lupoid leishmaniasis is challenging. Although, an appropriate immune response is critical for controlling these parasites, inappropriate inflammatory reactions can also promote increased pathology. The role of immune-modulatory effect of the main transcription factors and cytokines of Tregulatory and Th-17 cells in pathogenesis of leishmaniasis chronicity was investigated in the present study. The gene expression of interleukin-10 (IL-10), transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β1), forkhead box P3 (Foxp3), interleukin-17(IL-17A), and retinoic acid-related orphan receptor gamma t (ROrC) was assessed in PBMCs of eighty blood samples from cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) patients with usual lesions (n = 31), lupoid lesions (n = 29), and healthy volunteers (n = 20)...
December 4, 2017: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205142/necrotizing-fasciitis-associated-with-primary-cutaneous-b-cell-lymphoma-a-case-report
#16
K G Spiridakis, D S Intzepogazoglou, M E Flamourakis, E E Sfakianakis, A V Daskalaki, E K Vakonaki, E Rahmanis, G E Kostakis, M S Christodoulakis
Necrotizing fasciitis is a rapidly progressive and life-threatening infection of the deeper skin layers and subcutaneous tissues that moves along the facial planes. OBJECTIVES: We present the rare case of a patient with necrotizing fasciitis associated with high malignancy b-cell lymphoma. Our purpose is to investigate the probable connection between the two pathologies and evaluate the importance of early surgical intervention. CASE REPORT: 51-year old Caucasian woman presented at the E...
May 2017: Il Giornale di Chirurgia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198578/influence-of-gender-on-epithelial-host-defence-peptide-gene-expression-under-non-infected-and-infected-conditions-a-basic-medical-research-study
#17
Nils Hagen Rohleder, Klaus-Dietrich Wolff, Sina Heimüller, Anita Axt, Marco Rainer Kesting, Steffen Koerdt, Thomas Mücke, Niklas Rommel
Bacterial resistance against conventional antibiotics is increasing. This introduces challenges, for example, in the treatment of infected surgical wounds. Host defence peptides (HDP), which are endogenous peptide antibiotics, show broad-spectrum antimicrobial effectiveness. They protect the organism against pathological microorganisms. Synthetic HDP might supplement or even become alternatives to conventional antibiotics. Knowledge of their quantities under physiological and pathophysiological conditions is therefore required...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Cranio-maxillo-facial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197551/allelic-variants-of-the-aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor-differentially-influence-uvb-mediated-skin-inflammatory-responses-in-skh1-mice
#18
Kayla J Smith, Iain A Murray, Jacob A Boyer, Gary H Perdew
The mouse strain SKH1 is widely used in skin research due to its hairless phenotype and intact immune system. Due to the complex nature of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) function in the skin, the development of additional in vivo models is necessary to study its role in cutaneous homeostasis and pathology. Variants of the Ah allele, exist among different mouse strains. The Ahb-1 and Ahd alleles express high and low affinity ligand binding forms of the AHR, respectively. The outbred SKH1 mice express the Ahb-2 and/or Ahd alleles...
November 29, 2017: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194284/koebner-phenomenon-triggered-by-external-dacryocystorhinostomy-scar-in-a-patient-with-psoriasis-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#19
Anasua Kapoor Ganguly, Srujana Laghimsetty, Nirupama Bhagyalakshmi
Koebner phenomenon is the development of isomorphic pathologic lesions on a wound of a patient with preexisting cutaneous disease, most commonly psoriasis. An elderly male with palmoplantar psoriasis developed periocular psoriasis in the form of blepharitis and conjunctivitis following an external dacryocystorhinostomy as a manifestation of Koebner phenomenon. Immediate diagnosis and treatment with topical steroids led to complete recovery. Thus, the authors report the first case of Koebner phenomenon in ophthalmic literature, with a review of previously published postsurgical cases of Koebnerization in psoriasis patients...
November 27, 2017: Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194279/cutaneous-metastases-of-the-glioma
#20
Hao Chang, Yasuo Ding, Peng Wang, Qing Wang, Yuchang Lin, Bing Li
Low grade glioma (LGG) is a very common primary brain neoplasm with a very good prognosis and the median survival of patients is approximately 8 years. With the development of current treatments such as surgery resection, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy, the recurrence rate and the distant metastasis rate of LGGs are largely decreased. Extracranial metastases are seldom happened. However, the authors present a pathologically proven patient with scalp metastasis, which was metastasized from LGG occurring site to the surgical scar 8 months following initial craniotomy and chemotherapy...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
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