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Erik L Lindh, Malin Bergenstråhle-Wohlert, Camilla Terenzi, Lennart Salmén, István Furó
The interaction of water with cellulose stages many unresolved questions. Here (2)H MAS NMR and IR spectra recorded under carefully selected conditions in (1)H-(2)H exchanged, and re-exchanged, cellulose samples are presented. It is shown here, by a quantitative and robust approach, that only two of the three available hydroxyl groups on the surface of cellulose fibrils are exchanging their hydrogen with the surrounding water molecules. This finding is additionally verified and explained by MD simulations which demonstrate that the (1)HO(2) and (1)HO(6) hydroxyl groups of the constituting glucose units act as hydrogen-bond donors to water, while the (1)HO(3) groups behave exclusively as hydrogen-bond acceptors from water and donate hydrogen to their intra-chain neighbors O(5)...
September 10, 2016: Carbohydrate Research
Yasuaki Kabe, Takehiro Yamamoto, Mayumi Kajimura, Yuki Sugiura, Ikko Koike, Mitsuyo Ohmura, Takashi Nakamura, Yasuhito Tokumoto, Hitoshi Tsugawa, Hiroshi Handa, Takuya Kobayashi, Makoto Suematsu
Heme oxygenase (HO) is a mono-oxygenase utilizing heme and molecular oxygen (O2) as substrates to generate biliverdin-IXα and carbon monoxide (CO). HO-1 is inducible under stress conditions, while HO-2 is constitutive. A balance between heme and CO was shown to regulate cell death and survival in many experimental models. However, direct molecular targets to which CO binds to regulate cellular functions remained to be fully examined. We have revealed novel roles of CO-responsive proteins, cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) and progesterone receptor membrane component 1 (PGRMC1), in regulating cellular functions...
August 24, 2016: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Marcin Magierowski, Katarzyna Magierowska, Jakub Szmyd, Marcin Surmiak, Zbigniew Sliwowski, Slawomir Kwiecien, Tomasz Brzozowski
BACKGROUND: Alendronate is an inhibitor of osteoclast-mediated bone resorption, but its clinical utility is limited due to gastrointestinal complications including bleeding erosions. AIMS: We studied whether potent vasodilators hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and carbon monoxide (CO) can protect against alendronate-induced gastric lesions in rats exposed to mild stress. METHODS: Three series (A, B, and C) of Wistar rats received alendronate (150-700 mg/kg i...
November 2016: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
Guoxiang Yuan, Ying-Jie Peng, Shakil A Khan, Jayasri Nanduri, Amritha Singh, Chirag Vasavda, Gregg L Semenza, Ganesh K Kumar, Solomon H Snyder, Nanduri R Prabhakar
Sleep apnea is a prevalent respiratory disease in which episodic cessation of breathing causes intermittent hypoxia. Patients with sleep apnea and rodents exposed to intermittent hypoxia exhibit hypertension. The carotid body senses changes in blood O2 concentrations, and an enhanced carotid body chemosensory reflex contributes to hypertension in sleep apnea patients. A rodent model of intermittent hypoxia that mimics blood O2 saturation profiles of patients with sleep apnea has shown that increased generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the carotid body enhances the chemosensory reflex and triggers hypertension...
2016: Science Signaling
Fan Yang, Li Zhou, Dong Wang, Li-Li Yang, Guo-Rong Yuan, Qing-Yuan Huang
The phenomenon of water intake reduction during the 1(st) day of hypobaric hypoxia has been known for a long time. However, the reason for the same is yet unknown. The transient receptor potential vanilloid (TRPV) channels, including TRPV1 and TRPV4, are located in the subfornical organ (SFO). These are calcium permeable cationic channels gated by various stimuli such as cell swelling, low pH, and high temperature, and participate in anti-dipsogenic effects when activated. We aimed to explore the drinking behavior of rats and the mechanism of TRPVs under hypoxia...
