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Emily K Don, Isabel Formella, Andrew P Badrock, Thomas E Hall, Marco Morsch, Elinor Hortle, Alison Hogan, Sharron Chow, Serene S L Gwee, Jack J Stoddart, Garth Nicholson, Roger Chung, Nicholas J Cole
Currently there is a lack in fundamental understanding of disease progression of most neurodegenerative diseases, and, therefore, treatments and preventative measures are limited. Consequently, there is a great need for adaptable, yet robust model systems to both investigate elementary disease mechanisms and discover effective therapeutics. We have generated a Tol2 Gateway-compatible toolbox to study neurodegenerative disorders in zebrafish, which includes promoters for astrocytes, microglia and motor neurons, multiple fluorophores, and compatibility for the introduction of genes of interest or disease-linked genes...
September 15, 2016: Zebrafish
K Kawakami, K Asakawa, M Hibi, M Itoh, A Muto, H Wada
Targeted expression by the Gal4-UAS system is a powerful genetic method to analyze the functions of genes and cells in vivo. Although the Gal4-UAS system has been extensively used in genetic studies in Drosophila, it had not been applied to genetic studies in vertebrates until the mid-2000s. This was mainly due to the lack of an efficient transgenesis tool in model vertebrates, such as the P-transposable element of Drosophila, that can create hundreds or thousands of transgene insertions in different loci on the genome and thereby enables the generation of transgenic lines expressing Gal4 in various tissues and cells via enhancer trapping...
2016: Advances in Genetics
A Felker, C Mosimann
Spatiotemporal transgene regulation by transgenic DNA recombinases is a central tool for reverse genetics in multicellular organisms, with excellent applications for misexpression and lineage tracing experiments. One of the most widespread technologies for this purpose is Cre recombinase-controlled lox site recombination that is attracting increasing interest in the zebrafish field. Tol2-mediated zebrafish transgenesis provides a stable platform to integrate lox cassette transgenes, while the amenability of the zebrafish embryo to drug treatments makes the model an ideal candidate for tamoxifen-inducible CreERT2 experiments...
2016: Methods in Cell Biology
A Ghosh, M E Halpern
Methods to label cell populations selectively or to modify their gene expression are critical tools in the study of developmental or physiological processes in vivo. A variety of approaches have been applied to the zebrafish model, capitalizing on Tol2 transposition to generate transgenic lines with high efficiency. Here we describe the adoption of the Q system of Neurospora crassa, which includes the QF transcription factor and the upstream activating sequence (QUAS) to which it binds. These components function as a bipartite regulatory system similar to that of yeast Gal4/UAS, producing robust expression in transient assays of zebrafish embryos injected with plasmids and in stable transgenic lines...
2016: Methods in Cell Biology
K Kawakami, K Asakawa, A Muto, H Wada
The Tol2 element is an active transposon that was found from the genome of the Japanese medaka fish. Since the Tol2 transposition system is active in all vertebrate cells tested so far, it has been applied to germ line transgenesis in various model animals including fish, frog, chicken, and mouse, and to gene transfer in culture cells. In zebrafish, the Tol2 system consists of the transposase mRNA and a Tol2 transposon-donor plasmid, and is introduced into fertilized eggs by microinjection. Thus genomic integrations of the Tol2 construct are generated in the germ lineage and transmitted to the offspring very efficiently...
2016: Methods in Cell Biology
Tian Huang, Zhongyang Cao, Yaohui Yang, Gengsheng Cao
The Cashmere goat is mainly used to produce cashmere, which is very popular for its delicate fiber, luscious softness and natural excellent warm property. Keratin associated protein (KAP) and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) of the Cashmere goat play an important role in the proliferation and development of cashmere fiber follicle cells. Bacterial artificial chromosome containing kap6.3, kap8.1 and bmp4 genes were used to increase the production and quality of Cashmere. First, we constructed bacterial artificial chromosomes by homology recombination...
March 2016: Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao, Chinese Journal of Biotechnology
Yuta Suzuki, Jonas Korlach, Stephen W Turner, Tatsuya Tsukahara, Junko Taniguchi, Wei Qu, Kazuki Ichikawa, Jun Yoshimura, Hideaki Yurino, Yuji Takahashi, Jun Mitsui, Hiroyuki Ishiura, Shoji Tsuji, Hiroyuki Takeda, Shinichi Morishita
MOTIVATION: Determining the methylation state of regions with high copy numbers is challenging for second-generation sequencing, because the read length is insufficient to map reads uniquely, especially when repetitive regions are long and nearly identical to each other. Single-molecule real-time (SMRT) sequencing is a promising method for observing such regions, because it is not vulnerable to GC bias, it produces long read lengths, and its kinetic information is sensitive to DNA modifications...
