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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353280/microstructure-of-strategic-white-matter-tracts-and-cognition-in-memory-clinic-patients-with-vascular-brain-injury
#1
J Matthijs Biesbroek, Alexander Leemans, Hanna den Bakker, Marco Duering, Benno Gesierich, Huiberdina L Koek, Esther van den Berg, Albert Postma, Geert Jan Biessels
BACKGROUND: White matter injury is an important factor for cognitive impairment in memory clinic patients. We determined the added value of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) of strategic white matter tracts in explaining variance in cognition in memory clinic patients with vascular brain injury. METHODS: We included 159 patients. Conventional MRI markers (white matter hyperintensity volume, lacunes, nonlacunar infarcts, brain atrophy, and microbleeds), and fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity (MD) of the whole brain white matter and of 18 white matter tracts were related to cognition using linear regression and Bayesian network analysis...
January 19, 2018: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353241/inhibition-of-endothelial-notch-signaling-impairs-fatty-acid-transport-and-leads-to-metabolic-and-vascular-remodeling-of-the-adult-heart
#2
Markus Jabs, Adam J Rose, Lorenz H Lehmann, Jacqueline Taylor, Iris Moll, Tjeerd P Sijmonsma, Stefanie E Herberich, Sven W Sauer, Gernot Poschet, Giuseppina Federico, Carolin Mogler, Eva-Maria Weis, Hellmut G Augustin, Minhong Yan, Norbert Gretz, Roland M Schmid, Ralf H Adams, Hermann-Joseph Gröne, Rüdiger Hell, Jürgen G Okun, Johannes Backs, Peter P Nawroth, Stephan Herzig, Andreas Fischer
Background -Nutrients are transported through endothelial cells before being metabolized in muscle cells. However, little is known about the regulation of endothelial transport processes. Notch signaling is a critical regulator of metabolism and angiogenesis during development. Here, we studied how genetic and pharmacological manipulation of endothelial Notch signaling in adult mice affects endothelial fatty acid transport, cardiac angiogenesis, and heart function. Methods -Endothelial-specific Notch inhibition was achieved by conditional genetic inactivation of Rbp-jκ in adult mice to analyze fatty acid metabolism and heart function...
January 20, 2018: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353229/the-association-between-plasma-endotoxin-endotoxin-pathway-proteins-and-outcome-after-ischemic-stroke
#3
Elzbieta Klimiec, Paulina Pasinska, Katarzyna Kowalska, Joanna Pera, Agnieszka Slowik, Tomasz Dziedzic
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: In animals, peripheral lipopolysaccharide (LPS) injection before cerebral ischemia exacerbates neurological deficit, impairs survival and augments sickness behaviour. The goal of our study was to determine a relationship between plasma LPS, LPS pathway proteins (LPS binding protein (LBP) and sCD14) and outcome in stroke patients. METHODS: We included 335 patients with ischemic stroke. Plasma LPS activity and levels of LBP and sCD14 were measured within 24 h after stroke onset...
December 27, 2017: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353224/coronary-microvascular-dysfunction-may-be-related-to-igf-1-in-acromegalic-patients-and-can-be-restored-by-therapy
#4
Sara Tellatin, Pietro Maffei, Elena Osto, Francesca Dassie, Giulia Famoso, Roberta Montisci, Chiara Martini, Francesco Fallo, Martina Perazzolo Marra, Roberto Mioni, Sabino Iliceto, Roberto Vettor, Francesco Tona
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Acromegaly increases the risk of cardiovascular mortality. Data on the cardiovascular risk in asymptomatic acromegaly are limited. In particular, data on coronary microvascular abnormalities are lacking. We assessed coronary flow reserve (CFR) as a marker of coronary microvascular function in asymptomatic acromegaly. METHODS: We studied 40 acromegalic patients (23 male, age 52 ± 11 years) without clinical evidence of cardiovascular disease, and 40 control subjects matched for age and sex...
December 24, 2017: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353219/blocking-mitochondrial-cyclophilin-d-ameliorates-tsh-impaired-defensive-barrier-of-artery
#5
Xiaojing Liu, Heng Du, Qiang Chai, Qing Jia, Lu Liu, Meng Zhao, Jun Li, Hui Tang, Wenbin Chen, Lifang Zhao, Li Fang, Ling Gao, Jiajun Zhao
AIMS: Endothelial cells (ECs) constitute the defensive barrier of vasculature, which maintains the vascular homeostasis. Mitochondrial oxidative stress (mitoOS) in ECs significantly affects the initiation and progression of vascular diseases. The higher serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) level is being recognized as a nonconventional risk factor responsible for the increased risk of cardiovascular diseases in subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH). However, effects and underlying mechanisms of elevated TSH on ECs are still ambiguous...
