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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027661/negotiating-ethical-paradoxes-in-conducting-a-randomized-controlled-trial-aligning-intervention-science-with-participatory-values
#1
Shabnam Javdani, Sukhmani Singh, Corianna E Sichel
In this article, we describe ethical tensions we have faced in the context of our work as intervention scientists, where we aim to promote social justice and change systems that impact girls involved in the juvenile legal system. These ethical tensions are, at their core, about resisting collusion with systems of control while simultaneously collaborating with them. Over the course of designing and implementing a randomized controlled trial (RCT) of an ecological advocacy intervention for girls, called ROSES, ethical paradoxes crystalized and prompted us to engage in critical reflection and action toward the aim of moving away from conducting research on legal-system-involved girls and moving toward a more democratic, participatory process of inquiry with girls...
October 13, 2017: American Journal of Community Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027554/magnetic-behaviour-of-bimetallic-layered-phases-m-0-2mn0-8ps3%C3%A2-0-25-h2o-m-zn-ii-cu-ii-ni-ii-co-ii
#2
P Fuentealba, C Cortes, J Manzur, V Paredes-García, D Venegas-Yazigi, I D A Silva, R C de Santana, C J Magon, E Spodine
In this work the magnetic properties of bimetallic phases M'0.2Mn0.8PS3·0.25H2O (M' = Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) or Zn(II)) have been explored and compared with those of the pristine phase MnPS3. Magnetic susceptibility, high field magnetization and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) studies reveal that the transition temperature between the antiferromagnetic and paramagnetic order for the pristine phase is shifted to lower values in the bimetallic phases. From magnetization measurements the critical field of the spin-flop transition is found to be dependent on the nature of the added secondary transition metal ion...
October 13, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026921/role-of-gut-microbiota-in-aging-related-health-decline-insights-from-invertebrate-models
#3
REVIEW
Rebecca I Clark, David W Walker
Studies in mammals, including humans, have reported age-related changes in microbiota dynamics. A major challenge, however, is to dissect the cause and effect relationships involved. Invertebrate model organisms such as the fruit fly Drosophila and the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans have been invaluable in studies of the biological mechanisms of aging. Indeed, studies in flies and worms have resulted in the identification of a number of interventions that can slow aging and prolong life span. In this review, we discuss recent work using invertebrate models to provide insight into the interplay between microbiota dynamics, intestinal homeostasis during aging and life span determination...
October 12, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026727/adverse-effects-of-prolonged-sitting-behavior-on-the-general-health-of-office-workers
#4
Hadi Daneshmandi, Alireza Choobineh, Haleh Ghaem, Mehran Karimi
BACKGROUND: Excessive sitting behavior is a risk factor for many adverse health outcomes. This study aimed to survey the prevalence of sitting behavior and its adverse effects among Iranian office workers. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 447 Iranian office workers. A two-part questionnaire was used as the data collection tool. The first part surveyed the demographic characteristics and general health of the respondents, while the second part contained the Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire (NMQ) to assess symptoms...
July 2017: Journal of Lifestyle Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026723/circadian-rhythm-disruption-and-subsequent-neurological-disorders-in-night-shift-workers
#5
REVIEW
Yunho Jin, Tai-Young Hur, Yonggeun Hong
A large number of people in highly industrialized society are employed in night-shift work. Night-shift work interrupts the 24-hour daily cycle known as the circadian rhythm, as well as melatonin synthesis. These disruptions can make the body susceptible to oxidative stress and neural damage. In this regard, it is recommended that employees avoid long-term exposure to night-shift work.
July 2017: Journal of Lifestyle Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026501/typology-of-street-substance-users-communities-in-tehran-iran
#6
Masoomeh Maarefvand, Mohammad Sadegh Shirazi, Raha Peyravi, Ali Farhoudian
BACKGROUND: There are different street substance users' communities (SSUCs). Typology of SSUCs in Tehran, Iran was approached in this qualitative study. METHODS: Using content analysis and saturation principles, 22 street-outreach workers were recruited and interviewed. Data were analyzed using open, axial, and selective coding. FINDINGS: Three types of SSUCs were identified. SSUCs were different in geographic location, the community hierarchy, roles of residents and its function during a 24-hour period...
January 2017: Addiction & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026436/relationship-between-menstruation-status-and-work-conditions-in-japan
#7
Mariko Nishikitani, Mutsuhiro Nakao, Shinobu Tsurugano, Mariko Inoure, Eiji Yano
BACKGROUND: Menstrual problems can significantly impact daily and work life. In reaction to a shrinking population, the Japanese government is encouraging more women to participate in the labor force. Actual success in achieving this aim, however, is limited. Specifically, participation in the workforce by women during their reproductive years is impacted by their health, which involves not only work conditions, but also traditional family circumstances. Therefore, it is important to further assess and gather more information about the health status of women who work during their reproductive years in Japan...
