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Gross Motor Development

Andrew Miller, Narelle Eather, Mitch Duncan, David Revalds Lubans
This study investigated if object control relates to children's game play competence, and examined these competencies as correlates of physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness. Game play (Game Performance Assessment Instrument), object control (The Test Gross Motor Development-3), moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (Accelerometry), and cardiorespiratory fitness (20-metre shuttle) assessments were completed for 107 children (57% Female, 43% Male) aged 9-12 years (M 10.53, SD 0.65). Two-level regression of object control on game play competence, and object control and game play competence on physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness assessed associations...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Sports Sciences
Orlagh Farmer, Sarahjane Belton, Wesley O'Brien
This study examines the relationship between actual fundamental motor skill (FMS) proficiency, perceived motor confidence and competence, and physical activity (PA) among female children ( n = 160; mean age = 10.69 ± 1.40 years). The Test of Gross Motor Development-2nd Edition (TGMD-2) was used to assess seven FMSs (locomotor, object-control, and stability). Motor confidence and competence were assessed using a valid skill-specific scale, and a modified version of the Self-Perception Profile for Children. PA levels were assessed using self-report (PA Questionnaire for Older Children (PAQ-C)) and classified as low, moderate, and high active...
September 27, 2017: Sports (Basel)
Jeff R Crane, John T Foley, Patti-Jean Naylor, Viviene A Temple
As children transition from early to middle childhood, the relationship between motor skill proficiency and perceptions of physical competence should strengthen as skills improve and inflated early childhood perceptions decrease. This study examined change in motor skills and perceptions of physical competence and the relationship between those variables from kindergarten to grade 2. Participants were 250 boys and girls (Mean age = 5 years 8 months in kindergarten). Motor skills were assessed using the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 and perceptions were assessed using a pictorial scale of perceived competence...
August 10, 2017: Sports (Basel)
Leah E Robinson, Kara K Palmer
Assessing children's perceptions of their movement abilities (i.e., perceived competence) is traditionally done using picture scales-Pictorial Scale of Perceived Competence and Acceptance for Young Children or Pictorial Scale of Perceived Movement Skill Competence. Pictures fail to capture the temporal components of movement. To address this limitation, we created a digital-based instrument to assess perceived motor competence: the Digital Scale of Perceived Motor Competence. The purpose of this study was to determine the validity, reliability, and internal consistency of the Digital-based Scale of Perceived Motor Skill Competence...
July 4, 2017: Sports (Basel)
Ayako Senju, Masayuki Shimono, Mayumi Tsuji, Reiko Suga, Eiji Shibata, Yoshihisa Fujino, Toshihiro Kawamoto, Koichi Kusuhara
BACKGROUND: During routine health screenings, pediatricians may note that some infants cannot maintain the prone position with an extended arm support at 6 months. However, little is known regarding the development of full-term infants with this developmental deviation. We investigated the developmental course of infants exhibiting this characteristic. METHODS: We included 2020 full-term infants from a regional center for the Japan Environment and Children's Study...
June 14, 2018: Pediatrics International: Official Journal of the Japan Pediatric Society
Fares Ould-Brahim, Sailendra Nath Sarma, Charvi Syal, Kevin Jiaqi Lu, Matthew Seegobin, Anthony Carter, Matthew S Jeffers, Carole Doré, William Stanford, Dale Corbett, Jing Wang
While transplantation of hiPSC-derived neural stem cells (hiPSC-NSCs) shows therapeutic potential in animal stroke models, major concerns for translating hiPSC therapy to the clinic are efficacy and safety. Therefore, there is a demand to develop an optimal strategy to enhance the engraftment and regenerative capacity of transplanted hiPSC-NSCs in order to produce fully differentiated neural cells to replace lost brain tissues. Metformin, an FDA approved drug, is an optimal neuroregenerative agent that not only promotes NSC proliferation but also drives NSC towards differentiation...
June 12, 2018: Stem Cells and Development
Eszter Vojcek, Márta Csécsei, Edina Flach, Gábor Rudas, Rózsa Gráf, Erzsébet Princzkel
Background and purpose: We aimed to analyze patient characteristics of term neonates with the diagnosis of stroke between 2006 and 2017 at the 3rd level Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of the Szent János Hospital. Methods: We conducted a retrospective and prospective analysis including 18 newborns with stroke. Presentation, imaging methods, etiology and clinical context were discussed. All patients had a follow-up at 2 years of age or later. Subject of the study - In the past 10 years 17 term born and one premature neonate born at 36 weeks of age were diagnosed with stroke in our unit...