January 9, 2018: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353214/effects-of-poor-sleep-quality-on-brain-functional-connectivity-revealed-by-wavelet-based-coherence-analysis-using-nirs-methods-in-elderly-subjects
#6
Lingguo Bu, Dawei Wang, Congcong Huo, Gongcheng Xu, Zengyong Li, Jianfeng Li
OBJECTIVE: Poor sleep quality, which is typically related to impairments in cognitive control, is pervasive among the elderly. However, the brain function mechanisms underlying the association between sleep and elderly behavior remain elusive. This study aims to assess the effects of poor sleep quality on low-frequency neural oscillations based on the wavelet phase coherence (WPCO) and wavelet amplitude (WA) of oxyhemoglobin concentration changes (Delta [HbO2]) measured through near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) method...
January 17, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353213/multiple-cortical-thickness-sub-networks-and-cognitive-impairments-in-first-episode-drug-na%C3%A3-ve-patients-with-late-life-depression-a-graph-theory-analysis
#7
Jeong-Hyeon Shin, Yu Hyun Um, Chang Uk Lee, Hyun Kook Lim, Joon-Kyung Seong
BACKGROUND: Coordinated and pattern-wise changes in large scale gray matter structural networks reflect neural circuitry dysfunction in late life depression (LLD), which in turn is associated with emotional dysregulation and cognitive impairments. However, due to methodological limitations, there have been few attempts made to identify individual-level structural network properties or sub-networks that are involved in important brain functions in LLD. METHODS: In this study, we sought to construct individual-level gray matter structural networks using average cortical thicknesses of several brain areas to investigate the characteristics of the gray matter structural networks in normal controls and LLD patients...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353101/amyloid-pathology-in-the-progression-to-mild-cognitive-impairment
#8
Philip S Insel, Oskar Hansson, R Scott Mackin, Michael Weiner, Niklas Mattsson
The objective of this study was to determine the cognitive and functional decline and development of brain injury in individuals progressing from preclinical (β-amyloid positive cognitively normal) to prodromal Alzheimer's disease (AD) (β-amyloid positive mild cognitive impairment [MCI]), and compare this with individuals who progress to MCI in the absence of significant amyloid pathology. Seventy-five cognitively healthy participants who progressed to MCI were followed for 4 years on average and up to 10 years...
December 27, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353058/chd7-is-critical-for-early-t-cell-development-and-thymus-organogenesis-in-zebrafish
#9
Zhi-Zhi Liu, Zi-Long Wang, Tae-Ik Choi, Wen-Ting Huang, Han-Tsing Wang, Ying-Ying Han, Lou-Yin Zhu, Hyun-Taek Kim, Jung-Hwa Choi, Jin-Soo Lee, Hyung-Goo Kim, Jian Zhao, Yue Chen, Zhuo Lu, Xiao-Li Tian, Bing-Xing Pan, Bao-Ming Li, Cheol-Hee Kim, Hong Xu
CHARGE syndrome is a congenital disorder affecting multiple organs and mainly caused by mutations in CHD7, a gene encoding a chromatin-remodeling protein. Immunodeficiency and reduced T-cells have been noted in CHARGE syndrome. However, the mechanisms underlying T-lymphopenia are largely unexplored. Here, we observed dramatic decrease of T cells in both chd7-knockdown and -knockout zebrafish embryos. Unexpectedly, hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells and, particularly, lymphoid progenitor cells were increased peripherally in nonthymic areas in chd7-deficient embryos, unlikely to contribute to the T cell decrease...
January 15, 2018: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353053/conditional-inactivation-of-npy1r-gene-in-mice-induces-behavioural-inflexibility-and-orbitofrontal-cortex-hyperactivity-that-are-reversed-by-escitalopram
#10
Angela Longo, Melissa Fadda, Claudio Brasso, Paolo Mele, Paola Palanza, Ishira Nanavaty, Ilaria Bertocchi, Alessandra Oberto, Carola Eva
Cognitive flexibility is the ability to rapidly adapt established patterns of behaviour in the face of changing circumstance and depends critically on the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). Impaired flexibility also results from altered serotonin transmission in the OFC. The Y1 (Y1R) and Y5 (Y5R) receptors for neuropeptide Y (NPY) colocalize in several brain regions and have overlapping functions in regulating cognition and emotional behaviour. The targeted disruption of gene encoding Y1R (Npy1r gene) in Y5R containing neurons (Npy1rY5R-/- mice) increases anxiety-like behaviour and spatial reference memory...
