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Aquaporin-4 antibodies

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079804/aquaporin-4-positive-neuromyelitis-optica-spectrum-disorders-secondary-to-thrombopenic-purpura-a-case-report
#1
Ying Wang, Qiaoyun Gong, Mingqin Zhu, Chao Lu, Li Sun, Jiachun Feng, Hongliang Zhang
RATIONALE: Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD) is considered as an immune-mediated disorder in the central nervous system (CNS). Numerous autoimmune diseases are frequently complicated with NMOSD and distinct clinical characteristics are noted in NMOSD patients with other autoimmune diseases. However, to our best knowledge, co-occurrence of NMOSD and thrombopenic purpura is rarely identified. PATIENT CONCERNS: We presented a rare case of a 72-year-old female with 6-year history of thrombopenic purpura, and 1-month history of blurred vision as well as chest zonethesia...
January 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071581/role-of-aqp4-antibody-serostatus-and-its-prediction-of-visual-outcome-in-neuromyelitis-optica-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#2
Nan Lin, Qing Liu, Xiaoyu Wang, Jianmei Ma, Yuyuan Li
: Backgroud: Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an autoimmune inflammatory disorder, which is characterized by severe attacks of optic neuritis and myelitis. Antibodies (Ab) to aquaporin-4 (AQP4) (or NMO-IgG) as a serological biomarker of NMO have been widespread used. Nevertheless, some NMO patients remain seronegative for AQP4-Ab and/or have no detected optic nerve involvement. In addition, no consensus exists on the association between AQP4-Ab serostatus and visual outcome in NMO. To drive a more precise estimate of this postulated relationship, a meta-analysis was performed based on existing relevant studies...
January 10, 2017: Protein and Peptide Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068933/screening-for-onconeural-antibodies-in-neuromyelitis-optica-spectrum-disorders
#3
Benjamin Berger, Tilman Hottenrott, Sebastian Rauer, Oliver Stich
BACKGROUND: Some so-called "non-classical" paraneoplastic neurological syndromes (PNS), namely optic neuritis and myelitis, clinically overlap with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD), and conversely, in cancer-associated NMOSD, a paraneoplastic etiology has been suggested in rare cases. Therefore, we retrospectively investigated the prevalence of onconeural antibodies, which are highly predictive for a paraneoplastic etiology, and the prevalence of malignancies in NMOSD patients...
January 10, 2017: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067584/short-segment-myelitis-as-a-first-manifestation-of-neuromyelitis-optica-spectrum-disorders
#4
So-Young Huh, Su-Hyun Kim, Jae-Won Hyun, In Hye Jeong, Min Su Park, Sang-Hyun Lee, Ho Jin Kim
BACKGROUND: Some patients with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD) present with spinal cord lesions extending fewer than three vertebral segments (short transverse myelitis, STM), hindering an early diagnosis. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the frequency and imaging characteristics of STM lesions in patients presenting with myelitis as an initial manifestation of NMOSD. METHODS: Patients seen at three referral hospitals in Korea between June 2005 and March 2015 who met the following inclusion criteria were recruited for review: seropositivity for aquaporin-4 antibody, initial presentation with myelitis and spinal cord magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) performed within 1 month of initial myelitis onset...
January 1, 2017: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060988/-neuromyelitis-optica-presenting-concomitantly-with-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-report-of-one-case
#5
Felipe Suárez H, Daniela Urrutia E, Felipe Canales P, Camila Gutiérrez O
Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is a severe demyelinating disease of the central nervous system, which preferentially attacks the optic nerve and spinal cord. It is associated with antibodies against aquaporin 4. Morbidity and mortality are higher than in multiple sclerosis and its treatment focuses on immunosuppressive drugs. Immunomodulators are contraindicated. We report a previously healthy 35-year-old man, presenting with NMO concomitantly with systemic lupus erythematosus. His evolution was torpid with three outbreaks in the 10 months after the diagnosis, requiring a first-line therapy with methylprednisolone and cyclophosphamide and then a second-line therapy with rituximab...
