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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531552/the-role-of-next-generation-sequencing-in-infection-prevention-in-human-parainfluenza-virus-3-infections-in-immunocompromised-patients
#1
Atul Kothari, Mary J Burgess, Juan Carlos Rico Crescencio, Joshua L Kennedy, Jesse L Denson, Kurt C Schwalm, Ashley N Stoner, John C Kincaid, Faith E Davies, Darrell L Dinwiddie
BACKGROUND: Respiratory viral infections are a significant problem in patients with hematologic malignancies. We report a cluster of HPIV 3 infections in our myeloma patients, and describe the utility of next generation sequencing (NGS) to identify transmission linkages which can assist in infection prevention. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the utility of NGS to track respiratory viral infection outbreaks and delineate between community acquired and nosocomial infections in our cancer units...
May 12, 2017: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527651/clinical-efficacy-of-cycling-empirical-antibiotic-therapy-for-febrile-neutropenia-in-pediatric-cancer-patients
#2
Hideto Teranishi, Yuhki Koga, Hisanori Nishio, Wakako Kato, Hiroaki Ono, Shunsuke Kanno, Kentaro Nakashima, Hidetoshi Takada
BACKGROUND: Febrile neutropenia (FN) is the main treatment-related cause of mortality among children with cancer, as the prolonged use of broad-spectrum antibiotics can lead to antibiotic resistance in these patients. Antibiotic cycling has been reported to limit the emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria among adult patients. However, no studies have evaluated pediatric patients with FN. METHODS: Between September 2011 and February 2014, 126 pediatric cancer patients were admitted to our center for chemotherapy and/or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and were included in this study...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525978/notch-ligand-delta-like-1-as-a-novel-molecular-target-in-childhood-neuroblastoma
#3
P Bettinsoli, G Ferrari-Toninelli, S A Bonini, C Prandelli, M Memo
BACKGROUND: Neuroblastoma is the most common extracranial solid malignancy in childhood, responsible for 15% of all pediatric cancer deaths. It is an heterogeneous disease that does not always respond to classical therapy; so the identification of new and specific molecular targets to improve existing therapy is needed. We have previously demonstrated the involvement of the Notch pathway in the onset and progression of neuroblastoma. In this study we further investigated the role of Notch signaling and identified Delta-like 1 (DLL1) as a novel molecular target in neuroblastoma cells with a high degree of MYCN amplification, which is a major oncogenic driver in neuroblastoma...
May 19, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521635/pathologic-characteristics-natural-history-and-prognostic-implications-of-braf-v600e-mutation-in-pediatric-papillary-thyroid-carcinoma
#4
Steven Hardee, Manju L Prasad, Pei Hui, Catherine A Dinauer, Raffaella A Morotti
The BRAF(V600E) mutation is the most common genetic aberration in papillary thyroid cancer (PTC), found in up to 68% of PTC in adults where it is associated with aggressive features. The incidence of this mutation in pediatric PTC is less frequent, reported as 0%-20% in the past and up to 63% in one recent series. Data suggest the mutation is not associated with an aggressive course in children; however, there are limited numbers of reported case series, so the prognostic implications remain poorly understood...
June 2017: Pediatric and Developmental Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521631/immunohistochemical-profile-of-myc-protein-in-pediatric-small-round-blue-cell-tumors
#5
Karen M Chisholm, Chandra Krishnan, Amy Heerema-McKenney, Yasodha Natkunam
Deregulation of MYC oncoprotein in cancers can result from multiple oncogenic mechanisms. Although MYC translocations define Burkitt lymphoma and MYC protein expression is a poor prognostic factor in undifferentiated neuroblastomas, the distribution of MYC protein (c-MYC) across other pediatric small round blue cell tumors (SRBCT) has not been well characterized. We undertook this study to assess MYC protein expression in a large cohort of pediatric lymphomas, sarcomas, and other SRBCT. Tissue microarrays containing 302 SRBCT were successfully evaluated by immunohistochemistry using anti-MYC clone Y69, with nuclear positivity scored as 0%, 1%-25%, 26%-50%, 51%-75%, or 76%-100%...