January 15, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353052/evidence-for-altered-insulin-receptor-signaling-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#11
REVIEW
Chelsea M Griffith, Tore Eid, Gregory M Rose, Peter R Patrylo
Epidemiological data have shown that metabolic disease can increase the propensity for developing cognitive decline and dementia, particularly Alzheimer's disease (AD). While this interaction is not completely understood, clinical studies suggest that both hyper- and hypoinsulinemia are associated with an increased risk for developing AD. Indeed, insulin signaling is altered in post-mortem brain tissue from AD patients and treatments known to enhance insulin signaling, can improve cognitive function. Further, clinical evidence has shown that AD patients and mouse models of AD often display alterations in peripheral metabolism...
January 15, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352860/towards-targeting-resolution-pathways-of-airway-inflammation-in-asthma
#12
REVIEW
Cindy Barnig, Nelly Frossard, Bruce D Levy
Asthma is a chronic disorder characterized by persistent inflammation of the airways with mucosal infiltration of eosinophils, T lymphocytes, and mast cells, and release of proinflammatory cytokines and lipid mediators. The natural resolution of airway inflammation is now recognized as an active host response, with highly coordinated cellular events under the control of endogenous pro-resolving mediators that enable the restoration of tissue homeostasis. Lead members of proresolving mediators are enzymatically derived from essential polyunsaturated fatty acids, including arachidonic acid-derived lipoxins, eicosapentaenoic acid-derived E-series resolvins, and docosahexaenoic acid-derived D-series resolvins, protectins, and maresins...
January 17, 2018: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352837/socio-economic-determinants-of-vitamin-d-deficiency-in-the-older-polish-population-results-from-the-polsenior-study
#13
Magdalena Wyskida, Aleksander Owczarek, Aleksandra Szybalska, Aniceta Brzozowska, Irena Szczerbowska, Katarzyna Wieczorowska-Tobis, Monika Puzianowska-Kuźnicka, Edward Franek, Małgorzata Mossakowska, Tomasz Grodzicki, Andrzej Więcek, Magdalena Olszanecka-Glinianowicz, Jerzy Chudek
OBJECTIVE: Numerous studies have reported an association between vitamin D (25-hydroxyvitamin D; 25(OH)D) deficiency and low economic status, lower educational level, drugs exposure, smoking and reduced physical activity. Our study analysed the association between sociodemographic factors and 25(OH)D status in Polish (Caucasian) seniors. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study (part of the PolSenior study). Serum 25(OH)D concentration was measured by a solid-phase ELISA method; a standardized questionnaire evaluated educational level, economic status, alcohol consumption, current or past cigarette smoking, physical activity, activities of daily living (ADL) and instrumental activities of daily living...
January 21, 2018: Public Health Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352759/regional-myocardial-function-abnormalities-are-associated-with-macro-and-microcirculation-dysfunction-in-the-metabolic-syndrome-the-resolve-study
#14
Philippe Obert, Guillaume Walther, Frédéric Dutheil, Bruno Lesourd, Robert Chapier, Daniel Courteix, Agnes Vinet
Abnormalities in myocardial and vascular function have been reported in the metabolic syndrome (MetS), but whether these alterations are related remains poorly documented. Our aim was accordingly to investigate interrelationships between macro- and microcirculatory vasoreactivity and left ventricular (LV) myocardial function in MetS patients. Eighty-eight MetS individuals and 44 age- and gender-matched healthy controls were enrolled. LV global longitudinal strain (GLS) was measured using Vector Velocity Imaging...
January 19, 2018: Heart and Vessels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352738/persistent-pain-following-common-outpatient-surgeries-in-children-a-multicenter-study-in-italy
#15
Valeria Mossetti, Karen Boretsky, Marinella Astuto, Bruno G Locatelli, David Zurakowski, Rodolfo Lio, Roberta Nicoletti, Valter Sonzogni, Micol Maffioletti, Noemi Vicchio, Giorgio Ivani
INTRODUCTION: The prevalence of persistent postsurgical pain in children is over 20% after major surgeries; however, data are scarce on the prevalence, character, and risk factors among children undergoing common ambulatory surgeries. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of persistent pain following pediatric ambulatory surgery at 1, 3, and 6 months. Secondary aims were to identify risk factors and characterize the pain and consequences of persistent postsurgical pain...