September 2016: Revista Médica de Chile
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058965/clinical-characteristics-of-late-onset-neuromyelitis-optica-spectrum-disorder-a-multicenter-retrospective-study-in-korea
#6
Jin Myoung Seok, Hye-Jin Cho, Suk-Won Ahn, Eun Bin Cho, Min Su Park, In-Soo Joo, Ha Young Shin, Sun-Young Kim, Byung-Jo Kim, Jong Kuk Kim, Joong-Yang Cho, So-Young Huh, Ohyun Kwon, Kwang-Ho Lee, Byoung Joon Kim, Ju-Hong Min
BACKGROUND: There are currently few studies regarding late-onset neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (LO-NMOSD). OBJECTIVE: We aimed to describe the characteristic features of patients with LO-NMOSD in Korea. METHODS: Anti-aquaporin-4 antibody-positive patients with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) from nine tertiary hospitals were reviewed retrospectively. The patients were divided into two groups based on age of onset: LO-NMOSD (⩾50 years of age at onset) versus early-onset neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (EO-NMOSD) (<50 years of age at onset)...
January 1, 2017: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057643/retinal-segmented-layers-with-strong-aquaporin-4-expression-suffered-more-injuries-in-neuromyelitis-optica-spectrum-disorders-compared-with-optic-neuritis-with-aquaporin-4-antibody-seronegativity-detected-by-optical-coherence-tomography
#7
Chun Xia Peng, Hong Yang Li, Wei Wang, Jun Qing Wang, Lei Wang, Quan Gang Xu, Shan Shan Cao, Huan Fen Zhou, Shuo Zhao, Shi Hui Wei
PURPOSE: To evaluate retinal segmented layer alterations in optic neuritis (ON) in an AQP4-Ab seropositive (AQP4-Ab+/ON) cohort and in neuromyelitis optica (NMO) with ON eyes (NMO-ON) compared with an AQP4-Ab seronegative ON (AQP4-Ab-/ON) cohort using optical coherence tomography (OCT). METHODS: We recruited 109 patients with ON (161 eyes) and 47 healthy controls. All patients with ON were subdivided into three subcohorts: 37 patients (54 eyes) with AQP4-Ab+/ON, 45 patients (65 eyes) with AQP4-Ab-/ON and 27 patients (42 eyes) with NMO-ON...
January 5, 2017: British Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056870/anti-n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor-nmdar-antibody-encephalitis-presents-in-atypical-types-and-coexists-with-neuromyelitis-optica-spectrum-disorder-or-neurosyphilis
#8
Kaiyu Qin, Wenqing Wu, Yuming Huang, Dongmei Xu, Lei Zhang, Bowen Zheng, Meijuan Jiang, Cheng Kou, Junhua Gao, Wurong Li, Jinglin Zhang, Sumei Wang, Yanfei Luan, Chaoling Yan, Dan Xu, Xinmei Zheng
BACKGROUND: Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis is a clinically heterogeneous disorder characterized by epileptic seizures, psychosis, dyskinesia, consciousness impairments, and autonomic instability. Symptoms are always various. Sometimes it presents in milder or incomplete forms. We report 4 cases of anti-NMDAR encephalitis with incomplete forms, 3 cases of which were accompanied by neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder or neurosyphilis respectively. CASE PRESENTATION: A 33-year-old man presented with dysarthria, movement disorder and occasional seizures...
January 5, 2017: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054001/aquaporin-4-antibody-titration-in-nmo-patients-treated-with-rituximab-a-retrospective-study
#9
Paola Valentino, Fabiana Marnetto, Letizia Granieri, Marco Capobianco, Antonio Bertolotto
OBJECTIVE: We undertook an observational retrospective study to investigate the usefulness of aquaporin-4 (AQP4) antibodies (Ab) titration in the management of patients with neuromyelitis optica (NMO) treated with rituximab (RTX) by studying (1) the correlation between AQP4-Ab titer and disease activity, (2) the influence of RTX on antibody levels, and (3) the association between AQP4-Ab levels and responsiveness to RTX. METHODS: A cell-based assay was used for AQP4-Ab titration in 322 serum samples from 7 patients with NMO treated with RTX (median follow-up 65 months), according to a treatment-to-target approach...
March 2017: Neurology® Neuroimmunology & Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025408/a-case-of-anti-aquapolin-4-antibody-positive-myelitis-with-hyperhidrosis-following-herpes-zoster
#10
Machiko Suda, Michiko Tsutsumiuchi, Yoshikazu Uesaka, Nobukazu Hayashi
We report an acute myelitis in a 53-year-old woman that occurred in 7 days after the diagnosis of Th5-6 herpes zoster. Clinical examination revealed hyperhidrosis of left side of her face, neck, arm and upper chest. She also had muscle weakness of her left leg and sensory impairment for light touch and temperature in her chest and legs. Spinal cord MRI demonstrated a longitudinal T2-hyperintense lesion extending from Th1 to 7. In the axial imaging, the lesion dominantly located in the left side gray matter...
