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Aquaporin-4 antibodies

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320331/neuromyelitis-optica-spectrum-disorders-spectrum-of-mr-imaging-findings-and-their-differential-diagnosis
#1
Bruna Garbugio Dutra, Antônio José da Rocha, Renato Hoffmann Nunes, Antônio Carlos Martins Maia
Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an autoimmune demyelinating disorder for which the aquaporin-4 (AQP4) water channels are the major target antigens. Advances in the understanding of NMO have clarified several points of its pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, and imaging patterns. A major advance was the discovery of the AQP4 antibody, which is highly specific for this disorder. Descriptions of new clinical and radiologic features in seropositive patients have expanded the spectrum of NMO, and the term NMO spectrum disorder (NMOSD) has been adopted...
January 2018: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317098/a-case-of-paraneoplastic-neuromyelitis-optica-associated-with-small-cell-lung-carcinoma
#2
Lisa M Deuel, Marjorie E Bunch
Neuromyelitis optic spectrum disorders are demyelinating conditions that are typically idiopathic, though various case reports have demonstrated an association with malignancy. We present the case of a 64year old woman with NMOSD in the setting of small cell lung cancer. She had longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis and left eye optic neuritis; aquaporin-4 antibodies were elevated. Biopsy of mediastinal adenopathy was positive for SCLC. Malignancy should be considered in any patient with an atypical presentation of NMOSD, or who does not respond to traditional therapies...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311561/inhibition-of-rgma-alleviates-symptoms-in-a-rat-model-of-neuromyelitis-optica
#3
Kana Harada, Yuki Fujita, Tatsusada Okuno, Shogo Tanabe, Yoshihisa Koyama, Hideki Mochizuki, Toshihide Yamashita
Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an autoimmune disease associated with NMO immunoglobulin G (NMO-IgG), an antibody that selectively binds to the aquaporin-4. Here, we established a localized NMO model by injecting NMO-IgG into the spinal cord, and assessed the efficacy of treating its NMO-like symptoms by blocking repulsive guidance molecule-a (RGMa), an axon growth inhibitor. The model showed pathological features consistent with NMO. Systemic administration of humanized monoclonal anti-RGMa antibody delayed the onset and attenuated the severity of clinical symptoms...
January 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297041/association-of-visual-impairment-in-neuromyelitis-optica-spectrum-disorder-with-visual-network-reorganization
#4
Carsten Finke, Hanna Zimmermann, Florence Pache, Frederike C Oertel, Velina Sevdalinova Chavarro, Yelyzaveta Kramarenko, Judith Bellmann-Strobl, Klemens Ruprecht, Alexander U Brandt, Friedemann Paul
Importance: Severe visual impairment is one of the major symptoms in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD), but functional network reorganization induced by the diminished sensory input has not been investigated thus far. Objective: To examine adaptive visual network connectivity changes in NMOSD. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this cross-sectional study, data were collected from May 1, 2013, through February 31, 2016, from 31 patients with aquaporin-4 antibody-positive NMOSD and 31 age- and sex-matched healthy control individuals at the Department of Neurology and NeuroCure Clinical Research Center at Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany...
January 2, 2018: JAMA Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29291482/paraneoplastic-neuromyelitis-optica-spectrum-disorder-a-single-center-cohort-description-with-two-cases-of-histological-validation
#5
Philippe Beauchemin, Raffaele Iorio, Anthony L Traboulsee, Thalia Field, Anna V Tinker, Robert L Carruthers
BACKGROUND: Paraneoplastic syndromes are remote effects of cancer caused by an autoimmune response triggered by tumor cells. Paraneoplastic Neuromyelitis Optica Spectrum Disorders (NMOSD) has been previously described, but the underlying mechanism for these rare cases is not well characterized. This paper presents a newly described case series of paraneoplastic NMOSD, including 2 new histological types of cancer and histological validation. METHODS: The UBC NMO clinic database was surveyed and identified 6 patients with paraneoplastic NMOSD...
