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Viral hemorrhagic fever

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650973/interferon-signaling-in-peromyscus-leucopus-confers-a-potent-and-specific-restriction-to-vector-borne-flaviviruses
#1
Adaeze O Izuogu, Kristin L McNally, Stephen E Harris, Brian H Youseff, John B Presloid, Christopher Burlak, Jason Munshi-South, Sonja M Best, R Travis Taylor
Tick-borne flaviviruses (TBFVs), including Powassan virus and tick-borne encephalitis virus cause encephalitis or hemorrhagic fevers in humans with case-fatality rates ranging from 1-30%. Despite severe disease in humans, TBFV infection of natural rodent hosts has little noticeable effect. Currently, the basis for resistance to disease is not known. We hypothesize that the coevolution of flaviviruses with their respective hosts has shaped the evolution of potent antiviral factors that suppress virus replication and protect the host from lethal infection...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640917/human-hantavirus-infection-elicits-pronounced-redistribution-of-mononuclear-phagocytes-in-peripheral-blood-and-airways
#2
Saskia Scholz, Faezzah Baharom, Gregory Rankin, Kimia T Maleki, Shawon Gupta, Sindhu Vangeti, Jamshid Pourazar, Andrea Discacciati, Jonas Höijer, Matteo Bottai, Niklas K Björkström, Johan Rasmuson, Magnus Evander, Anders Blomberg, Hans-Gustaf Ljunggren, Jonas Klingström, Clas Ahlm, Anna Smed-Sörensen
Hantaviruses infect humans via inhalation of virus-contaminated rodent excreta. Infection can cause severe disease with up to 40% mortality depending on the viral strain. The virus primarily targets the vascular endothelium without direct cytopathic effects. Instead, exaggerated immune responses may inadvertently contribute to disease development. Mononuclear phagocytes (MNPs), including monocytes and dendritic cells (DCs), orchestrate the adaptive immune responses. Since hantaviruses are transmitted via inhalation, studying immunological events in the airways is of importance to understand the processes leading to immunopathogenesis...
June 22, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638845/detection-of-the-northeastern-african-rift-valley-fever-virus-lineage-during-the-2015-outbreak-in-mauritania
#3
Ndeye Sakha Bob, Hampâté Bâ, Gamou Fall, Elkhalil Ishagh, Mamadou Y Diallo, Abdourahmane Sow, Pape Mbacké Sembene, Ousmane Faye, Brahim El Kouri, Mohamed Lemine Sidi, Amadou Alpha Sall
BACKGROUND: Rift Valley fever (RVF) is an acute viral anthropozoonosis that causes epizootics and epidemics among livestock population and humans. Multiple emergences and reemergences of the virus have occurred in Mauritania over the last decade. This article describes the outbreak that occurred in 2015 in Mauritania and reports the results of serological and molecular investigations of blood samples collected from suspected RVF patients. METHODS: An RVF outbreak was reported from 14 September to 26 November 2015 in Mauritania...
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636653/the-ebola-virus-vp35-protein-binds-viral-immunostimulatory-and-host-rnas-identified-through-deep-sequencing
#4
Kari A Dilley, Alexander A Voorhies, Priya Luthra, Vinita Puri, Timothy B Stockwell, Hernan Lorenzi, Christopher F Basler, Reed S Shabman
Ebola virus and Marburg virus are members of the Filovirdae family and causative agents of hemorrhagic fever with high fatality rates in humans. Filovirus virulence is partially attributed to the VP35 protein, a well-characterized inhibitor of the RIG-I-like receptor pathway that triggers the antiviral interferon (IFN) response. Prior work demonstrates the ability of VP35 to block potent RIG-I activators, such as Sendai virus (SeV), and this IFN-antagonist activity is directly correlated with its ability to bind RNA...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622346/flavivirus-and-filovirus-evoprinters-new-alignment-tools-for-the-comparative-analysis-of-viral-evolution
#5
Thomas Brody, Amarendra S Yavatkar, Dong Sun Park, Alexander Kuzin, Jermaine Ross, Ward F Odenwald
BACKGROUND: Flavivirus and Filovirus infections are serious epidemic threats to human populations. Multi-genome comparative analysis of these evolving pathogens affords a view of their essential, conserved sequence elements as well as progressive evolutionary changes. While phylogenetic analysis has yielded important insights, the growing number of available genomic sequences makes comparisons between hundreds of viral strains challenging. We report here a new approach for the comparative analysis of these hemorrhagic fever viruses that can superimpose an unlimited number of one-on-one alignments to identify important features within genomes of interest...