January 20, 2018: Paediatric Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352721/hyperconnective-and-hypoconnective-cortical-and-subcortical-functional-networks-in-multiple-system-atrophy
#16
Johannes Rosskopf, Martin Gorges, Hans-Peter Müller, Elmar H Pinkhardt, Albert C Ludolph, Jan Kassubek
INTRODUCTION: In multiple system atrophy (MSA), the organization of the functional brain connectivity within cortical and subcortical networks and its clinical correlates remains to be investigated. METHODS: Whole-brain based 'resting-state' fMRI data were obtained from 22 MSA patients (11 MSA-C, 11 MSA-P) and 22 matched healthy controls, together with standardized clinical assessment and video-oculographic recordings (EyeLink®). RESULTS: MSA patients vs...
January 12, 2018: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352647/ifn-%C3%AE-and-tnf-%C3%AE-pre-licensing-protects-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-from-the-pro-inflammatory-effects-of-palmitate
#17
Lauren Boland, Anthony J Burand, Alex J Brown, Devlin Boyt, Vitor A Lira, James A Ankrum
The use of mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC) therapy for the treatment of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and T2D complications is promising; however, the investigation of MSC function in the setting of T2D has not been thoroughly explored. In our current study, we investigated the phenotype and function of MSCs in a simulated in vitro T2D environment. We show that palmitate, but not glucose, exposure impairs MSC metabolic activity with moderate increases in apoptosis, while drastically affecting proliferation and morphology...
December 19, 2017: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352540/insight-in-schizophrenia-spectrum-disorders-relationship-with-behavior-mood-and-perceived-quality-of-life-underlying-causes-and-emerging-treatments
#18
Paul H Lysaker, Michelle L Pattison, Bethany L Leonhardt, Scott Phelps, Jenifer L Vohs
Poor insight in schizophrenia is prevalent across cultures and phases of illness. In this review, we examine the recent research on the relationship of insight with behavior, mood and perceived quality of life, on its complex roots, and on the effects of existing and emerging treatments. This research indicates that poor insight predicts poorer treatment adherence and therapeutic alliance, higher symptom severity and more impaired community function, while good insight predicts a higher frequency of depression and demoralization, especially when coupled with stigma and social disadvantage...
February 2018: World Psychiatry: Official Journal of the World Psychiatric Association (WPA)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352445/effect-of-sevoflurane-anesthesia-on-brain-is-mediated-by-lncrna-hotair
#19
Jian-Yue Wang, Yong Feng, Yan-Hong Fu, Guang-Li Liu
Postoperative cognitive dysfunction in elderly patients has been related to neurodegenerative disorders and mortality. Sevoflurane anesthesia has been implicated in both postoperative cognitive dysfunction and neurotoxicity. Given the advantages of using inhaled anesthetics like sevoflurane, it is important to understand how their usage results in neurotoxicity and subsequently devise ways to circumvent or attenuate the anesthetic-mediated induction in neurotoxicity. Long noncoding RNAs (LncRNAs) are a group of > 200 bp long RNAs and show specific spatiotemporal expression profiles...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352264/cell-autonomous-role-of-iaspp-deficiency-in-causing-cardiocutaneous-disorders
#20
Zinaida Dedeić, Gopinath Sutendra, Ying Hu, Kathryn Chung, Elizabeth A Slee, Michael J White, Felix Y Zhou, Robert D Goldin, David J P Ferguson, Debra McAndrew, Jurgen E Schneider, Xin Lu
Desmosome components are frequently mutated in cardiac and cutaneous disorders in animals and humans and enhanced inflammation is a common feature of these diseases. Previous studies showed that inhibitor of Apoptosis Stimulating p53 Protein (iASPP) regulates desmosome integrity at cell-cell junctions and transcription in the nucleus, and its deficiency causes cardiocutaneous disorder in mice, cattle, and humans. As iASPP is a ubiquitously expressed shuttling protein with multiple functions, a key question is whether the observed cardiocutaneous phenotypes are caused by loss of a cell autonomous role of iASPP in cardiomyocytes and keratinocytes specifically or by a loss of iASPP in other cell types such as immune cells...
January 19, 2018: Cell Death and Differentiation
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