December 23, 2017: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285152/the-single-nucleotide-polymorphism-site-of-aquaporin-4-gene-in-patients-with-neuromyelitis-optica
#6
Qing-Song Wang, Hong-Qiong Xiao, Hua-Xian Chen, Yan-Ping Liu, Xu-Dong Ding
The single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) site within the aquaporin (AQP)-4 gene exons and its possible role in the pathogenesis of neuromyelitis optica (NMO) were studied. From March 2010 to June 2012, 72 patients with NMO from Xiangyang No. 1 People's Hospital, Hubei University of Medicine were enrolled in the NMO group. At the same time, 80 patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) were enrolled in our study as the MS group. Blood samples were collected and DNA was extracted for analysis of SNP sites of AQP4 gene...
December 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280091/the-gut-microbiome-in-neuromyelitis-optica
#7
REVIEW
Scott S Zamvil, Collin M Spencer, Sergio E Baranzini, Bruce A C Cree
Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is a rare, disabling, sometimes fatal central nervous system inflammatory demyelinating disease that is associated with antibodies ("NMO IgG") that target the water channel protein aquaporin-4 (AQP4) expressed on astrocytes. There is considerable interest in identifying environmental triggers that may elicit production of NMO IgG by AQP4-reactive B cells. Although NMO is considered principally a humoral autoimmune disease, antibodies of NMO IgG are IgG1, a T-cell-dependent immunoglobulin subclass, indicating that AQP4-reactive T cells have a pivotal role in NMO pathogenesis...
December 26, 2017: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29260017/convergence-spasm-due-to-aquaporin-positive-neuromyelitis-optica-spectrum-disorder
#8
Pınar Özçelik, Tural Tanriverdizade, Süleyman Men, Gülden Akdal
A female 27 presented with nausea and diplopia for 1 week. On examination she had normal vertical gaze but would develop convergence with miosis whenever she made horizontal saccades. Pupils were 6 mm and unreactive to light. MRI showed extensive hyperintensity in the dorsal midbrain and thalamus. Spinal MRI and CSF were both normal. Serum aquaporin-4-antibody was positive. She was treated with steroids and plasmapheresis and after 3 months convergence spasm resolved but pupils remained unreactive. Neuromyelitis optica often presents with brainstem signs, rarely a dorsal midbrain syndrome...
June 2017: ENeurologicalSci
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249380/high-resolution-retinal-scanning-reveals-regional-structural-differences-between-ms-and-nmosd-optic-neuritis-regardless-of-antibody-status
#9
Marcel Bertsch-Gout, Richard Loeb, Ashley K Finch, Adil Javed, Jacqueline Bernard
BACKGROUND: There is a need for biomarkers that can classify optic neuritis (ON) attacks as belonging to either neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder with optic neuritis (NMOSD-ON) or relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis with optic neuritis (MS-ON). This study uses spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) data to perform a preliminary contrast between NMOSD-ON and MS-ON by analyzing peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer and intra-macular layer patterns of injury. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, we used SD-OCT to obtain peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer and intra-macular layer data for 26 NMOSD-ON, 25 MS-ON, and 26 healthy control (HC) age-matched eyes...
January 15, 2018: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208041/metabolomics-reveals-distinct-antibody-independent-molecular-signatures-of-ms-aqp4-antibody-and-mog-antibody-disease
#10
Maciej Jurynczyk, Fay Probert, Tianrong Yeo, George Tackley, Tim D W Claridge, Ana Cavey, Mark R Woodhall, Siddharth Arora, Torsten Winkler, Eric Schiffer, Angela Vincent, Gabriele DeLuca, Nicola R Sibson, M Isabel Leite, Patrick Waters, Daniel C Anthony, Jacqueline Palace
The overlapping clinical features of relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS), aquaporin-4 (AQP4)-antibody (Ab) neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD), and myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG)-Ab disease mean that detection of disease specific serum antibodies is the gold standard in diagnostics. However, antibody levels are not prognostic and may become undetectable after treatment or during remission. Therefore, there is still a need to discover antibody-independent biomarkers. We sought to discover whether plasma metabolic profiling could provide biomarkers of these three diseases and explore if the metabolic differences are independent of antibody titre...
