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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724246/health-consequences-of-electric-lighting-practices-in-the-modern-world-a-report-on-the-national-toxicology-program-s-workshop-on-shift-work-at-night-artificial-light-at-night-and-circadian-disruption
#1
REVIEW
Ruth M Lunn, David E Blask, Andrew N Coogan, Mariana G Figueiro, Michael R Gorman, Janet E Hall, Johnni Hansen, Randy J Nelson, Satchidananda Panda, Michael H Smolensky, Richard G Stevens, Fred W Turek, Roel Vermeulen, Tania Carreón, Claire C Caruso, Christina C Lawson, Kristina A Thayer, Michael J Twery, Andrew D Ewens, Sanford C Garner, Pamela J Schwingl, Windy A Boyd
The invention of electric light has facilitated a society in which people work, sleep, eat, and play at all hours of the 24-hour day. Although electric light clearly has benefited humankind, exposures to electric light, especially light at night (LAN), may disrupt sleep and biological processes controlled by endogenous circadian clocks, potentially resulting in adverse health outcomes. Many of the studies evaluating adverse health effects have been conducted among night- and rotating-shift workers, because this scenario gives rise to significant exposure to LAN...
July 15, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724132/applying-an-integrative-framework-of-executive-function-to-preschoolers-with-specific-language-impairment
#2
Leah L Kapa, Elena Plante, Kevin Doubleday
Purpose: The first goal of this research was to compare verbal and nonverbal executive function abilities between preschoolers with and without specific language impairment (SLI). The second goal was to assess the group differences on 4 executive function components in order to determine if the components may be hierarchically related as suggested within a developmental integrative framework of executive function. Method: This study included 26 4- and 5-year-olds diagnosed with SLI and 26 typically developing age- and sex-matched peers...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724029/-psychosocial-stress-at-work-and-alcohol-consumption-patterns-in-offshore-oil-workers
#3
Jahina Moura Vidal, Angela Mendes Abreu, Luciana Fernandes Portela
The objectives were to assess the association between psychosocial stress at work and alcohol consumption patterns in offshore oil workers. This was a cross-sectional study of 210 workers on offshore oil rigs in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from July to September 2014. The data collection instrument was a self-completed multidimensional questionnaire. Exposure to stress was measured by the demand-control model and alcohol consumption pattern was measured with the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT)...
July 13, 2017: Cadernos de Saúde Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722804/balancing-life-and-work-by-unbending-gender-early-american-women-psychologists-struggles-and-contributions
#4
Elizabeth Johnston, Ann Johnson
Women's participation in the work force shifted markedly throughout the twentieth century, from a low of 21 percent in 1900 to 59 percent in 1998. The influx of women into market work, particularly married women with children, put pressure on the ideology of domesticity: an ideal male worker in the outside market married to a woman taking care of children and home (Williams, 2000). Here, we examine some moments in the early-to-mid-twentieth century when female psychologists contested established norms of life-work balance premised on domesticity...
July 2017: Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722201/susceptibility-induced-distortion-correction-in-hyperpolarized-echo-planar-imaging
#5
Jack J Miller, Angus Z Lau, Damian J Tyler
PURPOSE: Echo planar imaging is an attractive rapid imaging readout that can image hyperpolarized compounds in vivo. By alternating the sign of the phase encoding gradient waveform, spatial offsets arising from uncertain frequency shifts can be determined. We show here that blip-reversed echo planar imaging can also be used to correct for susceptibility and B0 inhomogeneity effects that would otherwise produce image-domain distortion in the heart. METHODS: Previously acquired blip-reversed cardiac 3D-Spectral-Spatial echo planar imaging volumetric timecourses of hyperpolarized [1-(13) C]pyruvate were distortion corrected by a deformation field estimated by reconstructing signal-to-noise ratio (SNR)-weighted progressively subsampled temporally summed images of each metabolite...
July 19, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721811/moving-to-the-rhythm-with-clock-circadian-genes-autophagy-mtor-and-sirt1-in-degenerative-disease-and-cancer
#6
Kenneth Maiese
BACKGROUND: The mammalian circadian clock and its associated clock genes are increasingly be recognized as critical components for a number of physiological and disease processes that extend beyond hormone release, thermal regulation, and sleep-wake cycles. New evidence suggests that clinical behavior disruptions that involve prolonged shift work and even space travel may negatively impact circadian rhythm and lead to multi-system disease. METHODS: In light of the significant role circadian rhythm can hold over the body's normal physiology as well as disease processes, we examined and discussed the impact circadian rhythm and clock genes hold over lifespan, neurodegenerative disorders, and tumorigenesis...
July 17, 2017: Current Neurovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720188/the-importance-of-the-study-of-cognitive-performance-enhancement-for-u-s-national-security
#7
Richard G Malish
The American military is embarking on the 'Third Offset'-a strategy designed to produce seismic shifts in the future of warfare. Central to the approach is the conjoining of humans, technology, and machines to deliver a decisive advantage on the battlefield. Because technology will spread rapidly and globally, tactical overmatch will occur when American operators possess a competitive edge in cognition. Investigation of cognitive enhancing therapeutics is not widely articulated as an adjunct to the Third Offset, yet failure to study promising agents could represent a strategic vulnerability...
