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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905503/advancing-ovarian-folliculometry-with-selective-plane-illumination-microscopy
#1
Hsiao-Chun Amy Lin, Rahul Dutta, Subhamoy Mandal, Alexander Kind, Angelika Schnieke, Daniel Razansky
Determination of ovarian status and follicle monitoring are common methods of diagnosing female infertility. We evaluated the suitability of selective plane illumination microscopy (SPIM) for the study of ovarian follicles. The large field of view and fast acquisition speed of our SPIM system enables rendering of volumetric image stacks from intact whole porcine ovarian follicles, clearly visualizing follicular features including follicle volume and average diameter (70 μm-2.5 mm), their spherical asymmetry parameters, size of developing cumulus oophorus complexes (40 μm-110 μm), and follicular wall thickness (90 μm-120 μm)...
December 1, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899973/expression-patterns-of-maspin-and-mutant-p53-are-associated-with-the-development-of-gestational-trophoblastic-neoplasia
#2
Pengming Sun, Qibin Wu, Guanyu Ruan, Xiu Zheng, Yiyi Song, Jianfan Zhun, Lixiang Wu, Walter H Gotlieb
Gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD) is a group of conditions that originate from the abnormal proliferation of trophoblastic cells. GTDs encompass hydatidiform moles (HMs) and gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN). GTNs are a group of malignant diseases that require chemotherapy, or more aggressive treatment. There is a requirement for more tumor markers to predict the development of GTN from HMs. The current study evaluated the expression of maspin and tumor protein p53 (p53) in GTD, and their role in predicting the development of GTN...
November 2016: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888191/wt1-directs-the-lineage-specification-of-sertoli-and-granulosa-cells-by-repressing-sf1-expression
#3
Min Chen, Lianjun Zhang, Xiuhong Cui, Xiwen Lin, Yaqiong Li, Yaqing Wang, Yanbo Wang, Yan Qin, Dahua Chen, Chunsheng Han, Bin Zhou, Vicki Huff, Fei Gao
Supporting cells (Sertoli and granulosa) and steroidogenic cells (Leydig and theca-interstitium) are two major somatic cell types in mammalian gonads. However, the mechanisms that control their differentiation during gonad development remain elusive. In this study, we found deletion of Wt1 in ovary after sex determination caused ectopic development of steroidogenic cells at embryonic stage. Furthermore, the differentiation of both Sertoli and granulosa cells was blocked when Wt1 was deleted before sex determination and most genital ridge somatic cells differentiated into steroidogenic cells in both male and female gonads...
November 25, 2016: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879029/progesterone-receptor-and-prostaglandins-mediate-luteinizing-hormone-induced-changes-in-messenger-rnas-for-adamts-proteases-in-theca-cells-of-bovine-periovulatory-follicles
#4
E L Willis, P J Bridges, J E Fortune
Little is known about the ADAMTS (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs) family of extracellular proteases in ovarian follicles of non-rodent species, particularly in theca cells. In the present study, temporal patterns of change in mRNA for four ADAMTS subtypes and the hormonal transcriptional regulation of two subtypes were investigated in theca cells during the periovulatory period in cattle. Follicles were obtained at 0 h post-gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH; preovulatory) or at 6, 12, 18, or 24 h after injection of GnRH (periovulatory) to induce a luteinizing hormone (LH)/follicle-stimulating hormone surge...
November 23, 2016: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872196/induction-of-ectonucleotide-pyrophosphatase-phosphodiesterase-3-during-the-periovulatory-period-in-the-rat-ovary
#5
Fei-Xue Li, Jiao-Jiao Yu, Ying Liu, Xiao-Ping Miao, Thomas E Curry
Ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase 3 (Enpp3) is involved in multiple physiological processes, such as morphological changes and inflammatory processes. The present study investigated the spatiotemporal expression pattern and regulatory mechanisms controlling expression of Enpp3 in the rat ovary during the periovulatory period. Immature female rats were injected with pregnant mare serum gonadotropin to stimulate follicular development. Ovaries, granulosa cells, or theca-interstitial cells were collected at various times after human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) administration...
November 20, 2016: Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842549/acth-induced-stress-in-weaned-sows-impairs-lh-receptor-expression-and-steroidogenesis-capacity-in-the-ovary
#6
H S Zhu, Z Qian, H L Liu, E D Bao
BACKGROUND: Stress has been proved to impair the porcine reproduction soundly. Endocrine disruption, which is closely related to the persistent follicles, is possibly one of the results of stress, although the mechanism is unclear. Since the expression of luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR) in ovarian follicular wall and concentrations of steroid hormone in follicular fluid are related to the development of persistent follicles, this study is designed to evaluate the effect of administered adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) to weaned pigs on their ovarian steroidogenesis capacity and LHR expression...
November 14, 2016: Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology: RB&E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821561/the-ovarian-renin-angiotensin-system-ovras-a-major-factor-in-ovarian-function-and-disease
#7
Angela Palumbo, Julio Ávila, Frederick Naftolin
This contribution summarizes the pivotal role of the ovarian renin-angiotensin system (OVRAS) in ovarian physiology and disease, with particular emphasis on human clinical implications and established translational applications. The presence of a complete OVRAS in all studied species has been known for decades. The OVRAS has major effects on follicle development/atresia and ovulation and steroid hormone secretion, that is, it is necessary for normal reproduction. It is well established that OVRAS activity is regulated by gonadotropins and depends on activation of proteases in the area of growing follicles...