October 1, 2016: Bioinformatics
Michelle L Stoller, Donna M Fekete
The avian embryo has a well-documented history as a model system for the study of neurogenesis, morphogenesis, and cell fate specification. This includes studies of the chicken inner ear that employ in ovo electroporation, in conjunction with the Tol2 system, to yield robust long-term transgene expression. Capitalizing on the success of this delivery method, we describe a modified version of the Tol2 expression vector that readily accepts the insertion of a microRNA-encoding artificial intron. This offers a strategy to investigate the possible roles of different candidate microRNAs in ear development by overexpression...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
Priscilla A Erickson, Nicholas A Ellis, Craig T Miller
The threespine stickleback fish has emerged as a powerful system to study the genetic basis of a wide variety of morphological, physiological, and behavioral phenotypes. The remarkably diverse phenotypes that have evolved as marine populations adapt to countless freshwater environments, combined with the ability to cross marine and freshwater forms, provide a rare vertebrate system in which genetics can be used to map genomic regions controlling evolved traits. Excellent genomic resources are now available, facilitating molecular genetic dissection of evolved changes...
2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Nilambari Pawar, P Gireesh-Babu, Supriya Sabnis, Kiran Rasal, Renuka Murthy, S G S Zaidi, Sridhar Sivasubbu, Aparna Chaudhari
We report a transgenic zebrafish (Danio rerio) designed to respond to heavy metals using a metal-responsive promoter linked to a fluorescent reporter gene (DsRed2). The metallothionein MT-Ia1 promoter containing metal-responsive elements was derived from the Asian green mussel, Perna viridis. The promoter is known to be induced by a broad spectrum of heavy metals. The promoter-reporter cassette cloned into the Tol2 transposon vector was microinjected into zebrafish embryos that were then reared to maturity...
October 2016: Transgenic Research
Jun Ni, Kirk J Wangensteen, David Nelsen, Darius Balciunas, Kimberly J Skuster, Mark D Urban, Stephen C Ekker
BACKGROUND: The revolutionary concept of "jumping genes" was conceived by McClintock in the late 1940s while studying the Activator/Dissociation (Ac/Ds) system in maize. Transposable elements (TEs) represent the most abundant component of many eukaryotic genomes. Mobile elements are a driving force of eukaryotic genome evolution. McClintock's Ac, the autonomous element of the Ac/Ds system, together with hobo from Drosophila and Tam3 from snapdragon define an ancient and diverse DNA transposon superfamily named hAT...
2016: Mobile DNA
Giorgia Bergamin, Domenico Cieri, Giovanni Vazza, Francesco Argenton, Maria Luisa Mostacciuolo
OBJECTIVES: Deregulation of axonal transport in neurons is emerging as the major cause of many neurodegenerative diseases in human, such as Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) neuropathy. However, little is known about how mitochondria move in vivo and whether cell culture systems truly represent what happens in living animals. Here we describe the generation of a new zebrafish transgenic line that specifically allows to study mitochondrial dynamics in motor neurons and its application to analyse mitochondrial movement in zebrafish models expressing CMT2A causing mutations...
June 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Nozomu Takata, Eriko Sakakura, Takeya Kasukawa, Tetsushi Sakuma, Takashi Yamamoto, Yoshiki Sasai
The epiblast (foremost embryonic ectoderm) generates all three germ layers and therefore has crucial roles in the formation of all mammalian body cells. However, regulation of epiblast gene expression is poorly understood because of the difficulty of manipulating epiblast tissues in vivo. In the present study, using the self-organizing properties of embryonic stem cell (ESC), we generated and characterized epiblast-like tissue in three-dimensional culture. We identified significant genome-wide gene expression changes in this epiblast-like tissue by transcriptomic analysis...
June 2016: Human Gene Therapy
Pavle Vrljicak, Shijie Tao, Gaurav K Varshney, Helen Ngoc Bao Quach, Adita Joshi, Matthew C LaFave, Shawn M Burgess, Karuna Sampath
DNA transposons and retroviruses are important transgenic tools for genome engineering. An important consideration affecting the choice of transgenic vector is their insertion site preferences. Previous large-scale analyses of Ds transposon integration sites in plants were done on the basis of reporter gene expression or germ-line transmission, making it difficult to discern vertebrate integration preferences. Here, we compare over 1300 Ds transposon integration sites in zebrafish with Tol2 transposon and retroviral integration sites...
