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Sanne L C Veldman, Rachel A Jones, Rute Santos, Eduarda Sousa-Sá, João R Pereira, Zhiguang Zhang, Anthony D Okely
OBJECTIVES: Physical activity can be promoted by high levels of gross motor skills. A systematic review found a positive relationship in children (3-18 years) but only few studies examined this in younger children. The aim of this study was to examine the association between gross motor skills and physical activity in children aged 11-29 months. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. METHODS: This study involved 284 children from 30 childcare services in NSW, Australia (Mean age=19...
December 20, 2017: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
Denise C C Santos, Rosa M Angulo-Barroso, Ming Li, Yang Bian, Julie Sturza, Blair Richards, Betsy Lozoff
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Poorer motor development is reported in infants with iron deficiency (ID). The role of timing, duration and severity is unclear. We assessed relations between ID timing, duration, and severity and gross motor scores, neurological integrity, and motor behavior quality at 9 months. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Iron status was determined at birth and 9 months in otherwise healthy term Chinese infants. The 9-month motor evaluation included the Peabody Developmental Motor Scale (PDMS-2), Infant Neurological International Battery (INFANIB), and motor quality factor...
November 6, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Monica K Silver, Jie Shao, Binquan Zhu, Minjian Chen, Yankai Xia, Niko Kaciroti, Betsy Lozoff, John D Meeker
BACKGROUND: Organophosphate insecticides (OPs) are used worldwide, yet despite nearly ubiquitous exposure in the general population, few have been studied outside the laboratory. Fetal brains undergo rapid growth and development, leaving them susceptible to long-term effects of neurotoxic OPs. The objective here was to investigate the extent to which prenatal exposure to OPs affects infant motor development. METHODS: 30 OPs were measured in umbilical cord blood using gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry in a cohort of Chinese infants...
September 2017: Environment International
Anuprita Kanitkar, Tony Szturm, Sanjay Parmar, Dorcas Bc Gandhi, Gina Ruth Rempel, Gayle Restall, Monika Sharma, Amitesh Narayan, Jeyaraj Pandian, Nilashri Naik, Ravi R Savadatti, Mahesh Appasaheb Kamate
BACKGROUND: It is difficult to engage young children with cerebral palsy (CP) in repetitive, tedious therapy. As such, there is a need for innovative approaches and tools to motivate these children. We developed the low-cost, computer game-based rehabilitation platform CGR that combines fine manipulation and gross movement exercises with attention and planning game activities appropriate for young children with CP. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to provide evidence of the therapeutic value of CGR to improve upper extremity (UE) motor function for children with CP...
May 18, 2017: JMIR Research Protocols
Junbeom Kim, Heseong An, Yoojin Seo, Youngmee Jung, Jong Suk Lee, Nakwon Choi, Ki Wan Bong
Flow Lithography (FL) is the technique used for the synthesis of hydrogel microparticles with various complex shapes and distinct chemical compositions by combining microfluidics with photolithography. Although polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) has been used most widely as almost the sole material for FL, PDMS microfluidic chips have limitations: (1) undesired shrinkage due to the thermal expansion of masters used for replica molding and (2) interfacial delamination between two thermally cured PDMS layers. Here, we propose the utilization of ultraviolet (UV)-curable PDMS (X-34-4184) for FL as an excellent alternative material of the conventional PDMS...
March 2017: Biomicrofluidics
Giulia Piallini, Stefania Brunoro, Chiara Fenocchio, Costanza Marini, Alessandra Simonelli, Marina Biancotto, Stefania Zoia
An unavoidable reciprocal influence characterizes the mother-child dyad. Within this relationship, the presence of depression, somatization, hostility, paranoid ideation, and interpersonal sensitivity symptoms at a subclinical level and their possible input on infant motor competences has not been yet considered. Bearing in mind that motor abilities represent not only an indicator of the infant's health-status, but also the principal field to infer his/her needs, feelings and intentions, in this study the quality of infants' movements were assessed and analyzed in relationship with the maternal attitudes...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Catherine Morgan, Iona Novak, Russell C Dale, Andrea Guzzetta, Nadia Badawi
BACKGROUND: Cerebral palsy (CP) is caused by a lesion in the developing infant brain. Recent neuroplasticity literature suggests that intensive, task-specific intervention ought to commence early, during the critical period of neural development. AIMS: To determine whether "GAME" (Goals - Activity - Motor Enrichment), a motor learning, environmental enrichment intervention, is effective for improving motor skills in infants at high risk of CP. METHODS AND PROCEDURES: Single blind randomised controlled trial of GAME versus standard care...
