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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691669/thomas-hunt-morgan-and-the-invisible-gene-the-right-tool-for-the-job
#1
Giulia Frezza, Mauro Capocci
The paper analyzes the early theory building process of Thomas Hunt Morgan (1866-1945) from the 1910s to the 1930s and the introduction of the invisible gene as a main explanatory unit of heredity. Morgan's work marks the transition between two different styles of thought. In the early 1900s, he shifted from an embryological study of the development of the organism to a study of the mechanism of genetic inheritance and gene action. According to his contemporaries as well as to historiography, Morgan separated genetics from embryology, and the gene from the whole organism...
April 24, 2018: History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691632/mathematical-modeling-of-climate-change-and-malaria-transmission-dynamics-a-historical-review
#2
REVIEW
Steffen E Eikenberry, Abba B Gumel
Malaria, one of the greatest historical killers of mankind, continues to claim around half a million lives annually, with almost all deaths occurring in children under the age of five living in tropical Africa. The range of this disease is limited by climate to the warmer regions of the globe, and so anthropogenic global warming (and climate change more broadly) now threatens to alter the geographic area for potential malaria transmission, as both the Plasmodium malaria parasite and Anopheles mosquito vector have highly temperature-dependent lifecycles, while the aquatic immature Anopheles habitats are also strongly dependent upon rainfall and local hydrodynamics...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690854/what-is-there-to-learn-about-violence-and-masculinity-from-a-genderqueer-man
#3
Rebecca Helman, Kopano Ratele
BACKGROUND: In light of the global health burden of violence, which is predominantly perpetrated by men, studies have explored the relationship between masculinities and violence. However, there is a relative lack of work focusing on non-hegemonic men and masculinities in relation to violence. Such work has the potential to advance violence prevention work. OBJECTIVE: This article aims to show the shifting relationship between constructions of violent and non-violent masculinity in the talk of a genderqueer man...
2018: Global Health Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689638/elegy-for-my-friend-c-christopher-king-md
#4
Brent R King
I was working a shift when I heard that you were gone. It was a Tuesday, and cold for a Spring day It seemed right that I should be doing what meant so much to both of us; working with residents and seeing patients, as if you had signed out to me that morning and I was carrying on your work. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
April 24, 2018: Academic Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689048/mapping-nurses-activities-in-surgical-hospital-wards-a-time-study
#5
W F J M van den Oetelaar, H F van Stel, W van Rhenen, R K Stellato, W Grolman
BACKGROUND: Balancing the number of nursing staff in relation to the number of patients is important for hospitals to remain efficient and optimizing the use of resources. One way to do this is to work with a workload management method. Many workload management methods use a time study to determine how nurses spend their time and to relate this to patient characteristics in order to predict nurse workload. OBJECTIVE: In our study, we aim to determine how nurses spend their working day and we will attempt to explain differences between specialized surgical wards...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687979/evaluating-the-association-between-artificial-light-at-night-exposure-and-breast-and-prostate-cancer-risk-in-spain-mcc-spain-study
#6
Ariadna Garcia-Saenz, Alejandro Sánchez de Miguel, Ana Espinosa, Antonia Valentin, Núria Aragonés, Javier Llorca, Pilar Amiano, Vicente Martín Sánchez, Marcela Guevara, Rocío Capelo, Adonina Tardón, Rosana Peiró-Perez, José Juan Jiménez-Moleón, Aina Roca-Barceló, Beatriz Pérez-Gómez, Trinidad Dierssen-Sotos, Tania Fernández-Villa, Conchi Moreno-Iribas, Victor Moreno, Javier García-Pérez, Gemma Castaño-Vinyals, Marina Pollán, Martin Aubé, Manolis Kogevinas
BACKGROUND: Night shift work, exposure to light at night (ALAN) and circadian disruption may increase the risk of hormone-dependent cancers. OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the association of exposure to ALAN during sleeping time with breast and prostate cancer in a population based multicase-control study (MCC-Spain), among subjects who had never worked at night. We evaluated chronotype, a characteristic that may relate to adaptation to light at night. METHODS: We enrolled 1,219 breast cancer cases, 1,385 female controls, 623 prostate cancer cases, and 879 male controls from 11 Spanish regions in 2008-2013...
April 23, 2018: Environmental Health Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687893/effect-of-low-cost-interventions-on-the-retention-of-knowledge-and-skills-following-helping-babies-breathe-training
#7
Erika Cordova, Tala Al-Rousan, Manuel Castillo-Angeles, Saima Aftab, Brett D Nelson
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of a post-Helping Babies Breathe bundle of interventions on the retention of provider-level knowledge and skills. METHOD: The present prospective pre-post study following a 1-day Helping Babies Breathe training of professional midwives, physicians, and nurses was conducted in Cajamarca Province, Peru between January 1 and July 31, 2017. The interventions to improve retention included structured worksite practice before every shift, weekly in-service simulated scenarios, and monthly supervised peer-to-peer abbreviated refresher trainings...