March 30, 2018: Ideggyógyászati Szemle
Jon R Davids
Optimal clinical decision making and surgical management of hip dysplasia in children with cerebral palsy (CP) requires an understanding of the underlying pathophysiology (pathomechanics and pathoanatomy), incidence, and natural history. The incidence of hip dysplasia in children with CP is directly related to the degree of motor impairment. A subluxated or dislocated hip in a child with CP can compromise the quality of life for both the child and their caregivers. The goal of this article is to highlight the events over the last 25 years that have had the greatest impact on the management of hip dysplasia in children with CP...
July 2018: Journal of Pediatric Orthopedics
Hongmei Song, Uilki Tufa, Jonathan Chow, Nila Sivanenthiran, Chloe Cheng, Stellar Lim, Chiping Wu, Jiachun Feng, James H Eubanks, Liang Zhang
Epilepsy is a common neurological disorder characterized by naturally-occurring spontaneous recurrent seizures and comorbidities. Kindling has long been used to model epileptogenic mechanisms and to assess antiepileptic drugs. In particular, extended kindling can induce spontaneous recurrent seizures without gross brain lesions, as seen clinically. To date, the development of spontaneous recurrent seizures following extended kindling, and the effect of the antiepileptic drugs on these seizures are not well understood...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
D L Freitas, B Lausen, J A Maia, É R Gouveia, A M Antunes, M Thomis, J Lefevre, R M Malina
Relationships among skeletal age (SA), body size and fundamental motor skills (FMS) and motor performance were considered in 155 boys and 159 girls 3-6 years of age. Stature and body mass were measured. SA of the hand-wrist was assessed with the Tanner-Whitehouse II 20 bone method. The Test of Gross Motor Development, 2nd edition (TGMD-2) and the Preschool Test Battery were used, respectively, to assess FMS and motor performance. Based on hierarchical regression analyses, the standardized residuals of SA on chronological age (SAsr) explained a maximum of 6...
June 1, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
W G van Kernebeek, M L A de Kroon, G J P Savelsbergh, H M Toussaint
Adequate gross motor skills are an essential aspect of a child's healthy development. Where physical education (PE) is part of the primary school curriculum, a strong curriculum-based emphasis on evaluation and support of motor skill development in PE is apparent. Monitoring motor development is then a task for the PE teacher. In order to fulfil this task, teachers need adequate tools. The 4-Skills Scan is a quick and easily manageable gross motor skill instrument; however, its validity has never been assessed...
June 1, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
Tonie Owens, Christopher Tapley
Due to improvements in biomedical sciences and clinical expertise, childhood mortality has decreased. Pediatric patients experience similar complications from inactivity as adults, such as hospital-acquired conditions and delirium. Interdisciplinary collaboration is imperative to improve functional and developmental outcomes of children who suffers from either a chronic illnesses or an acute illness that results in a prolonged hospitalization. Pediatric nursing assessments should include gross motor function related to mobility...
July 2018: Critical Care Nursing Quarterly
Helen Mebrahtu, Victoria Simms, Rudo Chingono, Zivai Mupambireyi, Helen A Weiss, Patience Ndlovu, Ricky Malaba, Frances M Cowan, Lorraine Sherr
This study examines the cognitive profiles of infants born to HIV positive mothers in Zimbabwe. Caregivers with HIV exposed infants delivered in 30 clinics in two areas of Zimbabwe were recruited to the study. Of the 574 study participants, 562 caregiver-infant dyads with a biological HIV +ve mother and infant aged 0-24 months were interviewed. All infants were tested by a trained administrator for cognitive development on the Mullen Scales of Early Learning (MSEL). The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale and Parental Stress Index-Short Form were completed by the mothers together with infant and caregiver socioeconomic characteristics...
May 30, 2018: AIDS Care
Daniele Magistro, Giovanni Piumatti, Fabio Carlevaro, Lauren B Sherar, Dale W Esliger, Giulia Bardaglio, Francesca Magno, Massimiliano Zecca, Giovanni Musella
This study evaluated whether the Test of Gross Motor Development 3 (TGMD-3) is a reliable tool to compare children with and without mental and behavioral disorders across gross motor skill domains. A total of 1,075 children (aged 3-11 years), 98 with mental and behavioral disorders and 977 without (typically developing), were included in the analyses. The TGMD-3 evaluates fundamental gross motor skills of children across two domains: locomotor skills and ball skills. Two independent testers simultaneously observed children's performances (agreement over 95%)...