June 2017: Pediatric and Developmental Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521628/cd36-positive-b-lymphoblasts-predict-poor-outcome-in-children-with-b-lymphoblastic-leukemia
#6
Joanna G Newton, John T Horan, Scott Newman, Michael R Rossi, Rhett P Ketterling, Sunita I Park
Objective We observed that pediatric patients with B lymphoblastic leukemia which expressed CD36 at diagnosis seemed to have worse outcome than patients whose blasts did not. Here, we describe the patient, disease characteristics, pathological, molecular, and genetic features and outcomes of patients with CD36+ B-LL compared to patients with CD36- B-LL. Methods We retrospectively reviewed all flow cytometry reports from September 2008 to December 2015 to identify patients diagnosed at our institution with CD36 expression on B lymphoblasts...
June 2017: Pediatric and Developmental Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521298/insulin-like-growth-factor-2-axis-supports-the-serum-independent-growth-of-malignant-rhabdoid-tumor-and-is-activated-by-microenvironment-stress
#7
Ting Li, Jin Wang, Pengfei Liu, Jiadong Chi, Han Yan, Lei Lei, Zexing Li, Bing Yang, Xi Wang
Malignant rhabdoid tumors (MRTs) are rare, lethal, pediatric tumors predominantly found in the kidney, brain and soft tissues. MRTs are driven by loss of tumor suppressor SNF5/INI1/SMARCB1/BAF47. The prognosis of MRT is poor using currently available treatments, so new treatment targets need to be identified to expand treatment options for patients experiencing chemotherapy resistance. The growth hormone insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) signaling pathway is a promising target to overcome drug resistance in many cancers...
May 4, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520616/pediatric-cancer-burden-and-treatment-resources-within-the-pediatric-iedea-consortium
#8
Steven A Brown, Salma Abbas, Mary-Ann Davies, Torsak Bunupuradah, Annette H Sohn, Karl-Günter Technau, Lorna Renner, Valériane Leroy, Andrew Edmonds, Marcel Yotebieng, Catherine C McGowan, Stephany N Duda, Lynne Mofenson, Beverly Musick, Kara Wools-Kaloustian
INTRODUCTION: The incidence and treatment of cancer in HIV-infected children from resource-limited settings has not been extensively studied. OBJECTIVES: Develop and implement a cross-sectional survey to evaluate pediatric cancer burden, diagnostic modalities in use, and treatment availability as perceived by HIV clinic staff at regional International Epidemiology Databases to Evaluate AIDS (IeDEA) sites. METHODS: IeDEA regional investigators developed a cross-sectional clinical site survey which included questions on the numbers and types of pediatric cancers observed, modalities used to treat identified cancers and treatment options available at individual sites in the Asia-Pacific, Latin America, Central Africa, East Africa, West Africa, and Southern Africa regions...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516127/a-pilot-study-for-linking-adolescent-patients-to-an-interactive-tobacco-prevention-program
#9
Karen S Calabro, Salma K Marani, Thuan A Le, Georges E Khalil, Irene M Tami-Maury, Alexander V Prokhorov
CONTEXT: The American Academy of Pediatrics and professional guidelines recommend intervening with adolescents about avoiding tobacco use in the health-care setting. Barriers in the clinical setting limit consistent provision of this critical service. OBJECTIVES: This pilot study compared 2 approaches for referring adolescents to an evidence-based tobacco prevention and cessation program in the outpatient setting. Secondary aims assessed tobacco use, knowledge, and program evaluation...
January 2017: Health Services Research and Managerial Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510691/nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-upregulation-through-epigenetic-silencing-of-ldoc1-drives-tumor-biology-and-specific-immunophenotype-in-group-a-ependymoma
#10
Andrea M Griesinger, Davis A Witt, Sydney T Grob, Sabrina R Georgio Westover, Andrew M Donson, Bridget Sanford, Jean M Mulcahy Levy, Randall Wong, Daniel C Moreira, John A DeSisto, Ilango Balakrishnan, Lindsey M Hoffman, Michael H Handler, Kenneth L Jones, Rajeev Vibhakar, Sujatha Venkataraman, Nicholas K Foreman
Background.: Inflammation has been identified as a hallmark of high-risk Group A (GpA) ependymoma (EPN). Chronic interleukin (IL)-6 secretion from GpA tumors drives an immune suppressive phenotype by polarizing infiltrating monocytes. This study determines the mechanism by which IL-6 is dysregulated in GpA EPN. Methods.: Twenty pediatric GpA and 21 pediatric Group B (GpB) EPN had gene set enrichment analysis for MSigDB Hallmark gene sets performed. Protein and RNA from patients and cell lines were used to validate transcriptomic findings...