June 16, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619306/management-of-viral-oral-ulcers-in-children-using-chinese-herbal-medicine-a-report-of-two-cases
#6
Yi-Chiao Lee, Ting-Hao Wang, Shih-Yu Chen, Hsiang-Ling Lin, Ming-Yen Tsai
OBJECTIVE: Viral oral ulcers are common presentations in pediatric clinics. Although self-limiting, painful ulcerative lesions and inflamed mucosa can decrease oral intake and lead to dehydration. Despite the widespread use of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) for pediatric upper respiratory disease in Taiwan, there is little evidence for its effectiveness as an antipyretic or in aiding ulcer healing for children with viral oral ulcers. We report two cases of children who presented with viral oral ulcers to illustrate the potential efficacy of CHM treatment in recovery from herpangina (HA) and herpetic gingivostomatitis (HGS)...
June 2017: Complementary Therapies in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609169/a-gap-analysis-of-the-united-states-death-care-sector-to-determine-training-and-education-needs-pertaining-to-highly-infectious-disease-mitigation-and-management
#7
Aurora B Le, Lesley Witter, Jocelyn J Herstein, Katelyn C Jelden, Elizabeth Beam, Shawn G Gibbs, John J Lowe
PURPOSE: A United States industry-specific gap analysis survey of the death care sector-which comprises organizations and businesses affiliated with the funeral industry and the handling of human remains- was developed, the results analyzed, and training and education needs in relation to highly infectious disease mitigation and management were explored in an effort to identify where occupational health and safety can be enhanced in this worker population. METHODS: Collaborating national death care organizations distributed the 47-question electronic survey...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591408/decrease-in-dengue-virus-2-infection-and-reduction-of-cytokine-chemokine-production-by-uncaria-guianensis-in-human-hepatocyte-cell-line-huh-7
#8
Cíntia da Silva Mello, Ligia Maria Marino Valente, Thiago Wolff, Raimundo Sousa Lima-Junior, Luciana Gomes Fialho, Cintia Ferreira Marinho, Elzinandes Leal Azeredo, Luzia Maria Oliveira-Pinto, Rita de Cássia Alves Pereira, Antonio Carlos Siani, Claire Fernandes Kubelka
BACKGROUND: Dengue fever may present hemorrhages and cavitary effusions as result of exacerbated immune responses. We investigated hydro-alcoholic extracts from leaves (UGL) and bark (UGB) of the medicinal species Uncaria guinanensis with respect to antiviral effects in Dengue virus (DENV) infection and in immunological parameters associated with in vivo physiopathological features. METHODS: Chemical profiles from UGB or UGL were compared in thin layer chromatography and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance using flavonoid compounds and a pentacyclic oxindole alkaloid-enriched fraction as references...
June 2017: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580138/plasma-membrane-association-facilitates-conformational-changes-in-the-marburg-virus-protein-vp40-dimer
#9
Nisha Bhattarai, Jeevan B Gc, Bernard S Gerstman, Robert V Stahelin, Prem P Chapagain
Filovirus infections cause hemorrhagic fever in humans and non-human primates that often results in high fatality rates. The Marburg virus is a lipid-enveloped virus from the Filoviridae family and is closely related to the Ebola virus. The viral matrix layer underneath the lipid envelope is formed by the matrix protein VP40 (VP40), which is also involved in other functions during the viral life-cycle. As in the Ebola virus VP40 (eVP40), the recently determined X-ray crystal structure of the Marburg virus VP40 (mVP40) features loops containing cationic residues that form a lipid binding basic patch...
April 26, 2017: RSC Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579441/the-role-of-ticks-in-the-maintenance-and-transmission-of-crimean-congo-hemorrhagic-fever-virus-a-review-of-published-field-and-laboratory-studies
#10
REVIEW
Aysen Gargili, Agustin Estrada-Peña, Jessica R Spengler, Alexander Lukashev, Patricia A Nuttall, Dennis A Bente
This manuscript is part of a series of reviews that aim to cover published research on Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) and its etiological agent, CCHF virus (CCHFV). The virus is maintained and transmitted in a vertical and horizontal transmission cycle involving a variety of wild and domestic vertebrate species that act as amplification hosts, without showing signs of illness. These vertebrates have traditionally been considered reservoirs of CCHFV, but in fact they develop only a transient viremia, while the virus can persist in ticks for their entire lifespan, and can also be transmitted vertically to the next generation...