August 2016: Research in Developmental Disabilities
Hsieh-ching Chen, Lin-ju Kang, Chia-ling Chen, Keh-chung Lin, Fei-chuan Chen, Katie P H Wu
AIMS: To examine the differences in efficacy of home-based constraint-induced therapy (CIT) on functional outcomes and motor control in two age groups of children with cerebral palsy (CP). METHODS: Twenty-three children with spastic unilateral CP receiving 4-week home-based CIT by a therapist were divided into younger (6-8 years; n = 11) and older (9-12 years; n = 12) groups. The home-based CIT involved intensive functional training of the more affected upper-limb while restraining the less affected upper-limb...
2016: Physical & Occupational Therapy in Pediatrics
Alexandra De Kegel, Leen Maes, Ingeborg Dhooge, Helen van Hoecke, Els De Leenheer, Hilde Van Waelvelde
BACKGROUND: Congenital cytomegalovirus (cCMV) infection is the most important etiology of non-hereditary childhood hearing loss and an important cause of neurodevelopmental delay. The current study aimed to investigate the early motor development of symptomatic and asymptomatic cCMV infected children with and without sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL). METHODS: Sixty-four children with a cCMV infection, without cerebral palsy, were compared to a control group of 107 normal hearing children...
January 2016: Research in Developmental Disabilities
Heun Park, Yu Ra Jeong, Junyeong Yun, Soo Yeong Hong, Sangwoo Jin, Seung-Jung Lee, Goangseup Zi, Jeong Sook Ha
We report on the facile fabrication of a stretchable array of highly sensitive pressure sensors. The proposed pressure sensor consists of the top layer of Au-deposited polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) micropillars and the bottom layer of conductive polyaniline nanofibers on a polyethylene terephthalate substrate. The sensors are operated by the changes in contact resistance between Au-coated micropillars and polyaniline according to the varying pressure. The fabricated pressure sensor exhibits a sensitivity of 2...
October 27, 2015: ACS Nano
Heh-Young Moon, Mehra S Sidhu, Heung Soon Lee, Sae Chae Jeoung
We have investigated the effect of the dynamics of crater size on the poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) surface morphology in fs-laser micro-processing. PDMS surface was processed with varying both inter-pulse interval and inter-spot distance between successive laser pulses. With keeping the interval of 5 ms crater shape is round even if the spot is overlapped in space. But decreasing the interval to 0.02 ms the shape of the crater is no longer round. Decreasing the inter-distance between the craters results in roughened surface morphology even at time intervals of 5 ms...
July 27, 2015: Optics Express
Christian Pick, Christopher Argento, German Drazer, Joelle Frechette
Aminosilanes are routinely employed for charge reversal or to create coupling layers on oxide surfaces. We present a chemical vapor deposition method to pattern mica surfaces with regions of high-quality aminosilane (3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane, APTES) monolayers. The approach relies on the vapor deposition of an aminosilane through a patterned array of through-holes in a PDMS (poly(dimethylsiloxane)) membrane that acts as a mask. In aqueous solutions the surfaces have regular patterns of charge heterogeneities with minimal topographical variations over large areas...
October 6, 2015: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Masataka Saito, Osamu Nakabeppu
Bio-chemical calorimeters with a MEMS (Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems) thermopile sensor have been studied for monitoring detailed processes of the biochemical reactions of a minute sample with a high temporal resolution. The bio-calorimeters are generally divided into a batch-type and a flow-type. We developed a highly sensitive batch-type calorimeter which can detect a 100 nW level thermal reaction. However it shows a long settling time of 2 hours because of the heat capacity of a whole calorimeter. Thus, the flow-type calorimeters in passive and active mode have been studied for measuring the thermal reactions in an early stage after starting an analysis...
April 2015: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Qingyi Xie, Chunfeng Ma, Chao Liu, Jielin Ma, Guangzhao Zhang
Marine biofouling is a problem for marine industry and maritime activities. We have prepared polyurethane with poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) main chains and N-(2,4,6-trichlorophenyl) maleimide (TCM) pendant groups via a combination of a thiol-ene click reaction and a condensation reaction and studied its properties. The polymer has low surface energy and a high water contact angle. When TCM content in bulk is high enough, sufficient antifoulant groups can be exposed on the surface. Our study reveals that such polymeric surface can effectively inhibit the adhesion and colonization of marine organisms such as bacteria (Micrococcus luteus), diatom Navicula, and barnacle cyprids...