May 16, 2017: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506690/romidepsin-induces-caspase-dependent-cell-death-in-human-neuroblastoma-cells
#11
Shane V Hegarty, Katie L Togher, Eimear O'Leary, Franziska Solger, Aideen M Sullivan, Gerard W O'Keeffe
Neuroblastoma is the most common extracranial pediatric solid tumor, arising from the embryonic sympathoadrenal lineage of the neural crest, and is responsible for 15% of childhood cancer deaths. Although survival rates are good for some patients, those children diagnosed with high-risk neuroblastoma have survival rates as low as 35%. Thus, neuroblastoma remains a significant clinical challenge and the development of novel therapeutic strategies is essential. Given that there is widespread epigenetic dysregulation in neuroblastoma, epigenetic pharmacotherapy holds promise as a therapeutic approach...
May 12, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502446/pancreatic-disorders
#12
REVIEW
Aliye Uc, Douglas S Fishman
Once considered uncommon, pancreatic diseases are increasingly recognized in the pediatric age group. Acute pancreatitis, acute recurrent pancreatitis, and chronic pancreatitis occur in children with an incidence approaching that of adults. Risk factors are broad, prompting the need for a completely different diagnostic and therapeutic approach in children. Although cystic fibrosis remains the most common cause of exocrine pancreatic insufficiency, other causes such as chronic pancreatitis may be as common as Shwachman Diamond syndrome...
June 2017: Pediatric Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501984/pediatric-gynecologic-cancers
#13
REVIEW
Lauren Pommert, William Bradley
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Three primary categories of gynecologic cancer are found in pediatric and adolescent patients: stromal carcinomas including juvenile granulosa cell tumors and Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors, rhabdomyosarcomas arising from the vagina and cervix (sarcoma botryoides), and ovarian germ cell tumors which comprise a wide range of histologies. These entities are rare and treatment approaches have focused on decreasing late effects of chemotherapy treatment. Here, we review presentation, histologic classifications, diagnosis, and treatment recommendations for pediatric gynecologic cancers...
July 2017: Current Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501574/androgen-production-in-pediatric-adrenocortical-tumors-may-occur-via-both-the-classic-and-or-the-alternative-backdoor-pathway
#14
Nesa Marti, Jana Malikova, José A Galván, Maude Aebischer, Marco Janner, Zdenek Sumnik, Barbora Obermannova, Genevieve Escher, Aurel Perren, Christa E Flück
Children with adrenocortical tumors (ACTs) often present with virilization due to high tumoral androgen production, with dihydrotestosterone (DHT) as most potent androgen. Recent work revealed two pathways for DHT biosynthesis, the classic and the backdoor pathway. Usage of alternate routes for DHT production has been reported in castration-resistant prostate cancer, CAH and PCOS. To assess whether the backdoor pathway may contribute to the virilization of pediatric ACTs, we investigated seven children suffering from androgen producing tumors using steroid profiling and immunohistochemical expression studies...
May 10, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497898/additional-cytogenetic-abnormalities-and-variant-t-9-22-at-the-diagnosis-of-childhood-chronic-myeloid-leukemia-the-experience-of-the-international-registry-for-chronic-myeloid-leukemia-in-children-and-adolescents
#15
Frédéric Millot, Christelle Dupraz, Joelle Guilhot, Meinolf Suttorp, Françoise Brizard, Thierry Leblanc, Adalet Meral Güneş, Petr Sedlacek, Evelyne De Bont, Chi Kong Li, Krzysztof Kalwak, Birgitte Lausen, Srdjana Culic, Michael Dworzak, Emilia Kaiserova, Barbara De Moerloose, Farah Roula, Andrea Biondi, André Baruchel, François Guilhot
BACKGROUND: In the adult population with newly diagnosed chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), variant translocations are usually not considered to be impairing the prognosis, whereas some additional cytogenetic abnormalities (ACAs) are associated with a negative impact on survival. Because of the rarity of CML in the pediatric population, such abnormalities have not been investigated in a large group of children with CML. METHODS: The prognostic relevance of variant t(9;22) and ACAs at diagnosis was assessed in 301 children with CML in the chronic phase who were enrolled in the International Registry for Chronic Myeloid Leukemia in Children and Adolescents...