June 1, 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574091/macrocyclic-peptide-inhibitors-for-the-protein-protein-interaction-of-zaire-ebola-virus-protein-24-and-karyopherin-alpha-5
#11
Xiao Song, Lu-Yi Lu, Toby Passioura, Hiroaki Suga
Ebola virus infection leads to severe hemorrhagic fever in human and non-human primates with an average case fatality rate of 50%. To date, numerous potential therapies are in development, but FDA-approved drugs or vaccines are yet unavailable. Ebola viral protein 24 (VP24) is a multifunctional protein that plays critical roles in the pathogenesis of Ebola virus infection, e.g. innate immune suppression by blocking the interaction between KPNA and PY-STAT1. Here we report macrocyclic peptide inhibitors of the VP24-KPNA5 protein-protein interaction (PPI) by means of the RaPID (Random non-standard Peptides Integrated Discovery) system...
June 21, 2017: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28572385/structural-basis-for-antibody-mediated-neutralization-of-lassa-virus
#12
Kathryn M Hastie, Michelle A Zandonatti, Lara M Kleinfelter, Megan L Heinrich, Megan M Rowland, Kartik Chandran, Luis M Branco, James E Robinson, Robert F Garry, Erica Ollmann Saphire
The arenavirus Lassa causes severe hemorrhagic fever and a significant disease burden in West Africa every year. The glycoprotein, GPC, is the sole antigen expressed on the viral surface and the critical target for antibody-mediated neutralization. Here we present the crystal structure of the trimeric, prefusion ectodomain of Lassa GP bound to a neutralizing antibody from a human survivor at 3.2-angstrom resolution. The antibody extensively anchors two monomers together at the base of the trimer, and biochemical analysis suggests that it neutralizes by inhibiting conformational changes required for entry...
June 2, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28561377/country-wide-seroprevalence-studies-on-crimean-congo-hemorrhagic-fever-and-hantavirus-infections-in-general-population-of-bulgaria
#13
Iva Christova, Elitsa Panayotova, Iva Trifonova, Evgenia Taseva, Teodora Hristova, Vladislava Ivanova
Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) and hantavirus infections are the two viral hemorrhagic fevers spread in Europe. To test actual circulation of CCHF virus (CCHFV) and hantaviruses in Bulgaria, we conducted country-wide seroepidemiological studies. Serum samples were collected prospectively from 1500 residents of all 28 districts in Bulgaria. CCHFV seroprevalence of 3.7% was revealed. Anamnesis for tick bites, contact with livestock, age over 40 years and residency in Haskovo district were found as risk factors...
May 31, 2017: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555386/molecular-pathogenesis-of-viral-hemorrhagic-fever
#14
REVIEW
Christopher F Basler
The clinical syndrome referred to as viral hemorrhagic fever (VHF) can be caused by several different families of RNA viruses, including select members of the arenaviruses, bunyaviruses, filoviruses, and flaviviruses. VHF is characterized by malaise, fever, vascular permeability, decreased plasma volume, coagulation abnormalities, and varying degrees of hemorrhage. Study of the filovirus Ebola virus has demonstrated a critical role for suppression of innate antiviral defenses in viral pathogenesis. Additionally, antigen-presenting cells are targets of productive infection and immune dysregulation...