April 24, 2018: International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687670/triage-level-assignment-and-nurse-characteristics-and-experience
#8
Elisenda Gómez-Angelats, Òscar Miró, Ernesto Bragulat Baur, Alberto Antolín Santaliestra, Miquel Sánchez Sánchez
OBJECTIVES: To study the relation between nursing staff demographics and experience and their assignment of triage level in the emergency department. MATERIAL AND METHODS: One-year retrospective observational study in the triage area of a tertiary care urban university hospital that applies the Andorran-Spanish triage model. Variables studied were age, gender, nursing experience, triage experience, shift, usual level of emergency work the nurse undertakes, number of triage decisions made, and percentage of patients assigned to each level...
June 2018: Emergencias: Revista de la Sociedad Española de Medicina de Emergencias
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686131/gps-views-of-health-policy-changes-a-qualitative-netnography-study-of-uk-general-practice-online-magazine-commentary
#9
Rebecca Elvey, Jennifer Voorhees, Simon Bailey, Taylor Burns, Damian Hodgson
BACKGROUND: Shifts in health policy since 2010 have brought major structural changes to the English NHS, with government stating intentions to increase GPs' autonomy and improve access to care. Meanwhile, GPs' levels of job satisfaction are low, while stress levels are high. PulseToday is a popular UK general practice online magazine that provides a key discussion forum on news relevant to general practice. AIM: To analyse readers' reactions to news stories about health policy changes published in an online general practice magazine...
April 23, 2018: British Journal of General Practice: the Journal of the Royal College of General Practitioners
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686079/quantifying-ecological-impacts-of-mass-extinctions-with-network-analysis-of-fossil-communities
#10
A D Muscente, Anirudh Prabhu, Hao Zhong, Ahmed Eleish, Michael B Meyer, Peter Fox, Robert M Hazen, Andrew H Knoll
Mass extinctions documented by the fossil record provide critical benchmarks for assessing changes through time in biodiversity and ecology. Efforts to compare biotic crises of the past and present, however, encounter difficulty because taxonomic and ecological changes are decoupled, and although various metrics exist for describing taxonomic turnover, no methods have yet been proposed to quantify the ecological impacts of extinction events. To address this issue, we apply a network-based approach to exploring the evolution of marine animal communities over the Phanerozoic Eon...
April 23, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685885/the-extracellular-camp-adenosine-pathway-in-airway-smooth-muscle
#11
Enio Setsuo Arakaki Pacini, Sarah Sanders-Silveira, Rosely Oliveira Godinho
In the respiratory tract, intracellular cAMP has a key role in the smooth muscle relaxation induced by β2 -adrenoceptors/Gs protein/adenylyl cyclase axis. In other tissues, cAMP also works as an extracellular messenger, after its efflux and interstitial conversion to adenosine by ectoenzymes. The aim of this study was to identify cAMP efflux and "extracellular cAMP-adenosine pathway" in the airway smooth muscle. Firstly, we tested the ability of β2 -adrenoceptor agonists formoterol or fenoterol to increase the extracellular cAMP in isolated tracheal rings from adult male Wistar rats...
April 23, 2018: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684473/improved-cognitive-morning-performance-in-healthy-older-adults-following-blue-enriched-light-exposure-on-the-previous-evening
#12
Karine Scheuermaier, Mirjam Münch, Joseph M Ronda, Jeanne F Duffy
OBJECTIVES: Exposure to light can have acute alerting and circadian phase-shifting effects. This study investigated the effects of evening exposure to blue-enriched polychromatic white (BEL) vs. polychromatic white light (WL) on sleep inertia dissipation the following morning in older adults. METHODS: Ten healthy older adults (average age = 63.3 yrs; 6 F) participated in a 13-day study comprising three baseline days, an initial circadian phase assessment, four days with 2-h evening light exposures, a post light exposure circadian phase assessment and three recovery days...
April 20, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683984/effects-of-progressive-addition-lens-wear-on-digital-work-in-pre-presbyopes
#13
Chea-Su Kee, Tsz Wing Leung, Ka-Hung Kan, Christie Hang-I Lam
SIGNIFICANCE: Growing popularity of handheld digital devices imposes significant challenges to our visual system and clinical management. This study aimed to determine the effects of lens design on parameters that may influence the refractive management of pre-presbyopic adult computer users. PURPOSE: To determine the effects of wearing conventional single-vision lenses (SVL) versus progressive addition lenses (PAL) on the working distance and refractive status...
April 20, 2018: Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683374/finite-element-analysis-of-the-effect-of-high-tibial-osteotomy-correction-angle-on-articular-cartilage-loading
#14
Zahra Trad, Abdelwahed Barkaoui, Moez Chafra, João Manuel Rs Tavares
Osteoarthritis is a globally common disease that imposes a considerable ongoing health and economic burden on the socioeconomic system. As more and more biomechanical factors have been explored, malalignment of the lower limb has been found to influence the load distribution across the articular surface of the knee joint substantially. In this work, a three-dimensional finite element analysis was carried out to investigate the effect of varying the high tibial osteotomy correction angle on the stress distribution in both compartments of the human knee joint...