2016: Scientific Reports
Ya-Nan Zhang, Qing Xie, Guoxin Sun, Kuixing Yang, Shuainan Song, Jingwen Chen, Chengzhi Zhou, Yingjie Li
Photochemical transformation of hydroxylated polyhalodiphenyl ethers (HO-PXDEs) has attracted much attention for their ubiquitous presence and the photochemical formation of highly toxic dioxins. Dissolved organic matter (DOM) plays an important role in the environmental photochemical transformation of organic pollutants. However, the effects of DOM on the photolysis kinetics and dioxin formation of HO-PXDEs are still not fully understood. Herein, the effects of Suwannee River natural organic matter (SRNOM) on the phototransformation of 2'-HO-2,4,4'-trichlorodiphenyl ether (triclosan) and 2'-HO-2,4,4'-tribromodiphenyl ether (2'-HO-BDE-28) were investigated in artificial estuarine water (AEW)...
September 14, 2016: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
Katarzyna Magierowska, Marcin Magierowski, Marcin Surmiak, Juliusz Adamski, Agnieszka Irena Mazur-Bialy, Robert Pajdo, Zbigniew Sliwowski, Slawomir Kwiecien, Tomasz Brzozowski
Carbon monoxide (CO) produced by heme oxygenase (HO)-1 and HO-2 or released from the CO-donor, tricarbonyldichlororuthenium (II) dimer (CORM-2) causes vasodilation, with unknown efficacy against stress-induced gastric lesions. We studied whether pretreatment with CORM-2 (0.1-10 mg/kg oral gavage (i.g.)), RuCl₃ (1 mg/kg i.g.), zinc protoporphyrin IX (ZnPP) (10 mg/kg intraperitoneally (i.p.)), hemin (1-10 mg/kg i.g.) and CORM-2 (1 mg/kg i.g.) combined with N(G)-nitro-l-arginine (l-NNA, 20 mg/kg i.p.), 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ, 10 mg/kg i...
2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
B Chaudhuri, B Mondal, S K Ray, S C Sarkar
We have prepared biocompatible composites of 80wt% polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)-(20wt%) polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) blend with different concentrations of bioactive nanohydroxyapatite, Ca10(PO4)6(HO)2 (HAP). The composite films demonstrated maximum effective conductivity (σ∼1.64×10(-4)S/m) and effective dielectric constant (ε∼290) at percolation threshold concentration (∼10wt% HAP) at room temperature. These values of σ and ε are much higher than those of PVA, PVP or HAP. Our preliminary observation indicated excellent biocompatibility of the electrospun fibrous meshes of two of these composites with different HAP contents (8...
July 1, 2016: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Velislava Tzaneva, Steve F Perry
Carbon monoxide (CO) is a gaseous neurotransmitter produced from the breakdown of heme via heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1; hypoxia-inducible isoform) and heme oxygenase-2 (HO-2; constitutively expressed isoform). In mammals, CO is involved in modulating cardiac function. The role of the HO-1/CO system in the control of heart function in fish, however, is unknown and investigating its physiological function in lower vertebrates will provide a better understanding of the evolution of this regulatory mechanism. We explored the role of the HO-1/CO system in larval zebrafish (Danio rerio) in vivo by investigating the impact of translational gene knockdown of HO-1 on cardiac function...
May 15, 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
Aleksandra Kładna, Paweł Berczyński, Irena Kruk, Teresa Piechowska, Hassan Y Aboul-Enein
Isoflavones genistein and daidzein are nonsteroidal phytoestrogens occurring mainly in soybean foods. These phytoestrogens possess estrogenic properties and show a variety of health benefits as anti-inflammatory agents. However, the mechanism of their action has not been identified in detail. The aim of this study is to characterize the antioxidant powers of genistein, daidzein and daidzein metabolite-equol through their activities to scavenge superoxide anion radical (O(•) 2 (-) ), hydroxyl radical (HO(•) ), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH(•) ) and hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) using chemiluminescence and spectrophotometry techniques...