December 23, 2016: Rinshō Shinkeigaku, Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018943/effects-of-neuromyelitis-optica-igg-at-the-blood-brain-barrier-in-vitro
#11
Yukio Takeshita, Birgit Obermeier, Anne C Cotleur, Simona F Spampinato, Fumitaka Shimizu, Erin Yamamoto, Yasuteru Sano, Thomas J Kryzer, Vanda A Lennon, Takashi Kanda, Richard M Ransohoff
OBJECTIVE: To address the hypothesis that physiologic interactions between astrocytes and endothelial cells (EC) at the blood-brain barrier (BBB) are afflicted by pathogenic inflammatory signaling when astrocytes are exposed to aquaporin-4 (AQP4) antibodies present in the immunoglobulin G (IgG) fraction of serum from patients with neuromyelitis optica (NMO), referred to as NMO-IgG. METHODS: We established static and flow-based in vitro BBB models incorporating co-cultures of conditionally immortalized human brain microvascular endothelial cells and human astrocyte cell lines with or without AQP4 expression...
January 2017: Neurology® Neuroimmunology & Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017203/pregnancy-in-neuromyelitis-optica-spectrum-disorder-a-multicenter-study-from-south-china
#12
Yanlu Huang, Yuge Wang, Yifan Zhou, Qiao Huang, Xiaobo Sun, Chen Chen, Ling Fang, Youming Long, Hui Yang, Honghao Wang, Caixia Li, Zhengqi Lu, Xueqiang Hu, Allan G Kermode, Wei Qiu
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess the effect of pregnancy on the course of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD), and the effect of this disease on pregnancy outcomes. METHODS: Consecutive patients with NMOSD were recruited between September 2015 and April 2016 at an outpatient clinic from four referral institutes in South China. Demographic, clinical, and pregnancy data were retrieved by questionnaires to analyze the association between NMOSD and pregnancy, as well as the potential risk factors for relapse...
January 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017200/the-characteristics-of-spinal-imaging-in-different-types-of-demyelinating-diseases
#13
Chaisak Dumrikarnlert, Sasitorn Siritho, Pimwalai Chulapimphan, Chanon Ngamsombat, Chanjira Satukijchai, Naraporn Prayoonwiwat
BACKGROUND: Transverse myelitis is the common presentation in demyelinating conditions. OBJECTIVE: To determine the characteristics of spinal lesions among each type of demyelinating diseases. METHODS: Medical records and spinal imaging of patients who were [1] older than 18years, [2] had at least one attack of TM, [3] had available spinal MRI data and [4] were tested for aquaporin-4 antibody were included. RESULTS: One hundred and fifty-eight patients were eligible (27 clinically isolated syndrome [CIS], 38 MS, 55 seropositive neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders [NMOSD], 9 seronegative NMOSD, and 29 idiopathic transverse myelitis [IDD-TM])...
January 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994362/serological-markers-associated-with-neuromyelitis-optica-spectrum-disorders-in-south-india
#14
Lekha Pandit, Douglas Kazutoshi Sato, Sharik Mustafa, Toshiyuki Takahashi, Anitha D'Cunha, Chaithra Malli, Akshatha Sudhir, Kazuo Fujihara
BACKGROUND: Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSDs) represent 20% of all demyelinating disorders in South India. No studies have determined the seroprevalence to both antibodies against aquaporin-4* and antimyelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibody (anti-MOG+) in this population. OBJECTIVE: To identify and characterize seropositive patients for anti-aquaporin-4 antibody (anti-AQP4+) and anti-MOG+ in South India. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We included 125 consecutive patients (15 children) who were serologically characterized using live transfected cells to human M23-AQP4 or full-length MOG...