May 29, 2017: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547880/the-possible-role-of-ccr5%C3%AE-32-mutation-in-crimean-congo-hemorrhagic-fever-infection
#15
Aydin Rustemoglu, Duygu Ekinci, Ayşe Feyda Nursal, Sener Barut, Fazilet Duygu, Özgür Günal
Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever infection (CCHF) is a viral zoonosis. The pathogenesis of this disease has not been established so far, however cytokines account for its progression and outcome. The aim of the present study is to investigate the association between chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) gene Δ32 mutation and pathogenity, severity, and mortality of CCHF. This case-control study included 133 CCHF patients diagnosed by detection of CCHV RNA positivity and 97 healthy control subjects. CCR5 gene Δ32 mutation analyzed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545343/alcelaphine-gammaherpesvirus-1-induced-malignant-catarrhal-fever-in-a-watusi-bos-taurus-africanus-steer-in-a-north-american-game-park
#16
Robert J Bildfell, Hong Li, Benjamin E Alcantar, Cristina W Cunha, Dan S Bradway, Kirsten S Thomas
A 10-y-old Watusi ( Bos taurus africanus) steer housed at a drive-through game park in Winston, Oregon developed severe clinical illness including fever, marked nasal discharge, injected scleral and conjunctival membranes, plus oral hemorrhages and erosions. The animal responded poorly to supportive treatment and was euthanized. Additional gross findings at postmortem examination included papules and erosive lesions on the tongue, hemorrhagic large intestine, and multifocal cardiac hemorrhages. Histopathologic findings included multifocal lymphoplasmacytic vasculitis plus fibrin exudation in heart and tongue...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542609/potent-and-selective-inhibition-of-pathogenic-viruses-by-engineered-ubiquitin-variants
#17
Wei Zhang, Ben A Bailey-Elkin, Robert C M Knaap, Baldeep Khare, Tim J Dalebout, Garrett G Johnson, Puck B van Kasteren, Nigel J McLeish, Jun Gu, Wenguang He, Marjolein Kikkert, Brian L Mark, Sachdev S Sidhu
The recent Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), Ebola and Zika virus outbreaks exemplify the continued threat of (re-)emerging viruses to human health, and our inability to rapidly develop effective therapeutic countermeasures. Many viruses, including MERS-CoV and the Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) encode deubiquitinating (DUB) enzymes that are critical for viral replication and pathogenicity. They bind and remove ubiquitin (Ub) and interferon stimulated gene 15 (ISG15) from cellular proteins to suppress host antiviral innate immune responses...
May 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542463/insights-into-reston-virus-spillovers-and-adaption-from-virus-whole-genome-sequences
#18
César G Albariño, Lisa Wiggleton Guerrero, Harley M Jenks, Ayan K Chakrabarti, Thomas G Ksiazek, Pierre E Rollin, Stuart T Nichol
Reston virus (family Filoviridae) is unique among the viruses of the Ebolavirus genus in that it is considered non-pathogenic in humans, in contrast to the other members which are highly virulent. The virus has however, been associated with several outbreaks of highly lethal hemorrhagic fever in non-human primates (NHPs), specifically cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) originating in the Philippines. In addition, Reston virus has been isolated from domestic pigs in the Philippines. To better understand virus spillover events and potential adaption to new hosts, the whole genome sequences of representative Reston virus isolates were obtained using a next generation sequencing (NGS) approach and comparative genomic analysis and virus fitness analyses were performed...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542435/development-and-evaluation-of-a-bioinformatics-approach-for-designing-molecular-assays-for-viral-detection
#19
Pierre H H Schneeberger, Joël F Pothier, Andreas Bühlmann, Brion Duffy, Christian Beuret, Jürg Utzinger, Jürg E Frey
BACKGROUND: Viruses belonging to the Flaviviridae and Bunyaviridae families show considerable genetic diversity. However, this diversity is not necessarily taken into account when developing diagnostic assays, which are often based on the pairwise alignment of a limited number of sequences. Our objective was to develop and evaluate a bioinformatics workflow addressing two recurrent issues of molecular assay design: (i) the high intraspecies genetic diversity in viruses and (ii) the potential for cross-reactivity with close relatives...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536674/anti-idiotypic-antibodies-specific-to-prm-monoantibody-prevent-antibody-dependent-enhancement-of-dengue-virus-infection
#20
Miao Wang, Fan Yang, Dana Huang, Yalan Huang, Xiaomin Zhang, Chao Wang, Shaohua Zhang, Renli Zhang
Dengue virus (DENV) co-circulates as four serotypes (DENV1-4). Primary infection only leads to self-limited dengue fever. But secondary infection with another serotype carries a higher risk of increased disease severity, causing life-threatening dengue hemorrhagic fever/dengue shock syndrome (DHF/DSS). Serotype cross-reactive antibodies facilitate DENV infection in Fc-receptor-bearing cells by promoting virus entry via Fcγ receptors (FcγR), a process known as antibody dependent enhancement (ADE). Most studies suggested that enhancing antibodies were mainly specific to the structural premembrane protein (prM) of DENV...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
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