September 2016: Luminescence: the Journal of Biological and Chemical Luminescence
Lu Kang, Joseph P Grande, Matthew L Hillestad, Anthony J Croatt, Michael A Barry, Zvonimir S Katusic, Karl A Nath
The arteriovenous fistula (AVF) is the preferred hemodialysis vascular access, but it is complicated by high failure rates and attendant morbidity. This study provides the first description of a murine AVF model that recapitulates two salient features of hemodialysis AVFs, namely, anastomosis of end-vein to side-artery to create the AVF and the presence of chronic kidney disease (CKD). CKD reduced AVF blood flow, observed as early as 3 days after AVF creation, and increased neointimal hyperplasia, venous wall thickness, thrombus formation, and vasculopathic gene expression in the AVF...
March 15, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
Wan-Ying Niu, Jing-Wen Sun, Peng-Fei Yan, Yu-Xin Li, Guang-Hui An, Guang-Ming Li
A series of five l-di-p-toluoyl-tartaric acid (l-DTTA) lanthanide coordination polymers, namely {[Ln4 K(4)  L6 (H2O)x ]⋅yH2 O}n , [Ln=Dy (1), x=24, y=12; Ln=Ho (2), x=23, y=12; Ln=Er (3), x=24, y=12; Ln=Yb (4), x=24, y=11; Ln=Lu (5), x=24, y=12] have been isolated by simple reactions of H2L (H2 L= L-DTTA) with LnCl3 ⋅6 H2O at ambient temperature. X-ray crystallographic analysis reveals that complexes 1-5 feature two-dimensional (2D) network structures in which the Ln(3+) ions are bridged by carboxylate groups of ligands in two unique coordinated modes...
February 18, 2016: Chemistry, An Asian Journal
Giorgio Ivan Russo, Luca Vanella, Tommaso Castelli, Sebastiano Cimino, Giulio Reale, Daniele Urzì, Giovanni Li Volti, Mauro Gacci, Marco Carini, Fabio Motta, Rosario Caltabiano, Lidia Puzzo, Valeria Sorrenti, Giuseppe Morgia
PURPOSE: To investigate the relationship between intra-prostatic levels of heme oxygenase (HO), metaflammation in benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) tissue in patients with MetS and moderate-severe lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). METHODS: Between January 2012 and June 2013, 132 consecutive patients, who underwent transurethral resection of the prostate for moderate-severe LUTS, secondary to clinical BPH, were enrolled. Prostate samples were investigated for the presence of an inflammatory infiltrate, according to the Irani score, and for HO-1 and HO-2 levels measurements...
August 2016: World Journal of Urology
Dongqing Guo, Shenghui Liang, Su Wang, Chengchun Tang, Bin Yao, Wenhui Wan, Hailing Zhang, Hui Jiang, Asif Ahmed, Zhiren Zhang, Yuchun Gu
An increasing number of mechano-sensitive ion channels in endothelial cells have been identified in response to blood flow and hydrostatic pressure. However, how these channels respond to flow under different physiological and pathological conditions remains unknown. Our results show that epithelial Na(+) channels (ENaCs) colocalize with hemeoxygenase-1 (HO-1) and hemeoxygenase-2 (HO-2) within the caveolae on the apical membrane of endothelial cells and are sensitive to stretch pressure and shear stress. ENaCs exhibited low levels of activity until their physiological environment was changed; in this case, the upregulation of HO-1, which in turn facilitated heme degradation and hence increased the carbon monoxide (CO) generation...