2017: BioPsychoSocial Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025087/field-measurements-of-inadvertent-ingestion-exposure-to-metals
#8
Melanie Gorman Ng, Laura Maccalman, Sean Semple, Martie van Tongeren
The determinants of inadvertent occupational ingestion exposure are poorly understood, largely due to a lack of available exposure measurement data. In this study, perioral exposure wipes were used as a surrogate for inadvertent ingestion exposure to measure exposure to eight metals (chromium, nickel, aluminium, cobalt, lead, arsenic, manganese, and tin) among 38 workers at 5 work sites in the UK. This work was done alongside a previously reported observational study of hand/object-to-mouth contact frequency...
August 29, 2017: Annals of Work Exposures and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025086/a-critical-appraisal-of-guidelines-for-electronic-communication-between-patients-and-clinicians-the-need-to-modernize-current-recommendations
#9
Joy L Lee, Marianne S Matthias, Nir Menachemi, Richard M Frankel, Michael Weiner
Background: Patient-provider electronic communication has proliferated in recent years, yet there is a dearth of published research either leading to, or including, recommendations that improve clinical care and prevent unintended negative consequences. We critically appraise published guidelines and suggest an agenda for future work in this area. Objective: To understand how existing guidelines align with current practice, evidence, and technology. Methods: We performed a narrative review of provider-targeted guidelines for electronic communication between patients and providers, searching Ovid MEDLINE, Embase, and PubMed databases using relevant terms...
August 25, 2017: Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association: JAMIA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024846/attentional-control-and-executive-functioning-in-school-aged-children-linking-self-regulation-and-parenting-strategies
#10
Andrea M Spruijt, Marielle C Dekker, Tim B Ziermans, Hanna Swaab
Good parenting strategies can shape children's neurocognitive development, yet little is known about the nature of this relation in school-aged children and whether this association shifts with age. We aimed to investigate the relation between parenting strategies observed during a home visit and children's performance-based attentional control and executive functioning (N=98, aged 4-8years). Linear and curvilinear regression analyses showed that children of parents who were more supportive, were less intrusive, and asked more open-ended questions displayed better inhibitory control...
October 9, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024790/dna-methylation-and-potential-multigenerational-epigenetic-effects-linked-to-uranium-chronic-low-dose-exposure-in-gonads-of-males-and-females-rats
#11
REVIEW
G Elmhiri, C Gloaguen, S Grison, D Kereselidze, C Elie, K Tack, M Benderitter, P Lestaevel, A Legendre, M Souidi
INTRODUCTION: An increased health problem in industrialised countries is the contemporary concern of public and scientific community as well. This has been attributed in part to accumulated environmental pollutants especially radioactive substances and the use of nuclear power plants worldwide. However, the outcome of chronic exposure to low doses of a radionuclide such as uranium remains unknown. Recently, a paradigm shift in the perception of risk of radiotoxicology has emerged through investigating the possibility of transmission of biological effects over generations, in particular by epigenetic pathways...
October 9, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024008/immunization-with-%C3%AE-synuclein-grp94-reshapes-peripheral-immunity-and-suppresses-microgliosis-in-a-chronic-parkinsonism-model
#12
Javier Villadiego, Adahir Labrador-Garrido, Jaime M Franco, Magdalena Leal-Lasarte, Erwin J De Genst, Christopher M Dobson, David Pozo, Juan J Toledo-Aral, Cintia Roodveldt
Neuroinflammation mediated by chronically activated microglia, largely caused by abnormal accumulation of misfolded α-synuclein (αSyn) protein, is known to contribute to the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease (PD). In this work, based on the immunomodulatory activities displayed by particular heat-shock proteins (HSPs), we tested a novel vaccination strategy that used a combination of αSyn and Grp94 (HSPC4 or Gp96) chaperone and a murine PD model. We used two different procedures, first, the adoptive transfer of splenocytes from αSyn/Grp94-immunized mice to recipient animals, and second, direct immunization with αSyn/Grp94, to study the effects in a chronic mouse MPTP-model of parkinsonism...
October 11, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023772/negative-modulation-of-the-gabaa-%C3%AF-1-receptor-function-by-l-cysteine
#13
Andrea N Beltrán González, Florencia Vicentini, Daniel J Calvo
L-Cysteine is an endogenous Sulphur containing amino acid with multiple and varied roles in the central nervous system, including neuroprotection and the maintenance of the redox balance. However, it was also suggested as an excitotoxic agent implicated in the pathogenesis of neurological disorders such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease. L-Cysteine can modulate the activity of ionic channels, including voltage-gated calcium channels and glutamatergic NMDA receptors, whereas its effects on GABAergic neurotransmission had not been studied before...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020087/residential-development-alters-behavior-movement-and-energetics-in-an-apex-predator-the-puma
#14
Yiwei Wang, Justine A Smith, Christopher C Wilmers
Human development strongly influences large carnivore survival and persistence globally. Behavior changes are often the first measureable responses to human disturbances, and can have ramifications on animal populations and ecological communities. We investigated how a large carnivore responds to anthropogenic disturbances by measuring activity, movement behavior, and energetics in pumas along a housing density gradient. We used log-linear analyses to examine how habitat, time of day, and proximity to housing influenced the activity patterns of both male and female pumas in the Santa Cruz Mountains...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018794/synergistic-catalysis-by-polymeric-microzymes-and-inorganic-nanozymes-the-1-1-2-effect-for-intramolecular-cyclization-of-peptides
#15
Zhiliang Chen, Börje Sellergren, Xiantao Shen
In this work, we developed an efficient "molecularly imprinted polymer microzymes and inorganic magnetic nanozymes" synergistic catalysis strategy for the formation of disulfide bonds in peptides. The polymeric microzymes showed excellent selectivity toward the template peptide as well as the main reactant (linear peptide), and the Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticle (MNP) nanozymes inhibited the intermolecular reaction during the formation of disulfide bonds in peptides. As a result, the integration of the two different artificial enzymes in one process facilitates the intramolecular cyclization in high product yields (59...