December 2016: Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816766/fibroblast-growth-factor-9-fgf9-regulation-of-cyclin-d1-and-cyclin-dependent-kinase-4-in-ovarian-granulosa-and-theca-cells-of-cattle
#8
M L Totty, B C Morrell, L J Spicer
To determine the mechanism by which fibroblast growth factor 9 (FGF9) alters granulosa (GC) and theca (TC) cell proliferation, cell cycle proteins that regulate progression through G1 phase of the cell cycle, cyclin D1 (CCND1) and cyclin-dependent kinase-4 (CDK4; CCND1's catalytic partner), were evaluated. Ovaries were obtained from a local abattoir, GC were harvested from small (1-5 mm) and large (8-22 mm) follicles, and TC were harvested from large follicles. GC and TC were plated in medium containing 10% fetal calf serum followed by various treatments in serum-free medium...
November 3, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27813674/induction-of-tissue-factor-pathway-inhibitor-2-by-hcg-regulates-periovulatory-gene-expression-and-plasmin-activity
#9
Muraly Puttabyatappa, Linah F Al-Alem, Farnosh Zakerkish, Katherine L Rosewell, Mats Brännström, Thomas E Curry
A key event during the process of ovulation is an increased proteolytic activity that aids in breakdown of the follicular wall to permit oocyte release. How the activity of these proteases is regulated is still not known. We hypothesize that Tissue Factor Pathway Inhibitor 2 (TFPI2), a matrix-associated Kunitz-type serine protease inhibitor, plays a role in regulating proteolytic activity during the periovulatory period as in other tissues. TFPI2 is secreted into the extracellular matrix (ECM) where it is postulated to regulate physiological ECM remodeling...
November 4, 2016: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797914/oocyte-somatic-cell-interactions-in-the-human-ovary-novel-role-of-bone-morphogenetic-proteins-and-growth-differentiation-factors
#10
REVIEW
Hsun-Ming Chang, Jie Qiao, Peter C K Leung
BACKGROUND: Initially identified for their capability to induce heterotopic bone formation, bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are multifunctional growth factors that belong to the transforming growth factor β superfamily. Using cellular and molecular genetic approaches, recent studies have implicated intra-ovarian BMPs as potent regulators of ovarian follicular function. The bi-directional communication of oocytes and the surrounding somatic cells is mandatory for normal follicle development and oocyte maturation...
October 26, 2016: Human Reproduction Update
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777478/clinical-and-radiological-correlations-in-patients-with-gestational-trophoblastic-disease
#11
Lana de Lourdes Aguiar Lima, Raphael Câmara Medeiros Parente, Izildinha Maestá, Joffre Amim Junior, Jorge Fonte de Rezende Filho, Carlos Antonio Barbosa Montenegro, Antônio Braga
Gestational trophoblastic disease is an abnormality of pregnancy that encompasses a group of diseases that differ from each other in their propensity for regression, invasion, metastasis, and recurrence. In the past, it was common for patients with molar pregnancy to present with marked symptoms: copious bleeding; theca lutein cysts; uterus larger than appropriate for gestational age; early preeclampsia; hyperemesis gravidarum; and hyperthyroidism. Currently, with early diagnosis made by ultrasound, most patients are diagnosed while the disease is still in the asymptomatic phase...
July 2016: Radiologia Brasileira
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27775603/zinc-finger-and-x-linked-factor-zfx-binds-to-human-set-transcript-2-promoter-and-transactivates-set-expression
#12
Siliang Xu, Ping Duan, Jinping Li, Tristan Senkowski, Fengbiao Guo, Haibin Chen, Alberto Romero, Yugui Cui, Jiayin Liu, Shi-Wen Jiang
SET (SE Translocation) protein carries out multiple functions including those for protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) inhibition, histone modification, DNA repair, and gene regulation. SET overexpression has been detected in brain neurons of patients suffering Alzheimer's disease, follicle theca cells of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) patients, and ovarian cancer cells, indicating that SET may play a pathological role for these disorders. SET transcript 2, produced by a specific promoter, represents a major transcript variant in different cell types...
October 20, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27769286/relationship-between-advanced-glycation-end-products-and-steroidogenesis-in-pcos
#13
Deepika Garg, Zaher Merhi
BACKGROUND: Women with PCOS have elevated levels of the harmful Advanced Glycation End Products (AGEs), which are highly reactive molecules formed after glycation of lipids and proteins. Additionally, AGEs accumulate in the ovaries of women with PCOS potentially contributing to the well-documented abnormal steroidogenesis and folliculogenesis. MAIN BODY: A systematic review of articles and abstracts available in PubMed was conducted and presented in a systemic manner...