December 6, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204292/serum-neurofilament-light-chain-in-nmosd-and-related-disorders-comparison-according-to-aquaporin-4-and-myelin-oligodendrocyte-glycoprotein-antibodies-status
#11
Mariotto S, Farinazzo A, Monaco S, Gajofatto A, Zanusso G, Schanda K, Capra R, Mancinelli C, Bonora A, Bombardi R, Reindl M, Ferrari S
Background: Neurofilament light chain (NF-L) levels reflect axonal damage in different conditions, including demyelinating disorders. Objectives: We aimed to compare serum NF-L levels in patients with aquaporin-4 antibodies (AQP4-Ab), myelin oligodendrocyte antibodies (MOG-Ab) and seronegative cases with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders and related disorders. Methods: We analysed AQP4-Ab and MOG-Ab with cell-based assay and NF-L with ultrasensitive electrochemiluminescence immunoassay...
October 2017: Multiple Sclerosis Journal—Experimental, Translational and Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156226/frequency-of-brain-mri-abnormalities-in-neuromyelitis-optica-spectrum-disorder-at-presentation-a-cohort-of-latin-american-patients
#12
Edgar Carnero Contentti, Vanessa Daccach Marques, Ibis Soto de Castillo, Veronica Tkachuk, Amilton Antunes Barreira, Elizabeth Armas, Edson Chiganer, Camila de Aquino Cruz, José Luis Di Pace, Javier Pablo Hryb, Carolina Lavigne Moreira, Carmen Lessa, Omaira Molina, Monica Perassolo, Arnoldo Soto, Alejandro Caride
BACKGROUND: Brain magnetic resonance imaging (BMRI) lesions were classically not reported in neuromyelitis optica (NMO). However, BMRI lesions are not uncommon in NMO spectrum disorder (NMOSD) patients. OBJECTIVE: To report BMRI characteristic abnormalities (location and configuration) in NMOSD patients at presentation. METHODS: Medical records and BMRI characteristics of 79 patients with NMOSD (during the first documented attack) in Argentina, Brazil and Venezuela were reviewed retrospectively...
November 8, 2017: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144890/comprehensive-analysis-of-patients-with-neuromyelitis-optica-spectrum-disorder-nmosd-combined-with-chronic-hepatitis-b-chb-infection-and-seropositive-for-anti-aquaporin-4-antibody
#13
Jia Liu, Li Xu, Zhuo-Lin Chen, Min Li, Huan Yi, Fu-Hua Peng
Previous research indicated the association between hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection/vaccination and the onset of demyelinating diseases. However, most of these studies were single case reports, and comprehensive data are still scarce. Here we present a comprehensive analysis of 10 patients with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) combined with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) infection and seropositive for anti-aquaporin-4 antibody (AQP4-Ab). Demographic, clinical, laboratory, neuroimaging, outcome, and follow-up data of the 10 patients were retrospectively analyzed...
November 16, 2017: Bosnian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141830/post-herpes-zoster-infection-neuromyelitis-optica-spectrum-disorder
#14
Thomas Mathew, Kurian Thomas, Sonia Shivde, Shruthi Venkatesh, Smitha Mary Rockey
Neuromyelitis optica is a severe autoimmune demyelinating disease; however, the trigger for autoimmunity in an individual patient is unclear. Here, we report the case of a 48 year old female presenting with longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis in the cervical region of the spinal cord two weeks post herpes zoster infection in right C6 dermatome. Though post herpetic myelitis was provisionally diagnosed, serological evaluation revealed aquaporin-4 antibody positivity, confirming the diagnosis of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder...
November 2017: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141825/radiculopathy-in-neuromyelitis-optica-how-does-anti-aqp4-ab-involve-pns
#15
Seungyeon Kim, Joonghyun Park, Bum Sun Kwon, Jin-Woo Park, Ho Jun Lee, Jin-Ho Choi, Kiyeun Nam
BACKGROUND: Until recently, the peripheral nervous system (PNS) had been known to be spared in multiple sclerosis (MS) and neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD). However, some studies of late have reported PNS damage in demyelination diseases of the central nervous system (CNS) such as MS and NMOSD. Although multiple studies have reported characteristics reminiscent of peripheral neuropathy in MS, there have been limited reports in NMOSD. To investigate the incidence and pathology of peripheral neuropathy in NMOSD, we reviewed articles describing such cases including our own case...
