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Patricia Lacourt, Julio Soto, Hana Rumié, Roger Gejman, Juan Carlos Pattillo, Cristián García, Hernán García
INTRODUCTION: Juvenile granulosa cell tumors (JGCT) are very rare, especially in infants under the age of one. The most frequent presentation is with signs of precocious puberty. OBJECTIVE: Present an in fant with peripheral precocious puberty, diagnosis of JGCT and follow up. CLINICAL CASE: 10-month-old female infant with thelarche, pubic hair and palpable abdominal mass accompanied with eleva ted levels of estradiol, very low gonadotrophins and images that show a very large ovarian mass...
December 2017: Revista Chilena de Pediatría
Jilong Zhou, Chengyu Li, Wang Yao, Alsiddig M A, Lijun Huo, Honglin Liu, Yi-Liang Miao
Autophagy is an essential cellular mechanism that degrades cytoplasmic proteins and organelles to recycle their components. Here we showed that autophagy was essential for the glycolysis switch and energy homeostasis in mouse granulosa cells (MGCs) under hypoxic condition. Our data indicated that hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) could be largely increased in developing follicles and this remarkable upregulation of HIF-1α triggered cell autophagy and glucose uptake. We found that blocking autophagy by Atg7 knockdown and 3-methyladenine (3-MA) treatment affected the glucose metabolism, with increased glycolytic enzyme activity and decreased ATP production...
March 13, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
Y Deng, X Gan, D Chen, H L Huang, J S Yuan, J M Qiu, S Q Hu, J W Hu, J W Wang
Granulosa cells (GCs) are essential components of follicles and are involved in regulating the process of follicles development. However, comparative studies on GCs isolated from different staged follicles have not been conducted in goose. The aim of the present study was to identify the growth characteristics of goose GCs from pre-hierarchical (6-10 mm) and hierarchical (F4-F2, F1) follicles. Our results showed that the three cohorts of cells had different tolerance to collagenase and had noticeable morphological differences...
March 15, 2018: Bioscience Reports
Shiho Fujita, Toru Hasegawa, Yuki Nishiyama, Satoshi Fujisawa, Yasuhiro Nakano, Takahiro Nada, Nahoko Iwata, Yasuhiko Kamada, Hisashi Masuyama, Fumio Otsuka
The involvement of orexins in reproductive function has been gradually uncovered. However, the functional role of orexins in ovarian steroidogenesis remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated the effects of orexin A on ovarian steroidogenesis by using rat primary granulosa cells that express both OX1 and OX2 receptors for orexins. Treatment with orexin A enhanced progesterone, but not estradiol, biosynthesis induced by FSH, whereas it did not affect basal levels of progesterone or estradiol. In accordance with the effects on steroidogenesis, orexin A increased the mRNA levels of progesterogenic enzymes, including StAR, P450scc and 3βHSD, but not P450arom, and cellular cAMP synthesis induced by FSH...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
JoAnne S Richards
Follicular development and ovulation are complex development processes that are regulated by multiple, interacting pathways and cell types. The oocyte, cumulus cells, granulosa cells, and theca cells communicate to impact follicular development and ovulation. Many hormones and cytokines control intracellular regulatory networks and transcription factors, some of which are cell type specific. Molecular biology approaches and mutant mouse models have contributed immensely to our knowledge of what genes and signaling cascades impact each stage of follicular development and ovulation, and how the alteration of gene expression profiles and the activation of specific signaling pathways can impact ovarian cancer development in ovarian surface epithelial cells as well as granulosa cells...
2018: Vitamins and Hormones
Martina Belli, Shunichi Shimasaki
Growth and differentiation factor 9 (GDF9) and bone morphogenetic protein 15 (BMP15) are oocyte-secreted factors with a leading role in the control of ovarian function in female reproduction, modulating both the cell fate of the somatic granulosa cells and the quality and developmental competence of the egg. This short review aims to consolidate the molecular aspects of GDF9 and BMP15 and their integral actions in female fertility to understand particularly their effects on oocyte quality and fetal growth. The significant consequences of mutations in the GDF9 and BMP15 genes in women with dizygotic twins as well as the clinical relevance of these oocyte factors in the pathogenesis of primary ovarian insufficiency and polycystic ovary syndrome are also addressed...