2016: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
Fernando Fuentes, Eric Reynolds, Stephen W Lewellis, Gayatri Venkiteswaran, Holger Knaut
Transgenesis of large DNA constructs is essential for gene function analysis. Recently, Tol2 transposase-mediated transgenesis has emerged as a powerful tool to insert bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) DNA constructs into the genome of zebrafish. For efficient transgenesis, the genomic DNA piece in the BAC construct needs to be flanked by Tol2 transposon sites, and the constructs should contain a transgenesis marker for easy identification of transgenic animals. We report a set of plasmids that contain targeting cassettes that allow the insertion of Tol2 sites and different transgenesis markers into BACs...
2016: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
Lars Wöhlbrand, Hanna S Ruppersberg, Christoph Feenders, Bernd Blasius, Hans-Peter Braun, Ralf Rabus
Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) obtain energy from cytoplasmic reduction of sulfate to sulfide involving APS-reductase (AprAB) and dissimilatory sulfite reductase (DsrAB). These enzymes are predicted to obtain electrons from membrane redox complexes, i.e. the quinone-interacting membrane-bound oxidoreductase (QmoABC) and DsrMKJOP complexes. In addition to these conserved complexes, the genomes of SRB encode a large number of other (predicted) membrane redox complexes, the function and actual formation of which is unknown...
March 2016: Proteomics
Yaohui Yang, Wenyuan Wang, Tian Huang, Weimin Ruan, Gengsheng Cao
Bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) are vectors that are capable of carrying gene fragments of up to 300 kb in size, and in theory, harbor cis-regulatory elements that are necessary for the expression of specific genes. Therefore, BACs can effectively alleviate or even eliminate the position effect induced by gene-integration, rendering these as ideal expression vectors of exogenous genes. However, the number of relevant studies involving BACs as vectors of exogenous genes are limited. In the present study, we converted the BAC regulatory region of the Mus musculus Wap gene into a mammary gland-specific expression vector...
January 20, 2016: Journal of Biotechnology
Hary Sakti Muliawan, Kazuhiko Nakayama, Keiko Yagi, Koji Ikeda, Kazuhiro Yagita, Ken-ichi Hirata, Noriaki Emoto
Gene delivery to the lung has rapidly progressed as an important method for studying various chronic lung diseases. Viral vectors, albeit highly efficient, are limited by the host immune response. Electroporation, a well-known non-viral method, can efficiently deliver genes to the lung, but is unable to induce stable gene expression. The Tol2 transposon is another non-viral method that can induce stable gene expression by reinserting its genes into the host genome. In this study, we combined electroporation and Tol2 transposons to obtain stable, high-level gene expression in the mouse lung...
2015: Kobe Journal of Medical Sciences
Sowmya Balasubramanian, Yashas Rajendra, Lucia Baldi, David L Hacker, Florian M Wurm
Several naturally occurring vertebrate transposable elements have been genetically modified to enable the transposition of recombinant genes in mammalian cells. We compared three transposons-piggyBac, Tol2, and Sleeping Beauty-for their ability to generate cell pools (polyclonal cultures of recombinant cells) and clonal cell lines for the large-scale production of recombinant proteins using Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO-DG44) as the host. Transfection with each of the dual-vector transposon systems resulted in cell pools with volumetric yields of tumor necrosis factor receptor-Fc fusion protein (TNFR:Fc) that were about ninefold higher than those from cell pools generated by conventional plasmid transfection...
June 2016: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
Chih-Lun Cheng, Shin-Jie Huang, Chih-Lu Wu, Hong-Yi Gong, Chuian-Fu Ken, Shao-Yang Hu, Jen-Leih Wu
BACKGROUND: Highly desaturated n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), are synthesized by desaturases and elongase. They exert hepatoprotective effects to prevent alcoholic fatty liver syndrome or cholestatic liver injury. However, it is unclear how n-3 PUFAs improve immune function in liver. Vibrio vulnificus, a gram-negative bacterial pathogen, causes high mortality of aquaculture fishes upon infection. Humans can become infected with V...
2015: Journal of Biomedical Science
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