May 24, 2018: Psychological Assessment
Sanne L C Veldman, Rachel A Jones, Rute Santos, Eduarda Sousa-Sá, Anthony D Okely
OBJECTIVES: Gross motor skills (GMS) are a vital component of a child's development. Monitoring levels and correlates of GMS is important to ensure appropriate strategies are put in place to promote these skills in young children. The aim of this study was to describe the current level of GMS development of children aged 11-29months and how these levels differ by age, sex, BMI and socio-economic status. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. METHODS: This study involved children from 30 childcare services in NSW, Australia...
May 19, 2018: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
Juan Bornman, MaryAnn Romski, Kerstin Tonsing, Rose Sevcik, Robyn White, Andrea Barton-Hulsey, Refilwe Morwane
BACKGROUND:  South African speech-language therapists have identified the need for culturally valid and sensitive assessment tools that can accommodate multiple languages and cover a reasonable age range. The Mullen Scales of Early Learning (MSEL) extend from birth to 68 months, contain five separate subscales including receptive language, expressive language, gross motor, fine motor and visual reception scale, are straightforward to administer and have been successfully used in other African countries, such as Uganda...
March 8, 2018: South African Journal of Communication Disorders. die Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Kommunikasieafwykings
Regina T Harbourne, Stacey C Dusing, Michele A Lobo, Sarah Westcott-McCoy, James Bovaird, Susan Sheridan, James C Galloway, Hui-Ju Chang, Lin-Ya Hsu, Natalie Koziol, Emily C Marcinowski, Iryna Babik
Background: There is limited research examining the efficacy of early physical therapy on infants with neuromotor dysfunction. In addition, most early motor interventions have not been directly linked to learning, despite the clear association between motor activity and cognition during infancy. Objective: The aim of this project is to evaluate the efficacy of Sitting Together And Reaching To Play (START-Play), an intervention designed to target sitting, reaching, and motor-based problem solving to advance global development in infants with motor delays or neuromotor dysfunction...
June 1, 2018: Physical Therapy
Yeo Reum Choe, Joo Sup Kim, Kee Hoon Kim, Tae Im Yi
Objective: To investigate the relationship between functional level and muscle thickness (MT) of the rectus femoris (RF) and the gastrocnemius (GCM) in young children with cerebral palsy (CP). Methods: The study participants were comprised of 26 children (50 legs) with spastic CP, aged 3-6 years, and 25 age-matched children with typical development (TD, 50 legs). The MT of the RF, medial GCM, and lateral GCM was measured with ultrasound imaging. The functional level was evaluated using the Gross Motor Function Measurement-88 (GMFM-88), Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS), and based on the mobility area of the Korean version of the Modified Barthel Index (K-MBI)...
April 2018: Annals of Rehabilitation Medicine
Thanda Aye, Tsugumi Kuramoto-Ahuja, Tamae Sato, Kaori Sadakiyo, Miyoko Watanabe, Hitoshi Maruyama
[Purpose] The purposes of this study were to assess and explore the gender-based differences in gross motor skill development of 5-year-old Japanese children. [Subjects and Methods] This cross-sectional study recruited 60 healthy 5-year-old (third-year kindergarten, i.e., nencho ) children (34 boys, 26 girls) from one local private kindergarten school in Otawara city, Tochigi Prefecture, Japan. Gross motor skills, including six locomotor and six object control skills, were assessed using the test of gross motor development, second edition (TGMD-2)...
May 2018: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
Dawn Phillips, Beth Leiro
Pediatric rare diseases present unique challenges in clinical trial design and in selection of clinical outcome assessments (COAs) used to support claims in medical product labeling. COAs that discriminate level of function relative to a normative sample are particularly important in the pediatric rare disease setting because the literature is often void of natural history data. Pediatric rare disease clinical trials will often include a wide age distribution. Gross and fine motor skills, communication, cognition, and independence in activities of daily living vary by age, and it may be difficult to distinguish between treatment effect and change due to developmental maturation...
May 2018: Value in Health: the Journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research
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