November 2017: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141789/a-case-of-seropositive-neuromyelitis-optica-in-a-paediatric-patient-with-co-existing-acute-nephrotic-syndrome
#16
Thomas Volkman, Cheryl Hemingway
Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) and NMO spectrum disorder (NMOSD) is a rare relapsing autoimmune disease of the central nervous system constituting less than 1% of demyelinating diseases (Jeffery and Buncic, 1996). It preferentially affects the optic nerves and spinal cord, with the brain parenchyma generally spared. Demyelinating lesions are characterised by longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis (LETM) and often longitudinally extensive optic neuritis. Following the discovery of a novel pathogenic antibody, Aquaporin 4 in 2004 (Lennon et al...
November 2017: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141393/-the-role-of-myelin-oligodendrocyte-glycoprotein-antibodies-for-detection-of-demyelinating-optic-neuritis
#17
S H Wei, Y Zhao
The incidence of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD) in the Asian population is much higher than in Europe and North America. Optic neuritis is the first sign of NMOSD for some people. Identification of aquaporin 4 antibody is a milestone in the research of NMOSD and has been included in the diagnosis standard of NMOSD, but about 20% to 30% of NMOSD patients is aquaporin 4 antibody-negative. With the cell-based assays, oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibodies in demyelinating diseases of the central nervous system have aroused the attention of researchers...
November 11, 2017: [Zhonghua Yan Ke za Zhi] Chinese Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137920/serum-anti-aquaporin-4-antibody-positive-neuromyelitis-optica-spectrum-disorder-presenting-as-acute-eosinophilic-encephalomyelitis
#18
Toyoteru Muroishi, Kenji Sakai, Daisuke Yanase, Yoshihisa Ikeda, Tomohiko Machiya, Yuko Kato-Motozaki, Miharu Samuraki, Masahito Yamada
We report the case of a 57-year-old man with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) presenting as acute eosinophilic encephalomyelitis. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed central nervous system lesions typical of NMOSD and anti-aquaporin-4 antibodies in the serum were identified; however, eosinophilia was evident in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) at the early stage of the disease. The number of eosinophils in the CSF decreased subsequently. Although activation of eosinophils is known to be an important factor in the development of NMOSD lesions, prominent eosinophilia in the CSF at the early stage of the disease has never been reported in patients with NMOSD...
November 11, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131884/seizures-and-encephalitis-in-myelin-oligodendrocyte-glycoprotein-igg-disease-vs-aquaporin-4-igg-disease
#19
Shahd H M Hamid, Dan Whittam, Mariyam Saviour, Amal Alorainy, Kerry Mutch, Samantha Linaker, Tom Solomon, Maneesh Bhojak, Mark Woodhall, Patrick Waters, Richard Appleton, Martin Duddy, Anu Jacob
Importance: Antibodies to myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein IgG (MOG-IgG) are increasingly detected in patients with non-multiple sclerosis-related demyelination, some of whom manifest a neuromyelitis optica (NMO) phenotype. Cortical involvement, encephalopathy, and seizures are rare in aquaporin 4 antibody (AQP4-IgG)-related NMO in the white European population. However, the authors encountered several patients with seizures associated with MOG-IgG disease. Objective: To compare incidence of seizures and encephalitis-like presentation, or both between AQP4-IgG-positive and MOG-IgG-positive patients...
November 13, 2017: JAMA Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101456/clinical-characteristics-of-myelin-oligodendrocyte-glycoprotein-seropositive-optic-neuritis-a-cohort-study-in-shanghai-china
#20
Guixian Zhao, Qian Chen, Yongheng Huang, Zhenxin Li, Xinghuai Sun, Ping Lu, S Yan, Min Wang, Guohong Tian
Qualitative and quantitative visual outcomes of Asian optic neuritis (ON) patients with seropositive myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) antibodies remain unknown. We retrospectively evaluated a cohort of new-onset ON patients in Shanghai, China between January 2015 and December 2016. Serum MOG and aquaporin-4 (AQP4) antibodies were detected using cell-based assays, and patients were followed-up for at least 6 months. The clinical characteristics and optical coherence tomography (OCT) results were evaluated in the MOG-seropositive optic neuritis (MOG-ON), AQP4-seropositive (AQP4-ON), and double seronegative (Seronegative-ON) patients...
November 3, 2017: Journal of Neurology
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