January 15, 2016: Journal of Cell Science
Makoto Suematsu, Takashi Nakamura, Yasuhito Tokumoto, Takehiro Yamamoto, Mayumi Kajimura, Yasuaki Kabe
CO is a gaseous mediator generated by HO. Our previous studies revealed that CO generated from inducible HO-1 or from constitutive HO-2 modulates function of different heme proteins or enzymes through binding to their prosthetic ferrous heme to alter their structures, regulating biological function of cells and organs. Such CO-directed target macromolecules include sGC and CBS. In the liver, CO serves as a sinusoidal dilator through its action on sGC in hepatic stellate cells, while the same gas accounts for vasoconstrictor that inhibits H2S generated by CO-sensitive CBS in astrocytes...
April 2016: Microcirculation: the Official Journal of the Microcirculatory Society, Inc
Katarzyna Magierowska, Marcin Magierowski, Magdalena Hubalewska-Mazgaj, Juliusz Adamski, Marcin Surmiak, Zbigniew Sliwowski, Slawomir Kwiecien, Tomasz Brzozowski
The physiological gaseous molecule, carbon monoxide (CO) becomes a subject of extensive investigation due to its vasoactive activity throughout the body but its role in gastroprotection has been little investigated. We determined the mechanism of CO released from its donor tricarbonyldichlororuthenium (II) dimer (CORM-2) in protection of gastric mucosa against 75% ethanol-induced injury. Rats were pretreated with CORM-2 30 min prior to 75% ethanol with or without 1) non-selective (indomethacin) or selective cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 (SC-560) and COX-2 (celecoxib) inhibitors, 2) nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor L-NNA, 3) ODQ, a soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) inhibitor, hemin, a heme oxygenase (HO)-1 inductor or zinc protoporphyrin IX (ZnPPIX), an inhibitor of HO-1 activity...
2015: PloS One
Luís P Viegas, António J C Varandas
We report a theoretical investigation on the role of the water dimer and trimer in the reaction between the hydroperoxyl radical and ozone. This study is part of an ongoing series of research endeavors that intend to deliver a comprehensive understanding on the role of water on this reaction. Due to the complexity of the potential energy surface, and to be able to make comparisons with our previous works, our calculations have employed model chemistries based on the Kohn-Sham DFT formalism. It is found that the calculated reaction paths share a common scheme, not only in the context of this work, but also in consideration of our previous studies...
March 3, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Sunju Park, Seung-Ho Sun
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study is to investigate both the single-dose intramuscular injection toxicity and the approximate lethal dose of water-soluble Carthami-flos and Cervi cornu parvum pharmacopuncture (WCFC) in male and female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. METHODS: The study was conducted at Biotoxtech Co. according to the Good Laboratory Practice (GLP) regulation and the toxicity test guidelines of the Ministry of Food and Drug Safety (MFDS) after approval of the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee...
September 2015: Journal of Pharmacopuncture
Sung Ho Jang, Han Do Lee
The authors attempted to demonstrate the compensatory process for an injured fornical crus after mild traumatic brain injury, using follow-up diffusion tensor tractography. A 50-yr-old female patient had a mild traumatic brain injury resulting from a collision that occurred while driving a sedan that was hit from the side. The patient complained of memory impairment since the onset of head trauma and underwent neuropsychologic evaluation at 2 mos after onset with global memory: 77 (6%ile) on the Memory Assessment Scale...
February 2016: American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
Ai-Ho Liao, Hsin-Chiao Ho, Yi-Chun Lin, Hang-Kang Chen, Chih-Hung Wang
The transdermal delivery of a wide range of high-molecular-weight drugs is limited by the stratum corneum layer of the epidermis representing a significant barrier to penetration across the skin. This study first determined the different effects of different-size ultrasound (US) contrast agents and microbubbles (MBs) for enhancing the transdermal delivery of high-molecular-weight drugs. The effects of US-mediated different-size (1.4, 2.1, and 3.5 μm) MBs (as a contrast agent) and ascorbyl tetraisopalmitate (VC-IP) on enhancing skin transdermal delivery were demonstrated both in vitro and in vivo...
2015: PloS One
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