October 2016: Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936193/occurrence-of-asymptomatic-acute-neuromyelitis-optica-spectrum-disorder-typical-brain-lesions-during-an-attack-of-optic-neuritis-or-myelitis
#15
Su-Hyun Kim, Jae-Won Hyun, AeRan Joung, Sang Hyun Lee, Ho Jin Kim
We aimed to investigate the frequency of asymptomatic acute brain MRI abnormalities accompanying optic neuritis (ON) or myelitis in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) patients with aquaporin-4 antibodies (AQP4-Ab). We reviewed 324 brain MRI scans that were obtained during acute attacks of ON or myelitis, in 165 NMOSD patients with AQP4-Ab. We observed that acute asymptomatic NMOSD-typical brain lesions accompanied 27 (8%) acute attacks of ON or myelitis in 24 (15%) patients. The most common asymptomatic brain abnormalities included edematous corpus callosum lesions (n = 17), followed by lesions on the internal capsule and/or cerebral peduncle lesions (n = 9), periependymal surfaces of the fourth ventricle (n = 5), large deep white matter lesions (n = 4), periependymal cerebral lesions surrounding the lateral ventricles (n = 3), and hypothalamic lesions (n = 1)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928414/leber-hereditary-optic-neuropathy-with-interval-of-visual-loss-greater-than-12-months
#16
Renata Cristina Ferreira Prado, Frederico Castelo Moura
A 28-year-old man presented with severe left visual loss and normal right visual acuity. The left fundus examination showed temporal pallor and complete absence of the nerve fibre layer (NFL) of papillomacular bundle. Right fundus examination showed focal loss of inferotemporal NFL. Magnetic resonance and serum aquaporin-4 antibody were negative. After 14 months of the initial visual involvement, the patient suffered subacute visual loss in contralateral eye. Genetic study revealed the 11778 point mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutation associated with Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON)...
October 2016: Neuro-ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919493/eleven-episodes-of-recurrent-optic-neuritis-of-the-same-eye-for-22-years-eventually-diagnosed-as-neuromyelitis-optica-spectrum-disorder
#17
Yih Chian Yew, Jyh Yung Hor, Thien Thien Lim, Ruban Kanesalingam, Yee Ming Ching, Masita Arip, P E Samuel Easaw, Gaik Bee Eow
It is difficult to predict whether a particular attack of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) will affect the optic nerve [optic neuritis (ON): unilateral or bilateral], spinal cord (myelitis), brain or brainstem, or a combination of the above. We report an interesting case of recurrent ON of the same eye for a total of 11 episodes in a Chinese woman. Over a period of 22 years, the attacks only involved the left eye, and never the right eye and also no myelitis. For a prolonged duration, she was diagnosed as recurrent idiopathic ON...
November 2016: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919188/clinical-analysis-of-neuromyelitis-optica-presenting-as-intractable-nausea-vomiting-and-hiccups
#18
Xuehong Jin, Shaofang Pei, Yi Liu, Xia Li
Vomiting and hiccups can be the manifestations of numerous systemic and neurological illnesses. Intractable nausea, vomiting and hiccups (INH) are reported as possible initial manifestations of neuromyelitis optica (NMO), but not correctly identified. Awareness of these atypical presentations is conducive to NMO early diagnosis and proper treatment to prevent further disability. In this paper, 12 NMO were reported, whose intractable vomiting and hiccups were the sole manifestations of the first attack and other attacks involving spinal cord and optic nerves developed later...
December 16, 2016: International Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917302/characterization-of-the-blood-brain-barrier-in-pediatric-central-nervous-system-neoplasms
#19
Christopher S Hong, Winson Ho, Martin G Piazza, Abhik Ray-Chaudhury, Zhengping Zhuang, John D Heiss
OBJECTIVE: The normal blood-brain barrier (BBB) is composed of tight junctions between endothelial cells and surrounding astrocyte foot processes. Breakdown of the physiological astrocyte-endothelial cell relationship occurs in adult metastatic and primary brain tumors. However, the astrocyte-endothelial cell relationship has not been studied in pediatric tumors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Utilizing specimens from cases of pilocytic astrocytoma (n = 5), medulloblastoma (n = 5), and low-grade diffuse astrocytoma (n = 1), immunofluorescence were performed using primary antibodies against CD31, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), and aquaporin 4 (AQ4)...
2016: Journal of Interdisciplinary Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906756/optic-neuritis-the-eye-as-a-window-to-the-brain
#20
Thomas M Jenkins, Ahmed T Toosy
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Acute optic neuritis is a common clinical problem, requiring a structured assessment to guide management and prevent visual loss. The optic nerve is the most accessible part of the central nervous system, so optic neuritis also represents an important paradigm to help decipher mechanisms of damage and recovery in the central nervous system. Important developments include the advent of optical coherence tomography as a biomarker of central nervous system axonal loss, the discovery of new pathological antibodies, notably against aquaporin-4 and, more recently, myelin oligodendrocyte protein, and emerging evidence for sodium channel blockade as a novel therapeutic approach to address energy failure in neuroinflammatory disease...
February 2017: Current Opinion in Neurology
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