2018: Vitamins and Hormones
Jill Bennett-Toomey, Carlos Stocco
GATA4 and GATA6 are the sole GATA factors expressed in the ovary during embryonic development and adulthood. Up today, GATA4 and GATA6 are the only transcription factors that have been conditionally deleted during ovarian development and at each major stage of follicle maturation. The evidence from these transgenic mice revealed that GATA4 and GATA6 are crucial for follicles assembly, granulosa cell differentiation, postnatal follicle growth, and luteinization. Thus, conditional knockdown of both factors in the granulosa cells at any stage of development leads to female infertility...
2018: Vitamins and Hormones
Chia-Hong Chou, Mei-Jou Chen
Ovarian follicular cell undergoes extensive proliferation and differentiation during the period that the follicle evolved from the primordial state to its ovulatory phase and then corpus luteum status. During this process, different and various levels of steroid hormones in follicular fluid, or obtained from circulation and adjacent cells as granulosa and theca cells, or from environment and diet will all affect the process of follicular growth and development. Differential steroid hormones might have differential effects on ovarian folliculogenesis via the effect on granulosa cell growth and follicular fluid formation that involves cell proliferation, apoptosis, and angiogenesis within the follicle...
2018: Vitamins and Hormones
Fumio Otsuka
The bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) system in the ovary plays a physiological role as a luteinization inhibitor in growing follicles. BMP-6 secreted from oocytes and granulosa cells can exert an inhibitory effect on follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) actions by suppressing adenylate cyclase activity downstream of the FSH receptor. The inhibition of FSH-induced progesterone production by BMP-6 is impaired by melatonin treatment in granulosa cells. Intracellular Smad signaling induced by BMP-6 is suppressed by melatonin, suggesting that melatonin has a regulatory role in BMP receptor signaling in granulosa cells...
2018: Vitamins and Hormones
Alzbeta Bujnakova Mlynarcikova, Sona Scsukova
In the present study, we aimed to examine effects of different concentrations of the endocrine disruptor Bisphenol A (BPA; 1 nM, 1 μM, 100 μM) and the flavonoid fisetin (1, 10, 25, 50 μM), individually and in combinations, on steroidogenic function of porcine ovarian granulosa cells (GCs) represented by progesterone production. We confirmed that BPA inhibited progesterone production by GCs at the highest concentration. Fisetin reduced gonadotropin-stimulated progesterone synthesis dose-dependently, and in this manner, fisetin impaired progesterone production when added to BPA-treated GCs...
March 2, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Xingting Liu, Xin Lin, Yuling Mi, Jian Li, Caiqiao Zhang
Oxidative stress is an important inducement in ovarian aging which results in fecundity decline in human and diverse animals. As a potent antioxidant, grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) was investigated to ameliorate chicken ovarian aging in this study. Firstly, ovarian antioxidant capacity of hens at different ages (90, 150, 280, and 580 days old) was compared to elucidate its age-related changes. Subsequently, a D-gal-induced (2.5 mg/mL) aging ovarian model was established and the cultured ovarian tissues were treated with GSPE at 5  μ g/mL for 72 h to evaluate the putative attenuating effects of GSPE on ovarian aging...
2018: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Michael W Pankhurst, Rebecca L Kelley, Rachel L Sanders, Savana R Woodcock, Dorothy E Oorschot, Nicola J Batchelor
Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) is an ovarian regulator that affects folliculogenesis. AMH inhibits the developmental activation of the dormant primordial follicles and the oocyte within. In more mature follicles, AMH reduces granulosa cell sensitivity to follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). We examined the effects of AMH overexpression on the stages of ovarian folliculogenesis, and the development of embryos, with a transgenic mouse that overexpresses human AMH in central nervous system neurons under the control of the mouse Thy1...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Endocrinology
Z Merhi, E Buyuk, M J Cipolla
STUDY QUESTION: Does vitamin D attenuate the adverse effects of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) on steroidogenesis by human granulosa cells (GCs)? SUMMARY ANSWER: AGEs alter the expression of genes important in steroidogenesis while 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (vit D3) in vitro attenuates some of the actions of AGEs on steroidogenic gene expression, possibly by downregulating the expression of the pro-inflammatory cell membrane receptor for AGEs (RAGE). WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Vitamin D attenuates the pro-inflammatory effects of AGEs in non-ovarian tissues...
