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Viral hemorrhagic fever

Lisai Zhu, Haibing Lu, Yufeng Cao, Xiaochun Gai, Changming Guo, Yajing Liu, Jiaxu Liu, Xinping Wang
As one of the major pathogens, bovine viral diarrhea virus caused a significant economic loss to the livestock industry worldwide. Although BVDV infections have increasingly been reported in China in recent years, the molecular aspects of those BVDV strains were barely characterized. In this study, we reported the identification and characterization of a novel BVDV isolate designated as SD-15 from cattle, which is associated with an outbreak characterized by severe hemorrhagic and mucous diarrhea with high morbidity and mortality in Shandong, China...
2016: PloS One
Amanda McGuire, Kaitlyn Miedema, Joseph R Fauver, Amber Rico, Tawfik Aboellail, Sandra L Quackenbush, Ann Hawkinson, Tony Schountz
Rodent-borne hantaviruses can cause two human diseases with many pathological similarities: hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) in the western hemisphere and hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in the eastern hemisphere. Each virus is hosted by specific reservoir species without conspicuous disease. HCPS-causing hantaviruses require animal biosafety level-4 (ABSL-4) containment, which substantially limits experimental research of interactions between the viruses and their reservoir hosts. Maporal virus (MAPV) is a South American hantavirus not known to cause disease in humans, thus it can be manipulated under ABSL-3 conditions...
October 18, 2016: Viruses
Arun Agarwal, Samiksha Sharma, Mala Airun
In Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever (DHF), hemorrhagic manifestations are common but thrombotic events are uncommonly reported, despite the wide range of increased procoagulant activity during Dengue Fever illness. We report a case of a 55-year-old man of Asian Indian ethnicity who developed large vein thrombotic event -Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT) and Pulmonary Embolism (PE) in the acute phase of DHF. His condition was further complicated by associated thrombocytopenia. The etiological connections between dengue viral infection with thrombocytopenia, DVT/PE and abnormal thrombophilia profile as well as the treatment dilemmas posed in treating a patient of DF with hemorrhagic manifestations and associated DVT/PE, and the role of eltrombopag are discussed...
August 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
D L Rock
African swine fever (ASF), an acute, viral hemorrhagic disease in domestic swine with mortality rates approaching 100%, is arguably the most significant emerging disease threat for the swine industry worldwide. Devastating ASF outbreaks and continuing epidemic in the Caucasus region and Russia (2007-to date) highlight significance of this disease threat. There is no vaccine for ASF, thus leaving animal slaughter the only effective disease control option. It is clear, however, that vaccination is possible since protection against reinfection with the homologous strain of African swine fever virus (ASFV) has been clearly demonstrated...
October 11, 2016: Veterinary Microbiology
Robert N Kirchdoerfer, Crystal L Moyer, Dafna M Abelson, Erica Ollmann Saphire
Filoviruses are capable of causing deadly hemorrhagic fevers. All nonsegmented negative-sense RNA-virus nucleocapsids are composed of a nucleoprotein (NP), a phosphoprotein (VP35) and a polymerase (L). However, the VP30 RNA-synthesis co-factor is unique to the filoviruses. The assembly, structure, and function of the filovirus RNA replication complex remain unclear. Here, we have characterized the interactions of Ebola, Sudan and Marburg virus VP30 with NP using in vitro biochemistry, structural biology and cell-based mini-replicon assays...
October 2016: PLoS Pathogens
Annie Elong Ngono, Hui-Wen Chen, William W Tang, Yunichel Joo, Kevin King, Daniela Weiskopf, John Sidney, Alessandro Sette, Sujan Shresta
Infection with one of the four dengue virus serotypes (DENV1-4) presumably leads to lifelong immunity against the infecting serotype but not against heterotypic reinfection, resulting in a greater risk of developing Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever/Dengue Shock Syndrome (DHF/DSS) during secondary infection. Both antibodies and T cell responses have been implicated in DHF/DSS pathogenesis. According to the T cell-based hypothesis termed "original antigenic sin," secondary DENV infection is dominated by non-protective, cross-reactive T cells that elicit an aberrant immune response...
October 7, 2016: EBioMedicine
Aileen E O'Hearn, Matthew A Voorhees, David P Fetterer, Nadia Wauquier, Moinya R Coomber, James Bangura, Joseph N Fair, Jean-Paul Gonzalez, Randal J Schoepp
BACKGROUND: Sub-Saharan Africa is home to a variety of pathogens, but disease surveillance and the healthcare infrastructure necessary for proper management and control are severely limited. Lassa virus, the cause of Lassa fever, a severe hemorrhagic fever in humans is endemic in West Africa. In Sierra Leone at the Kenema Government Hospital Lassa Diagnostic Laboratory, up to 70 % of acute patient samples suspected of Lassa fever test negative for Lassa virus infection. This large amount of acute undiagnosed febrile illness can be attributed in part to an array of hemorrhagic fever and arthropod-borne viruses causing disease that goes undetected and untreated...