April 1, 2018: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682847/the-impact-of-acceptor-acceptor-homocoupling-on-the-optoelectronic-properties-and-photovoltaic-performance-of-pdtsqx-ff-low-bandgap-polymers
#15
Geert Pirotte, Jurgen Kesters, Tom Cardeynaels, Pieter Verstappen, Jan D'Haen, Laurence Lutsen, Benoît Champagne, Dirk Vanderzande, Wouter Maes
Push-pull-type conjugated polymers applied in organic electronics do not always contain a perfect alternation of donor and acceptor building blocks. Misscouplings can occur, which have a noticeable effect on the device performance. In this work, the influence of homocoupling on the optoelectronic properties and photovoltaic performance of PDTSQxff polymers is investigated, with a specific focus on the quinoxaline acceptor moieties. A homocoupled biquinoxaline segment is intentionally inserted in specific ratios during the polymerization...
April 22, 2018: Macromolecular Rapid Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681805/characterization-of-sensory-motor-behavior-under-cognitive-load-using-a-new-statistical-platform-for-studies-of-embodied-cognition
#16
Jihye Ryu, Elizabeth B Torres
The field of enacted/embodied cognition has emerged as a contemporary attempt to connect the mind and body in the study of cognition. However, there has been a paucity of methods that enable a multi-layered approach tapping into different levels of functionality within the nervous systems (e.g., continuously capturing in tandem multi-modal biophysical signals in naturalistic settings). The present study introduces a new theoretical and statistical framework to characterize the influences of cognitive demands on biophysical rhythmic signals harnessed from deliberate, spontaneous and autonomic activities...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680681/hdac-inhibition-helps-post-mi-healing-by-modulating-macrophage-polarization
#17
Denise Kimbrough, Sabina H Wang, Lillianne H Wright, Santhosh K Mani, Harinath Kasiganesan, Mandy La Rue, Qi Cheng, Satish N Nadig, Carl Atkinson, Donald R Menick
AIMS: Following an acute myocardial infarction (MI) the extracellular matrix (ECM) undergoes remodeling in order to prevent dilation of the infarct area and maintain cardiac output. Excessive and prolonged inflammation following an MI exacerbates adverse ventricular remodeling. Macrophages are an integral part of the inflammatory response that contribute to this remodeling. Treatment with histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors preserves LV function and myocardial remodeling in the post-MI heart...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680433/night-shift-work-increases-cold-pain-perception
#18
Christoph Pieh, Robert Jank, Christoph Waiß, Christian Pfeifer, Thomas Probst, Claas Lahmann, Stefan Oberndorfer
BACKGROUND: Although night-shift work (NSW) is associated with a higher risk for several physical and mental disorders, the impact of NSW on pain perception is still unclear. This study investigates the impact of NSW on cold pain perception considering the impact of mood and sleepiness. METHOD: Quantitative sensory testing (QST) was performed in healthy night-shift workers. Cold pain threshold as well as tonic cold pain was assessed after one habitual night (T1), after a 12-hour NSW (T2) and after one recovery night (T3)...
May 2018: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680177/individual-vulnerability-to-insomnia-excessive-sleepiness-and-shift-work-disorder-amongst-healthcare-shift-workers-a-systematic-review
#19
REVIEW
Lauren A Booker, Michelle Magee, Shantha M W Rajaratnam, Tracey L Sletten, Mark E Howard
Shift workers often experience reduced sleep quality, duration and/or excessive sleepiness due to the imposed conflict between work and their circadian system. About 20-30% of shift workers experience prominent insomnia symptoms and excessive daytime sleepiness consistent with the circadian rhythm sleep disorder known as shift work disorder. Individual factors may influence this vulnerability to shift work disorder or sleep-related impairment associated with shift work. This paper was registered with Prospero and was conducted using recommended standards for systematic reviews and meta-analyses...
March 27, 2018: Sleep Medicine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679825/technologies-for-the-management-of-msw-incineration-ashes-from-gas-cleaning-new-perspectives-on-recovery-of-secondary-raw-materials-and-circular-economy
#20
REVIEW
Margarida J Quina, Elza Bontempi, Anna Bogush, Stefan Schlumberger, Gisela Weibel, Roberto Braga, Valerio Funari, Jiri Hyks, Erik Rasmussen, Jakob Lederer
Environmental policies in the European Union focus on the prevention of hazardous waste and aim to mitigate its impact on human health and ecosystems. However, progress is promoting a shift in perspective from environmental impacts to resource recovery. Municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) has been increasing in developed countries, thus the amount of air pollution control residues (APCr) and fly ashes (FA) have followed the same upward trend. APCr from MSWI is classified as hazardous waste in the List of Waste (LoW) and as an absolute entry (19 01 07*), but FA may be classified as a mirror entry (19 0 13*/19 01 14)...
April 17, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
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