September 30, 2015: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Lena A Lautscham, Christoph Kämmerer, Janina R Lange, Thorsten Kolb, Christoph Mark, Achim Schilling, Pamela L Strissel, Reiner Strick, Caroline Gluth, Amy C Rowat, Claus Metzner, Ben Fabry
In cancer metastasis and other physiological processes, cells migrate through the three-dimensional (3D) extracellular matrix of connective tissue and must overcome the steric hindrance posed by pores that are smaller than the cells. It is currently assumed that low cell stiffness promotes cell migration through confined spaces, but other factors such as adhesion and traction forces may be equally important. To study 3D migration under confinement in a stiff (1.77 MPa) environment, we use soft lithography to fabricate polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) devices consisting of linear channel segments with 20 μm length, 3...
September 1, 2015: Biophysical Journal
Martin Zens, Philipp Niemeyer, Anke Bernstein, Matthias J Feucht, Jan Kühle, Norbert P Südkamp, Peter Woias, Herrmann O Mayr
PURPOSE: Knee joint laxities are observed in patients after severe trauma to the joint, resulting in ligament tears. Specifically, injuries to the anterior cruciate ligament may cause a significant instability. The degree of these laxities is essential in diagnostics and may affect which treatment option is suggested. METHODS: Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) strain gauges are proposed as a non-invasive, highly accurate and easy-to-use measurement method to quantify anterolateral and rotational laxities of the knee joint during active and passive motion...
October 2015: Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy: Official Journal of the ESSKA
João M Leça, Ana C Pereira, Ana C Vieira, Marco S Reis, José C Marques
Vicinal diketones, namely diacetyl (DC) and pentanedione (PN), are compounds naturally found in beer that play a key role in the definition of its aroma. In lager beer, they are responsible for off-flavors (buttery flavor) and therefore their presence and quantification is of paramount importance to beer producers. Aiming at developing an accurate quantitative monitoring scheme to follow these off-flavor compounds during beer production and in the final product, the head space solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) analytical procedure was tuned through experiments planned in an optimal way and the final settings were fully validated...
August 5, 2015: Analytica Chimica Acta
Diru Ye, Susu Wu, Jianqiao Xu, Ruifen Jiang, Fang Zhu, Gangfeng Ouyang
Direct immersion solid-phase microextraction (DI-SPME) coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was developed for rapid analysis of clenbuterol in pork for the first time. In this work, a low-cost homemade 44 µm polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) SPME fiber was employed to extract clenbuterol in pork. After extraction, derivatization was performed by suspending the fiber in the headspace of the 2 mL sample vial saturated with a vapor of 100 µL hexamethyldisilazane. Lastly, the fiber was directly introduced to GC-MS for analysis...
February 2016: Journal of Chromatographic Science
Wenjin Xiao, Guillaume Perry, Kikuo Komori, Yasuyuki Sakai
To develop an in vitro liver tissue equivalent, hepatocytes should be cocultured with liver non-parenchymal cells to mimic the in vivo physiological microenvironments. In this work, we describe a physiologically-relevant liver tissue model by hierarchically organizing layers of primary rat hepatocytes and human liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (TMNK-1) on an oxygen-permeable polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) membrane, which facilitates direct oxygenation by diffusion through the membrane. This in vivo-mimicking hierarchical coculture was obtained by simply proceeding the overlay of TMNK-1 cells on the hepatocyte layer re-formed on the collagen immobilized PDMS membranes...
November 2015: Integrative Biology: Quantitative Biosciences From Nano to Macro
Bhaskar Dudem, Yeong Hwan Ko, Jung Woo Leem, Soo Hyun Lee, Jae Su Yu
Highly transparent and flexible triboelectric nanogenerators (TENGs) were fabricated using the subwavelength-architectured (SWA) polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) with a nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) template as a replica mold. The SWA PDMS could be utilized as a multifunctional film for a triboelectric layer, an antireflection coating, and a self-cleaning surface. The nanopore arrays of AAO were formed by a simple, fast, and cost-effective electrochemical oxidation process of aluminum, which is relatively impressive for fabrication of the TENG device...
September 23, 2015: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
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