October 3, 2016: Virology Journal
Pei-Lin Wang, Shih-Yen Chen, Chi-Neu Tsai, Hsun-Ching Chao, Ming-Wei Lai, Yi-Jung Chang, Chyi-Liang Chen, Cheng-Hsun Chiu
BACKGROUND: Norovirus (NoV) GII.4 is the most common genotype for norovirus gastroenteritis worldwide. New variants or subgenotypes are continuously emerging, thus posing a serious threat to child health. METHODS: We compared retrospectively the clinical manifestations and complications of norovirus gastroenteritis in children from April, 2004 through December, 2012. NoV variants were analyzed to investigate the association of circulating viral strains with the complications...
October 5, 2016: BMC Pediatrics
Jolanta Florczak-Wyspiańska, Ewa Nawotczyńska, Wojciech Kozubski
Yellow fever (YF) is a mosquito-borne viral hemorrhagic fever, which is a serious and potentially fatal disease with no specific antiviral treatment that can be effectively prevented by an attenuated vaccine (YEL). Despite the long history of safe and efficacious YF vaccination, sporadic case reports of serious adverse events (SAEs) have been reported, including yellow fever vaccine-associated neurotropic disease (YEL-AND). YEL-AND usually appears within one month of YF vaccination, manifesting as meningoencephalitis, Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) or acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM)...
September 22, 2016: Neurologia i Neurochirurgia Polska
A F Zea-Vera, B Parra
A 30-year-old Colombian woman with past history of immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) presented to the emergency room with two days of global headache, arthralgia, myalgia, and low level fever and generalized erythematous rash. Platelets dropped to 9 × 10(9)/L (fourth day of symptoms) without hemorrhagic manifestations but recovered to 30 × 10(9)/L in 24 hours (fifth day). Dengue virus infection, as well as other viral infections, was ruled out. Zika virus (ZIKV) was evaluated in serum and urine samples by real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (genomic regions within E protein and NS2b protein)...
September 30, 2016: Lupus
Alex Michael Ward, Meredith E K Calvert, Leah R Read, Seokyoung Kang, Brandt E Levitt, George Dimopoulos, Shelton S Bradrick, Jayantha Gunaratne, Mariano A Garcia-Blanco
Dengue virus (DENV) is a mosquito-borne Flavivirus classified into four serotypes (DENV-1-4) that causes Dengue fever (DF), Dengue hemorrhagic Fever (DHF) or Dengue shock syndrome (DSS). An estimated 390 million people are at risk for infection with DENV and there are no effective vaccines or therapeutics. We utilized RNA chromatography coupled with quantitative mass spectrometry (qMS) to identify host RNA binding proteins (RBPs) that interact with DENV-2 RNA. We identified ERI3 (also PRNPIP and PINT1), a putative 3'-5' RNA exonuclease, which preferentially associates with DENV-2 genomic RNA via interactions with dumbbell structures in the 3' UTR...
September 29, 2016: Scientific Reports
Esra Tanyel, Mustafa Sunbul, Tom E Fletcher, Hakan Leblebicioglu
Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a potentially fatal tick-borne viral infection that is widely distributed worldwide. The diagnosis is frequently missed due to the non-specific initial symptoms and the differential diagnosis included many infectious and non-infectious causes. This retrospective study describes the clinical features and final diagnoses of 116 suspect CCHF cases that were admitted to a tertiary CCHF center in Turkey, and were CCHF IgM and PCR negative.
June 2016: Pathogens and Global Health
Xiaojing Wang, Baobin Li, Yu Guo, Shu Shen, Liang Zhao, Peisheng Zhang, Yuna Sun, Sen-Fang Sui, Fei Deng, Zhiyong Lou
Negative-sense single-strand RNA (-ssRNA) viruses comprise a large family of pathogens that cause severe human infectious diseases. All -ssRNA viruses encode a nucleocapsid protein (NP) to encapsidate the viral genome, which, together with polymerase, forms a ribonucleoprotein complex (RNP) that is packaged into virions and acts as the template for viral replication and transcription. In our previous work, we solved the monomeric structure of NP encoded by Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV), which belongs to the Nairovirus genus within the Bunyaviridae family, and revealed its unusual endonuclease activity...