2017: Frontiers in Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018021/short-sleep-duration-obstructive-sleep-apnea-shiftwork-and-the-risk-of-adverse-cardiovascular-events-in-patients-after-an-acute-coronary-syndrome
#16
Laura K Barger, Shantha M W Rajaratnam, Christopher P Cannon, Mary Ann Lukas, KyungAh Im, Erica L Goodrich, Charles A Czeisler, Michelle L O'Donoghue
BACKGROUND: It is unknown whether short sleep duration, obstructive sleep apnea, and overnight shift work are associated with the risk of recurrent cardiovascular events in patients after an acute coronary syndrome. METHODS AND RESULTS: SOLID-TIMI 52 (The Stabilization of PLaques UsIng Darapladib-Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction 52 Trial) was a multinational, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial that enrolled 13 026 patients ≤30 days of acute coronary syndrome...
October 10, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017835/two-goitrogenic-1-3-oxazolidine-2-thione-derivatives-from-brassicales-taxa-challenging-identification-occurrence-and-immunomodulatory-effects
#17
Niko S Radulović, Milica M Todorovska, Dragan B Zlatković, Nikola M Stojanović, Pavle J Randjelović
1,3-Oxazolidine-2-thione derivatives are glucosinolate-related food constituents known to impart (thyreo)toxic properties to some cruciferous vegetables. In this work, 5,5-dimethyl-1,3-oxazolidine-2-thione and (-)-(R)-5-phenyl-1,3-oxazolidine-2-thione, known goitrogens, were isolated from Draba lasiocarpa Rochel (Brassicaceae) and Reseda luteola L. (Resedaceae), respectively, and were fully spectrally characterized. Subsequently, the occurrence of the two 1,3-oxazolidine-2-thiones was verified in six additional taxa out of in total 78 screened Serbian Brassicales taxa...
October 7, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016953/sleep-problems-among-chinese-clinical-nurses-working-in-general-hospitals
#18
H Dong, Q Zhang, Z Sun, F Sang, Y Xu
Background: Epidemiological data evaluating sleep problems in clinical nurses in mainland China are scarce and an association between sleep problems and occupational stress has not been investigated. Aims: To assess the prevalence of sleep problems and associated factors and determine their association with occupational stress among clinical nurses in general hospitals. Methods: Nurses were selected through random cluster sampling. They answered a self-administered questionnaire, which included sociodemographic and occupational variables, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) scoring system and the Job Content Questionnaire for evaluating occupational stress...
September 9, 2017: Occupational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016583/transabdominal-pre-peritoneal-mesh-repair-versus-lichtenstein-s-hernioplasty
#19
Rajan Koju, Ram Bhakta Koju, Balaram Malla, Yashad Dongol, Lok Bikram Thapa
BACKGROUND: In the era of minimal invasive surgery, hernia repair has seen a paradigm shift from open to laparoscopic technique. However, superiority of laparoscopic repair over open repair is still controversial. Available literatures have shown laparoscopic technique to be better in term of post-operative pain and early return to work. METHODS: In this prospective study, a total of 102 patients aged 21-78 years with inguinal hernia were recruited and enrolled into two comparative groups, namely Lichtenstein's and Transabdominal pre-peritoneal, and each group containing 51 participants...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Nepal Health Research Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993765/prolonged-excretion-of-poliovirus-among-individuals-with-primary-immunodeficiency-disorder-an-analysis-of-the-world-health-organization-registry
#20
Grace Macklin, Yi Liao, Marina Takane, Kathleen Dooling, Stuart Gilmour, Ondrej Mach, Olen M Kew, Roland W Sutter
Individuals with primary immunodeficiency disorder may excrete poliovirus for extended periods and will constitute the only remaining reservoir of virus after eradication and withdrawal of oral poliovirus vaccine. Here, we analyzed the epidemiology of prolonged and chronic immunodeficiency-related vaccine-derived poliovirus cases in a registry maintained by the World Health Organization, to identify risk factors and determine the length of excretion. Between 1962 and 2016, there were 101 cases, with 94/101 (93%) prolonged excretors and 7/101 (7%) chronic excretors...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
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