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Viral hemorrhagic fever

Yusuke Matsumoto, Keisuke Ohta, Machiko Nishio
Hazara virus (HAZV) is a member of the genus Orthonairovirus of the family Nairoviridae. HAZV is closely related to Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus but differs in that it is non-pathogenic to humans. To establish an infection model system, we tested whether embryonated chicken eggs, which are classically used for evaluating viral pathogenicity, are susceptible to HAZV infection. We demonstrated that HAZV replicates well in embryonated chicken eggs and kills 100% of the embryos. This can be a valuable tool to evaluate the lethality of nairoviruses in a biosafety level 2 laboratory...
October 14, 2017: Archives of Virology
Jonathan Lo, Deric Zhang, Emily Speranza, Jose A Negron, John H Connor
Summary: High-throughput screening of the host transcriptional response to various viral infections provides a wealth of data but utilization of microarray and next generation sequencing (NGS) data for analysis can be difficult. The Host Transcriptional Response DataBase (HoTResDB), allows visitors to access already processed microarray and NGS data from non-human primate models of viral hemorrhagic fever to better understand the host transcriptional response. Availability: HoTResDB is freely available at http://hotresdb...
September 22, 2017: Bioinformatics
Murat Sefikogullari, Ali Kaya, Huseyin Aydin, Enver Sancakdar, Veysel Kenan Celik, Gokhan Bagci
BACKGROUND: Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever (CCHF) is a disease characterized by serious course, including acute viral fever, ecchymosis, thrombocytopenia, liver dysfunction and high rate of mortality. Hypoxia Inducible Factor-1α (HIF-1α) and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor-A (VEGF-A) play an important role both in the inflammatory process and plasma leakage. The aim of this study was to define HIF-1α and VEGF-A serum levels obtained from CCHF patients and control group and to investigate whether these factors were correlated with the pathogenesis of this disease...
March 2017: Journal of Arthropod-borne Diseases
Michelle Saliba, Hala Kfoury Assouf, Souodod Abbas, Pierre Abi Hanna, Gaby Kamel, Antoine Barbari
With the recent introduction of more potent modern immunosuppressive regimens in solid-organ transplant, new types of viral infections such as adenovirus are emerging as a potential cause for graft dysfunction and loss. We report a case of 41-year-old male patient with end-stage renal disease from recurrent kidney stones who underwent kidney transplant from a deceased 12-year-old female donor. He developed adenoviral infection with acute cystitis, microscopic hematuria, and necrotizing interstitial nephritis associated with graft dysfunction within the first month of the postoperative period...
October 12, 2017: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation
Anne-Marie Connolly-Andersen, Heather Whitaker, Jonas Klingström, Clas Ahlm
Background: Bleeding is associated with viral hemorrhagic fevers; however, thromboembolic complications has received less attention. Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) is a mild viral hemorrhagic fever caused by Puumala hantavirus. We previously identified HFRS as a risk factor for myocardial infarction and stroke, but the risk for venous thromboembolism (VTE), including deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) is unknown. Methods: Personal identity numbers from the Swedish HFRS database were cross-linked with the Patient Register to obtain information on all causes for hospitalization during 1964 to 2013...
September 4, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Günther Schönrich, Martin J Raftery
Viral hemorrhagic fever (VHF) as a disease entity was first codified in the 1930s by soviet scientists investigating patients suffering from hantavirus infection. The group of hemorrhagic fever viruses (HFVs) has since expanded to include members from at least four different virus families: Arenaviridae, Bunyaviridae, Filoviridae, and Flaviviridae, all enveloped single-stranded RNA viruses. After infection, the natural hosts of HFVs do not develop symptoms, whereas humans can be severely affected. This observation and other evidence from experimental data suggest that the human immune system plays a crucial role in VHF pathogenesis...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
Marie Luisa Schmidt, Thomas Hoenen
BACKGROUND: Ebola virus (EBOV) causes a severe hemorrhagic fever in humans and non-human primates. While no licensed therapeutics are available, recently there has been tremendous progress in developing antivirals. Targeting the ribonucleoprotein complex (RNP) proteins, which facilitate genome replication and transcription, and particularly the polymerase L, is a promising antiviral approach since these processes are essential for the virus life cycle. However, until now little is known about L in terms of its structure and function, and in particular the catalytic center of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) of L, which is one of the most promising molecular targets, has never been experimentally characterized...