August 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719822/heavy-truck-restrictions-and-air-quality-implications-in-s%C3%A3-o-paulo-brazil
#8
Pedro José Pérez-Martínez, María de Fátima Andrade, Regina Maura de Miranda
This study quantified the effects of traffic restrictions on diesel fuel heavy vehicles (HVs) on the air quality of the Bandeirantes corridor using hourly data obtained by continuous monitoring of traffic and air quality at sites located on this avenue. The study addressed the air quality of a city impacted by vehicular emissions and that PM10 and NOX concentrations are mainly due to diesel burning. Data collection was split into two time periods, a period of no traffic constraint on HVs (Nov 2008 and 2009) and a period of constraint (Nov 2010, 2011 and 2012)...
July 15, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718874/everyday-territories-homelessness-outreach-work-and-city-space
#9
Robin James Smith, Tom Hall
This article develops a situational approach to understanding urban public life and, in particular, the production of urban territories. Our aim is to examine the ways in which city space might be understood as comprising multiple, shifting, mobile and rhythmed territories. We argue that such territories are best understood through attending to their everyday production and negotiation, rather than handling territory as an a priori construct. We develop this argument from the particular case of the street-level politics of homelessness and street care...
July 18, 2017: British Journal of Sociology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718193/metacommunity-theory-meets-restoration-isolation-may-mediate-how-ecological-communities-respond-to-stream-restoration
#10
Christopher M Swan, Bryan L Brown
An often-cited benefit of river restoration is an increase in biodiversity or shift in composition to more desirable taxa. Yet, hard manipulations of habitat structure often fail to elicit a significant response in terms of biodiversity patterns. In contrast to conventional wisdom, the dispersal of organisms may have as large an influence on biodiversity patterns as environmental conditions. This influence of dispersal may be particularly influential in river networks which are linear branching, or dendritic, and thus constrain most dispersal to the river corridor...
July 17, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717785/the-effects-of-high-concentrations-of-ionic-liquid-on-gb1-protein-structure-and-dynamics-probed-by-high-resolution-magic-angle-spinning-nmr-spectroscopy
#11
Lisa Warner, Erica Gjersing, Shelby E Follett, K Wade Elliott, Sergei V Dzyuba, Krisztina Varga
Ionic liquids have great potential in biological applications and biocatalysis, as some ionic liquids can stabilize proteins and enhance enzyme activity, while others have the opposite effect. However, on the molecular level, probing ionic liquid interactions with proteins, especially in solutions containing high concentration of ionic liquids, has been challenging. In the present work the (13)C, (15)N-enriched GB1 model protein was used to demonstrate applicability of high-resolution magic-angle-spinning (HR-MAS) NMR spectroscopy to investigate ionic liquid - protein interactions...
December 2016: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717600/implementation-of-the-xpert-mtb-rif-assay-for-tuberculosis-in-mongolia-a-qualitative-exploration-of-barriers-and-enablers
#12
Nicole L Rendell, Solongo Bekhbat, Gantungalag Ganbaatar, Munkhjargal Dorjravdan, Madhukar Pai, Claudia C Dobler
OBJECTIVE: The aim of our study was to identify barriers and enablers to implementation of the Xpert MTB/RIF test within Mongolia's National Tuberculosis Program. METHODS: Twenty-foursemi-structured interviews were conducted between June and September 2015 with laboratory staff and tuberculosis physicians in Mongolia's capital Ulaanbaatar and regional towns where Xpert MTB/RIF testing had been implemented. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, translated and analysed thematically using NVIVO qualitative analysis software...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716545/effect-of-ageing-on-neurocognitive-function-by-stage-of-hiv-infection-evidence-from-the-multicenter-aids-cohort-study
#13
Karl Goodkin, Eric N Miller, Christopher Cox, Sandra Reynolds, James T Becker, Eileen Martin, Ola A Selnes, David G Ostrow, Ned C Sacktor
BACKGROUND: The demographics of the HIV epidemic in the USA have shifted towards older age. We aimed to establish the relationship between the processes of ageing and HIV infection in neurocognitive impairment. METHODS: With longitudinal data from the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study, a long-term prospective cohort study of the natural and treated history of HIV infection among men who have sex with men in the USA, we examined the effect of ageing, HIV infection (by disease stage), and their interaction on five neurocognitive domains: information processing speed, executive function, episodic memory, working memory, and motor function...