May 12, 2017: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497388/first-experience-with-electronic-feedback-of-the-psychosocial-assessment-tool-in-pediatric-cancer-care
#16
Sasja A Schepers, Simone M Sint Nicolaas, Heleen Maurice-Stam, Elisabeth M van Dijk-Lokkart, Esther M M van den Bergh, Nienke de Boer, Chris M Verhaak, Martha A Grootenhuis
PURPOSE: The Psychosocial Assessment Tool (PAT) is a brief family screener, identifying families at universal or elevated risk for psychosocial problems. This study aimed to determine the feasibility and usability of the electronic PAT (ePAT) in pediatric cancer care. METHODS: Eighty-six parents of newly diagnosed children with cancer (0-18 years) agreed to participate and registered at the website www.hetklikt.nu (58%). Seventy-five families completed the ePAT at approximately 1 month post-diagnosis...
May 11, 2017: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496364/oligodendrogliomas-in-pediatric-and-adult-patients-an-outcome-based-study-from-the-surveillance-epidemiology-and-end-result-database
#17
Christine Sm Lau, Krishnaraj Mahendraraj, Ronald S Chamberlain
INTRODUCTION: Oligodendrogliomas (OGs) account for <20% of all intracranial tumors and 25% of gliomas. Despite improvements in imaging techniques allowing for earlier diagnosis, OG is rare among the pediatric population. This study examines a large cohort of OG patients in an effort to define the demographic, clinical, and pathologic factors associated with clinical and survival outcomes. METHODS: Data on 7,001 OG patients were abstracted from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Result (SEER) database (1973-2013)...
2017: Cancer Management and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495911/intratumoral-injection-of-hsv1716-an-oncolytic-herpes-virus-is-safe-and-shows-evidence-of-immune-response-and-viral-replication-in-young-cancer-patients
#18
Keri A Streby, James I Geller, Mark A Currier, Patrick S Warren, John M Racadio, Alexander J Towbin, Michele R Vaughan, Melinda Triplet, Kristy Ott-Napier, Devon J Dishman, Lori R Backus, Beth Stockman, Marianne Brunner, Kathleen Simpson, Robert Spavin, Joe Conner, Timothy P Cripe
Purpose: HSV1716 is an oncolytic herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) studied in adults via injection into the brain and superficial tumors. To determine the safety of administering HSV1716 to pediatric patients with cancer, we conducted a phase I trial of image-guided injection in young patients with relapsed or refractory extracranial cancers.Experimental Design: We delivered a single dose of 10(5) to 10(7) infectious units of HSV1716 via computed tomography-guided intratumoral injection and measured tumor responses by imaging...
May 11, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495503/sex-differences-in-the-prevalence-of-helicobacter-pylori-infection-in-pediatric-and-adult-populations-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-244-studies
#19
REVIEW
Abdulrazak Ibrahim, Samantha Morais, Ana Ferro, Nuno Lunet, Bárbara Peleteiro
BACKGROUND: The main outcome of Helicobacter pylori infection, i.e. gastric cancer, is more frequent in men, but there is no comprehensive synthesis of the evidence on a potential role of sex in the acquisition and/or persistence of infection. AIMS: To quantify the association between sex and H. pylori infection in pediatric and adult populations, through systematic review and meta-analysis. METHODS: PubMed(®) was searched, from inception to September 2015, to identify population-based studies reporting the prevalence and/or incidence of H...
April 4, 2017: Digestive and Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494529/nash-therapy-omega-3-supplementation-vitamin-e-insulin-sensitizers-and-statin-drugs
#20
Stephen Caldwell
Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is the more aggressive form of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). NASH can progress to hepatic fibrosis, cirrhosis, portal hypertension and primary liver cancer. Therapy is evolving with a substantial number of trials of promising new agents now in progress. In this article however, we will examine data for several older forms of therapy which have been fairly extensively studied over the years: Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid (PUFA) supplements, vitamin E, insulin sensitizing agents with a focus on pioglitazone and statin agents...
May 10, 2017: Clinical and Molecular Hepatology
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