October 21, 2016: Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology: RB&E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27763207/potential-use-of-anti-apoptotic-proteins-and-non-coding-rnas-in-in-vitro-follicular-growth-and-ovarian-tissue-engineering
#14
Yoon Kim, Amin Tamadon, Seung-Yup Ku
In vitro culture of ovarian follicles is a promising bioengineering technique for preserving fecundity in reproductive age female by providing fertilizable oocytes. Successful clinical application should be preceded by developing the protocols that can efficiently overcome follicular cell apoptosis since the apoptosis is a critical phenomenon in in vivo folliculogenesis and in in vitro follicular maturation. Numerous pro-survival and anti-apoptotic molecules including follicular developmental regulators have been reported to be involved in the intra-ovarian apoptosis...
October 20, 2016: Tissue Engineering. Part B, Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760586/effects-of-angiogenin-on-granulosa-and-theca-cell-function-in-cattle
#15
J L Dentis, N B Schreiber, A M Burress, L J Spicer
Angiogenin is a member of the ribonuclease A superfamily of proteins that has been implicated in stimulating angiogenesis but whether angiogenin can directly affect ovarian granulosa or theca cell function is unknown. Therefore, the objective of these studies was to determine the effect of angiogenin on proliferation and steroidogenesis of bovine granulosa and theca cells. In experiments 1 and 2, granulosa cells from small (1 to 5 mm diameter) follicles and theca cells from large (8 to 22 mm diameter) follicles were cultured to evaluate the dose-response effect of recombinant human angiogenin on steroidogenesis...
October 20, 2016: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27756855/inhibin-b-secretion-and-fsh-isoform-distribution-may-play-an-integral-part-of-follicular-selection-in-the-natural-menstrual-cycle
#16
REVIEW
C Yding Andersen
The aim of the present paper is to expand the concept on how follicular selection takes place in the follicular phase of the natural menstrual cycle. It is suggested that inhibin-B exerts a more intimate role in this process than previously understood. Inhibin-B shows a peak in the circulation around cycle day 7, simultaneous with selection of the dominant follicle, whereas levels of estradiol and inhibin-A only start to increase a few days later suggesting that inhibin-B is mainly responsible for downregulating pituitary FSH release...
October 18, 2016: Molecular Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27754722/effects-of-resveratrol-on-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-a-double-blind-randomized-placebo-controlled-trial
#17
Beata Banaszewska, Joanna Wrotyńska-Barczyńska, Robert Z Spaczynski, Leszek Pawelczyk, Antoni J Duleba
CONTEXT: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrinopathy affecting women of reproductive age. Hyperandrogenism is the central feature of PCOS. Studies on isolated ovarian theca-interstitial cells suggest that resveratrol, a natural polyphenol, reduces androgen production. OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to evaluate endocrine and metabolic effects of resveratrol on PCOS. DESIGN AND SETTING: This was a randomized (1:1) double-blind, placebo-controlled trial that evaluated the effects of resveratrol over a period of 3 months in an academic hospital...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27746409/an-immortalized-steroidogenic-goat-granulosa-cell-line-as-a-model-system-to-study-the-effect-of-the-endoplasmic-reticulum-er-stress-response-on-steroidogenesis
#18
Diqi Yang, Lei Wang, Pengfei Lin, Tingting Jiang, Nan Wang, Fan Zhao, Huatao Chen, Keqiong Tang, Dong Zhou, Aihua Wang, Yaping Jin
With granulosa and theca cells, the ovaries are responsible for producing oocytes and secreting sex steroids such as estrogen and progesterone. Endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) plays an important role in follicle atresia and embryo implantation. In this study, goat granulosa cells were isolated from medium-sized (4-6 mm) healthy follicles. Primary granulosa cells were immortalized by transfection with human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) to establish a goat granulosa cell line (hTERT-GGCs). These hTERT-GGCs expressed hTERT and had relatively long telomeres at passage 50...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27720425/sperm-head-shaping-in-ratites-new-insights-yet-more-questions
#19
Lizette du Plessis, John T Soley
Head shaping in mammalian sperm is regulated by a number of factors including acrosome formation, nuclear condensation and the action of the microtubular manchette. A role has also been suggested for the attendant Sertoli cells and the perinuclear theca (PT). In comparison, relatively little information is available on this topic in birds and the presence of a PT per se has not been described in this vertebrate order. This study revealed that a similar combination of factors contributed to head shaping in the ostrich, emu and rhea, although the Sertoli cells seem to play a limited role in ratites...
September 28, 2016: Tissue & Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27716808/bovine-lhx8-a-germ-cell-specific-nuclear-factor-interacts-with-figla
#20
Liyuan Fu, Mingxiang Zhang, Kristen Mastrantoni, Mark Perfetto, Shuo Wei, Jianbo Yao
LIM homeobox 8 (Lhx8) is a germ cell-specific transcription factor essential for the development of oocytes during early oogenesis. In mice, Lhx8 deficiency causes postnatal oocyte loss and affects the expression of many oocyte-specific genes. The aims of this study were to characterize the bovine Lhx8 gene, determine its mRNA expression during oocyte development and early embryogenesis, and evaluate its interactions with other oocyte-specific transcription factors. The bovine Lhx8 gene encodes a protein of 377 amino acids...
2016: PloS One
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