July 14, 2017: Lancet HIV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716441/unraveling-the-meaning-of-chemical-shifts-in-protein-nmr
#14
REVIEW
Mark V Berjanskii, David S Wishart
Chemical shifts are among the most informative parameters in protein NMR. They provide wealth of information about protein secondary and tertiary structure, protein flexibility, and protein-ligand binding. In this report, we review the progress in interpreting and utilizing protein chemical shifts that has occurred over the past 25years, with a particular focus on the large body of work arising from our group and other Canadian NMR laboratories. More specifically, this review focuses on describing, assessing, and providing some historical context for various chemical shift-based methods to: (1) determine protein secondary and super-secondary structure; (2) derive protein torsion angles; (3) assess protein flexibility; (4) predict residue accessible surface area; (5) refine 3D protein structures; (6) determine 3D protein structures and (7) characterize intrinsically disordered proteins...
July 14, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716142/prevalence-of-and-factors-associated-with-burnout-among-health-care-professionals-in-arab-countries-a-systematic-review
#15
I Elbarazi, T Loney, S Yousef, A Elias
BACKGROUND: Burnout among healthcare professionals is one of the key challenges affecting health care practice and quality of care. This systematic review aims to (1) estimate the prevalence of burnout among health care professionals (HCP) in Arab countries; and (2) explore individual and work-related factors associated with burnout in this population. METHODS: Multiple electronic databases were searched for studies published in English or Arabic from January 1980 to November 2014 assessing burnout (using the Maslach Burnout Inventory; MBI) amongst health care professionals (HCP) in Arab countries...
July 17, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716124/implementing-maternal-death-surveillance-and-response-a-review-of-lessons-from-country-case-studies
#16
Helen Smith, Charles Ameh, Natalie Roos, Matthews Mathai, Nynke van den Broek
BACKGROUND: Maternal Death Surveillance and Response (MDSR) implementation is monitored globally, but not much is known about what works well, where and why in scaling up. We reviewed a series of country case studies in order to determine whether and to what extent these countries have implemented the four essential components of MDSR and identify lessons for improving implementation. METHODS: A secondary analysis of ten case studies from countries at different stages of MDSR implementation, using a policy analysis framework to draw out lessons learnt and opportunities for improvement...
July 17, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715334/exploring-the-feasibility-of-a-dna-computer-design-of-an-alu-using-sticker-based-dna-model
#17
Mayukh Sarkar, Prasun Ghosal, Saraju P Mohanty
Since its inception, DNA computing has advanced to offer an extremely powerful, energy-efficient emerging technology for solving hard computational problems with its inherent massive parallelism and extremely high data density. This would be much more powerful and general purpose when combined with other existing well known algorithmic solutions that exist for conventional computing architectures using a suitable ALU. Thus, a specifically designed DNA ALU that can address operations suitable for both domains can mitigate the gap between these two...
July 13, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Nanobioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715191/engineering-the-self-assembly-induced-emission-of-cu-nanoclusters-by-au-i-doping
#18
Jiale Liu, Zhennan Wu, Ye Tian, Yanchun Li, Lin Ai, Tingting Li, Haoyang Zou, Yi Liu, Xindong Zhang, Hao Zhang, Bai Yang
Aggregation-induced emission (AIE) and self-assembly induced emission (SAIE) effects have been employed to tune the emission properties of metal nanoclusters (NCs). However, it is still not possible to further enhance the photoluminescence quantum yields (PLQYs) and control the emission colors of the NCs using AIE and SAIE. On the basis of our recent work studying the contribution of Cu(I) defects in the SAIE of Cu NCs, in this article, Au(I) was doped into Cu NC self-assembled nanosheets (NSASs) to construct a more stable Au(I)-centered state...
July 17, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715032/the-langmuir-hinshelwood-approach-for-kinetic-evaluation-of-cucurbit-7-uril-capped-gold-nanoparticles-in-the-reduction-of-the-antimicrobial-nitrofurantoin
#19
E Blanco, P Atienzar, P Hernández, C Quintana
In this work, gold nanoparticles protected by the macrocycle cucurbit[7]uril were used as a catalyst in the reduction of the hazardous antimicrobial nitrofurantoin. 4-Nitrophenol was also employed as the substrate of the reduction for comparative purposes. The kinetic data were modeled to the Langmuir-Hinshelwood equation to know the affinities of the reactants for the surface and the real kinetic constants, a comparison at the molecular level that is made for the first time. From the results, it was observed that the adsorption of nitrofurantoin was stronger than that of 4-nitrophenol whilst the kinetic constant on the surface was higher for 4-nitrophenol than for nitrofurantoin...
July 17, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711348/impact-of-molecular-flexibility-on-the-site-energy-shift-of-chlorophylls-in-photosystem-ii
#20
Daniele Narzi, Emanuele Coccia, Marco Manzoli, Leonardo Guidoni
Light harvesting from the Sun by antenna complexes surrounding the reaction center of Photosystem II represents the first step of the natural oxygenic photosynthesis performed by plants, algae and cyanobacteria. The excitation energy derived from the sunlight is absorbed by the chlorophylls of the antenna and subsequently conveyed to the reaction center of Photosystem II through resonant energy transfer mechanisms. In the special pair of chlorophylls of the reaction center the charge separation occurs, eventually leading to the oxidation of water molecules into protons, electrons and molecular oxygen...
July 8, 2017: Biophysical Chemistry
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