October 9, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Sheli R Radoshitzky, Veronica Soloveva, Dima Gharaibeh, Jens H Kuhn, Sina Bavari
The majority of viruses causing hemorrhagic fever in humans are Risk Group 3 or 4 pathogens and, therefore, can only be handled in biosafety level 3 or 4 (BSL-3/4) containment laboratories. The restricted number of such laboratories, the substantial financial requirements to maintain them, and safety concerns for the laboratory workers pose formidable challenges for rapid medical countermeasure discovery and evaluation. BSL-2 surrogate systems are a less challenging, cheap, and fast alternative to the use of live high-consequence viruses for dissecting and targeting individual steps of viral lifecycles with a diminished threat to the laboratory worker...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Federico Giovannoni, Jose Rafael Peña Cárcamo, María Laura Morell, Sandra Myriam Cordo, Cybele C García
Host restriction factors are cellular components that interfere with viral multiplication. They are up-regulated and expressed upon viral infection and in consequence their activity is specific. So far several important restriction factors have been described against diverse viruses. The cellular antiviral mechanisms defined include proteins with the ability to interfere with early steps of viral replication and others that have been shown to block viral morphogenesis. However, other strategies by which the antiviral action is exerted still remain elusive...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Ana María Ambrosio, Mauricio Andrés Mariani, Andrea Soledad Maiza, Graciela Susana Gamboa, Sebastián Edgardo Fossa, Alejando Javier Bottale
Argentinian hemorrhagic Fever (AHF) is a febrile, acute disease caused by Junín virus (JUNV), a member of the Arenaviridae. Different approaches to obtain an effective antigen to prevent AHF using complete live or inactivated virus, as well as molecular constructs, have reached diverse development stages. This chapter refers to JUNV live attenuated vaccine strain Candid #1, currently used in Argentina to prevent AHF. A general standardized protocol used at Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Virales Humanas (Pergamino, Pcia...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Mahmoud Djavani
Viral hemorrhagic fevers affect liver functions such as important metabolic processes and the replacement of new blood cells, coagulation factors, and growth factors. Typically, multi-organ diseases such as viral hemorrhagic fevers are studied in an organism, but it is also possible to derive information about the molecular events involved in disease processes by focusing on liver cell culture. Here we describe a multi-cell culture system that is capable of replicating the arenavirus LCMV-WE, a virus that can cause hemorrhagic fever in primates, as a model for liver infection by a hemorrhagic fever virus...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Maria S Salvato, Igor S Lukashevich, Yida Yang, Sandra Medina-Moreno, Mahmoud Djavani, Joseph Bryant, Juan David Rodas, Juan Carlos Zapata
Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus strain WE (LCMV-WE), a Risk Group 3 virus, causes a disease in rhesus monkeys that closely resembles human infection with Lassa fever virus, a Risk Group 4 agent. Three stages of disease progression have been defined and profiled in this model: pre-viremic, viremic, and terminal. The earliest or pre-viremic stage reveals changes in the blood profile predictive of the later stages of disease. In order to identify whether specific changes are pathognomonic, it was necessary to perform a parallel infection with an attenuated virus (LCMV-Armstrong)...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Gary Wong, Yuhai Bi, Gary Kobinger, George F Gao, Xiangguo Qiu
Hemorrhagic fever viruses are among the deadliest pathogens known to humans, and often, licensed medical countermeasures are unavailable to prevent or treat infections. Guinea pigs are a commonly used animal for the preclinical development of any experimental candidates, typically to confirm data generated in mice and as a way to validate and support further testing in nonhuman primates. In this chapter, we use Sudan virus (SUDV), a lethal filovirus closely related to Ebola virus, as an example of the steps required for generating a guinea pig-adapted isolate that is used to test a monoclonal antibody-based therapy against viral hemorrhagic fevers...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Rosana Gonzalez-Quintial, Roberto Baccala