September 22, 2016: Journal of Structural Biology
Mark G Kortepeter, Elena H Kwon, Angela L Hewlett, Philip W Smith, Theodore J Cieslak
The concept of containment care for patients with highly hazardous infectious diseases originated in conjunction with the development of sophisticated biosafety level 4 laboratories at the US Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases in the late 1960s. Over time, the original containment facility served as a model for the development of other facilities in the United States at government and academic centers. The Ebola outbreak of 2014-2015 brought the issue of containment care into the mainstream and led to the development of such capabilities at strategic points around the country...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Marissa Balmith, Mbuso Faya, Mahmoud E S Soliman
The Ebola virus (EboV), formally known as the Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF) is an acute viral syndrome causing sporadic outbreaks that have ravaged West Africa. Due to its extreme virulence and highly transmissible nature, Ebola has been classified as a category A bioweapon organism. Only recently have vaccine or drug regimens for the EboV been developed, including Zmapp and peptides. In addition existing drugs which have been repurposed towards anti-EboV activity have been re-examined and are seen to be promising candidates towards combating Ebola...
September 17, 2016: Chemical Biology & Drug Design
P Sastre, C Gallardo, A Monedero, T Ruiz, M Arias, A Sanz, P Rueda
BACKGROUND: African swine fever (ASF) is a viral infectious disease of domestic and wild suids of all breeds and ages, causing a wide range of hemorrhagic syndromes and frequently characterized by high mortality. The disease is endemic in Sub-Saharan Africa and Sardinia. Since 2007, it has also been present in different countries of Eastern Europe, where control measures have not been effective so far. The continued spread poses a serious threat to the swine industry worldwide. In the absence of vaccine, early detection of infected animals is of paramount importance for control of the outbreak, to prevent the transmission of the virus to healthy animals and subsequent spreading of the disease...
2016: BMC Veterinary Research
Junjie Shao, Xiaoying Liu, Hinh Ly, Yuying Liang
: Arenaviruses can cause lethal hemorrhagic fevers in humans with limited preventative and therapeutic measures. The arenaviral glycoprotein stable signal peptide (SSP) is unique among signal peptides in that it is an integral component of the mature glycoprotein complex (GPC) and plays important roles not only in the GPC expression and processing but also in the membrane fusion process during viral entry. Using the Pichinde virus (PICV) reverse genetics system, we analyzed the effects of alanine substitutions at many conserved residues within SSP on viral replication in cell culture and in a guinea-pig infection model...
September 14, 2016: Journal of Virology
Ermias Mergia, Workineh Shibeshi, Getachew Terefe, Tilahun Teklehaymanot
BACKGROUND: African Trypanosomiasis is a neglected tropical disease with a large impact on the livelihood of the rural poor in Sub-Saharan Africa. The available drugs for managing this disease are old, expensive and are facing the problem of drug resistance. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate in vivo antitrypanosomal efficacy of aqueous and absolute methanol leaf extracts of Verbascum sinaiticum Benth. against Trypanosoma congolense field isolate. METHODS: Verbascum sinaiticum (Local name 'qetetina') is a biennial plant, and 60-150 cm tall...
2016: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Lei-Ke Zhang, Qi-Lin Xin, Sheng-Lin Zhu, Wei-Wei Wan, Wei Wang, Gengfu Xiao
: The Arenaviridae family includes several important human pathogens that can cause severe hemorrhagic fever and greatly threaten public health. As a major component of the innate immune system, the RLR/MAVS signaling pathway is involved in recognizing viral components and initiating antiviral activity. It has been reported that arenavirus infection can suppress the innate immune response, and arenavirus NP and Z proteins of pathogenic arenaviruses can disrupt RLR/MAVS signaling, thus inhibiting production of IFN-I...
September 7, 2016: Journal of Virology
Edgar Simulundu, Aaron S Mweene, Katendi Changula, Mwaka Monze, Elizabeth Chizema, Peter Mwaba, Ayato Takada, Guiseppe Ippolito, Francis Kasolo, Alimuddin Zumla, Matthew Bates
Lujo virus is a novel Old World arenavirus identified in Southern Africa in 2008 as the cause of a viral hemorrhagic fever (VHF) characterized by nosocomial transmission with a high case fatality rate of 80% (4/5 cases). Whereas this outbreak was limited, the unprecedented Ebola virus disease outbreak in West Africa, and recent Zika virus disease epidemic in the Americas, has brought into acute focus the need for preparedness to respond to rare but potentially highly pathogenic outbreaks of zoonotic or arthropod-borne viral infections...
September 5, 2016: Reviews in Medical Virology
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