March 12, 2018: Molecular Human Reproduction
M P De Cesaro, J T Dos Santos, J G Ferst, J E Nóbrega, Pra Rosa, M T Rovani, G F Ilha, R C Bohrer, R Ferreira, B G Gasperin, V Bordignon, Pbd Gonçalves
Natriuretic peptides (NPs) are known to regulate reproductive events in polyovulatory species, but their function and regulation in monovulatory species remain to be fully characterized. Using a well-established in vivo model, we found that bovine granulosa cells from follicles near the deviation stage express mRNA for the three NP receptors (NPR1, NPR2 and NPR3), but not for NP precursors (NPPA, NPPB and NPPC). The abundance of NPR3 mRNA was higher in dominant compared to subordinate follicles at the expected time of follicular deviation...
March 14, 2018: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
Annegret Tautenhahn, Stefanie Binder, Madlen Pilz, Gerhard Thiele
The present case describes an unusual lactation of a 15-month-old,unbred Holstein-Friesian heifer, which had four swollen, ampouleshaped udder quarters with milk secretion. Examination of the heifer using rectal palpation and transrectal ultrasonography revealed enlargement of the right ovary and partial replacement of original tissue by multiple cysts of variable size. Treatment of the assumed follicularcystic ovary disease was unsuccessful. At slaughter 8 months later, the ovaries were examined pathologically and a granulosa cell tumor on the right ovary was diagnosed...
February 2018: Tierärztliche Praxis. Ausgabe G, Grosstiere/Nutztiere
Adam J Krieg, Sarah R Mullinax, Frances Grimstad, Kaitlin Marquis, Elizabeth Constance, Yan Hong, Sacha A Krieg, Katherine F Roby
PURPOSE: To assess expression of the histone demethylases KDM4A and KDM4B in granulosa collected from women undergoing oocyte retrieval and to determine if expression was related to pregnancy outcome. METHODS: Cumulus and mural granulosa cells were obtained from women undergoing oocyte retrieval. KDM4A and KDM4B mRNA expression was determined by qRT-PCR. KDM4A and KDM4B proteins were immunohistochemically localized in ovarian tissue sections obtained from archival specimens...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics
Anne-Laure Nivet, Isabelle Dufort, Isabelle Gilbert, Marc-André Sirard
In reproduction, FSH is one of the most important hormones, especially in females, because it controls the number of follicles and the rate of follicular growth. Although several studies have examined the follicular response at the transcriptome level, it is difficult to obtain a clear and complete picture of the genes responding to an increase in FSH in an in vivo context because follicles undergo rapid morphological and physical changes during their growth. To help define the transcriptome downstream response to FSH, an in vitro model was used in the present study to observe the short-term (4h) cellular response...
March 13, 2018: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Frank J Simutis, Thomas P Sanderson, Gary D Pilcher, Michael J Graziano
The toxicity of avagacestat, a sulfonamide-based gamma (γ)-secretase inhibitor that was in development as a treatment for Alzheimer's disease, was evaluated in a comprehensive nonclinical toxicology program that included 6-month and 1-year repeat-dose toxicity studies in rats and dogs, respectively. There was a spectrum of mechanism-based changes attributed to inhibition of Notch signaling that regulates the differentiation and proliferation of cells throughout development and in adult tissues. In both rats and dogs, ovarian follicular degeneration and atrophy and a low incidence of granulosa cell hyperplasia and benign granulosa-thecal cell tumors were observed...
February 24, 2018: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
M Herian, M R Luck, M Grzesiak
Recently it has been shown that vitamin D(3) acting via its cognate receptor (VDR) regulates the growth, differentiation and function of female reproductive tissues including ovary. The aim of the study was to examine the effect of testosterone (T) and its antagonist 2-hydroxyflutamide (HF) on VDR protein expression and function in porcine ovarian follicles. Medium size antral follicles expressing great amount of androgen receptors and represent high steroidogenic activity were used in this research. After 6 h incubation of whole follicles with T, HF or T+HF, immunohistochemical analysis of VDR revealed its nuclear localization in granulosa and theca interna cells in control and experimental groups...
March 12, 2018: Physiological Research
Guoyun Wu, Dan Song, Quanwei Wei, Jun Xing, Xiaoli Shi, Fangxiong Shi
Melatonin plays a crucial role in the amelioration of reproductive toxicity induced by endocrine-disrupting chemicals. However, very few studies have investigated the mitigating effects of melatonin on BPA-induced dysfunction in porcine granulosa cells. In the present study, primary granulosa cells were cultured in serum-low conditions with bisphenol A (BPA) (10 μM) with or without melatonin (100 μM), followed by evaluation of estradiol synthesis and cell proliferation. Our results showed that BPA significantly increased estradiol concentration and granulosa cell proliferation...
February 24, 2018: Animal Reproduction Science
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