Hemorrhagic fever (HF) viruses, such as Lassa, Ebola, and dengue viruses, represent major human health risks due to their highly contagious nature, the severity of the clinical manifestations induced, the lack of vaccines, and the very limited therapeutic options currently available. Appropriate animal models are obviously critical to study disease pathogenesis and develop efficient therapies. We recently reported that the clone 13 (Cl13) variant of the lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV-Cl13), a prototype arenavirus closely related to Lassa virus, causes in some mouse strains endothelial damage, vascular leakage, platelet loss, and death, mimicking pathological aspects typically observed in Lassa and other HF syndromes...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Marko Zivcec
The recently developed Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) reverse genetics systems have paved the way for experiments looking to identify and characterize the roles played by viral and cellular proteins in the CCHFV life cycle. In particular, the development of the noninfectious minigenome and virus-like particle (VLP) systems is a tremendous technological advance, as these systems allow for precisely targeting proteins or nucleic acids and measuring the effects these mutations or treatments have on viral life cycle stages...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Ronald N Harty
Independent expression of the VP40 or Z matrix proteins of filoviruses (marburgviruses and ebolaviruses) and arenaviruses (Lassa fever and Junín), respectively, gives rise to the production and release of virus-like particles (VLPs) that are morphologically identical to infectious virions. We can detect and quantify VLP production and egress in mammalian cells by transient transfection, SDS-PAGE, Western blotting, and live cell imaging techniques such as total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Michael E Lindquist, Connie S Schmaljohn
Many hemorrhagic fever viruses require BSL-3 or BSL-4 laboratory containment for study. The necessary safety precautions associated with this work often contribute to longer assay times and lengthy decontamination procedures. Here we will discuss recent advances in RNA fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) that not only allow entirely new investigations into the replication of these viruses but also demonstrate how this method can be applied to any virus with a known sequence and how it can be rapidly performed to minimize time spent in high containment...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Carolina Montoya-Ruiz, Juan David Rodas
This article will outline surveillance approaches for viral hemorrhagic fevers. Specific methods for surveillance of clinical samples will be emphasized. Separate articles will describe methods for surveillance of rodent-borne viruses (roboviruses) and arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses). Since the appearance of hantaviruses and arenaviruses in the Americas, more than 30 different species in each group have been established, and therefore they have become the most frequently emerging viruses. Flaviviruses such as yellow fever and dengue viruses, although easier to recognize, are also more widely spread and therefore considered a very important public health issue, particularly for under-developed countries...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Yīmíng Bào, Jens H Kuhn
During the last decade, genome sequence-based classification of viruses has become increasingly prominent. Viruses can be even classified based on coding-complete genome sequence data alone. Nevertheless, classification remains arduous as experts are required to establish phylogenetic trees to depict the evolutionary relationships of such sequences for preliminary taxonomic placement. Pairwise sequence comparison (PASC) of genomes is one of several novel methods for establishing relationships among viruses...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Francisco J Díaz, Luis E Paternina, Juan David Rodas
An important aspect of virological surveillance is the identification of the detected viruses. Broad surveillance, that typically employs deep sequencing of collected tissue samples, provides the investigator with many sequence files constructed from overlapping stretches of DNA sequences. Directed surveillance for viruses of a specific taxonomic group provides the investigator with sequence files from cDNA amplified using specific primers to conserved viral regions. Here we will describe general approaches to identify hemorrhagic viral agents through phylogenetic analysis of cDNA sequences obtained during surveillance activities...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
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