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Viral hemorrhagic fever

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677482/allosteric-ligands-for-the-pharmacologically-important-flavivirus-target-ns5-from-zinc-database-based-on-pharmacophoric-points-free-energy-calculations-and-dynamics-correlation
#1
Abbas Khan, Shoaib Saleem, Muhammad Idrees, Syed Shujait Ali, Muhammad Junaid, Aman Chandra Kaushik, Dong-Qing Wei
Dengue virus belongs to a group of human pathogens, which causes different diseases, dengue hemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome in humans. It possesses RNA as a genetic material and is replicated with the aid of NS5 protein. RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) is an important domain of NS5 in the replication of that virus. The catalytic process activity of RdRp is making it an important target for antiviral chemical therapy. To date, No FDA drug has been approved and marketed for the treatment of diseases caused by Dengue virus...
April 11, 2018: Journal of Molecular Graphics & Modelling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669840/arenaviral-nucleoproteins-suppress-pact-induced-augmentation-of-rig-i-function-to-inhibit-type-i-interferon-production
#2
Junjie Shao, Qinfeng Huang, Xiaoying Liu, Da Di, Yuying Liang, Hinh Ly
RIG-I is a major cytoplasmic sensor of viral pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP) RNA and induces the production of type I interferon (IFN) upon viral infection. A dsRNA-binding protein PACT plays an important role in potentiating RIG-I function. We have previously shown that arenaviral nucleoproteins (NPs) suppress type I IFN production via its exoribonuclease (RNase) activity to degrade PAMP RNA. We report here that NPs of arenaviruses block PACT-induced enhancement of RIG-I function to mediate type I IFN production and that the inhibition is dependent on the NP's RNase function, which is different than a known mechanism of other viral proteins to disrupt PACT and RIG-I interaction...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669602/cerebral-vasculitis-and-lateral-rectus-palsy-two-rare-central-nervous-system-complications-of-dengue-fever-two-case-reports-and-review-of-the-literature
#3
H M M Herath, J S Hewavithana, C M De Silva, O A R Kularathna, N P Weerasinghe
BACKGROUND: Dengue fever is a common mosquito-borne viral illness with a clinical spectrum ranging from a simple febrile illness to potentially life-threatening complications such as dengue hemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome. Dengue infection can affect many organs, including the central nervous system. The neurological manifestations reported in dengue infections are meningitis, encephalitis, stroke, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, and Guillain-Barré syndrome. CASE PRESENTATION: We report the cases of two interesting patients with confirmed dengue infection who presented with complications of possible central nervous system vasculitis and cranial nerve palsy...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651117/field-validation-of-recombinant-antigen-immunoassays-for-diagnosis-of-lassa-fever
#4
Matthew L Boisen, Jessica N Hartnett, Jeffrey G Shaffer, Augustine Goba, Mambu Momoh, John Demby Sandi, Mohamed Fullah, Diana K S Nelson, Duane J Bush, Megan M Rowland, Megan L Heinrich, Anatoliy P Koval, Robert W Cross, Kayla G Barnes, Anna E Lachenauer, Aaron E Lin, Mahan Nekoui, Dylan Kotliar, Sarah M Winnicki, Katherine J Siddle, Michael Gbakie, Mbalu Fonnie, Veronica J Koroma, Lansana Kanneh, Peter C Kulakosky, Kathryn M Hastie, Russell B Wilson, Kristian G Andersen, Onikepe O Folarin, Christian T Happi, Pardis C Sabeti, Thomas W Geisbert, Erica Ollmann Saphire, S Humarr Khan, Donald S Grant, John S Schieffelin, Luis M Branco, Robert F Garry
Lassa fever, a hemorrhagic fever caused by Lassa virus (LASV), is endemic in West Africa. It is difficult to distinguish febrile illnesses that are common in West Africa from Lassa fever based solely on a patient's clinical presentation. The field performance of recombinant antigen-based Lassa fever immunoassays was compared to that of quantitative polymerase chain assays (qPCRs) using samples from subjects meeting the case definition of Lassa fever presenting to Kenema Government Hospital in Sierra Leone. The recombinant Lassa virus (ReLASV) enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA) for detection of viral antigen in blood performed with 95% sensitivity and 97% specificity using a diagnostic standard that combined results of the immunoassays and qPCR...
April 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628386/caffeic-acid-a-coffee-related-organic-acid-inhibits-infection-by-severe-fever-with-thrombocytopenia-syndrome-virus-in-vitro
#5
Motohiko Ogawa, Yoshitaka Shirasago, Shuji Ando, Masayuki Shimojima, Masayuki Saijo, Masayoshi Fukasawa
Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) virus (SFTSV) causes tick-borne hemorrhagic fever in East Asia. The disease is characterized by high morbidity and mortality. Here, we evaluated the effects of caffeic acid (CA), a coffee-related organic acid with antiviral effects, against SFTSV infection. CA dose-dependently inhibited SFTSV infection in permissive human hepatoma Huh7.5.1-8 cells when SFTSV was added into the culture medium with CA. However, quinic acid (QA), another coffee-related organic acid, did not inhibit SFTSV infection...
April 5, 2018: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618647/identification-of-the-rna-pseudoknot-within-the-3-end-of-prrsv-genome-as-pathogen-associated-molecular-pattern-to-activate-antiviral-signaling-via-rig-i-and-tlr3
#6
Sha Xie, Xin-Xin Chen, Songlin Qiao, Rui Li, Yangang Sun, Shuangfei Xia, Lin-Jian Wang, Xuegang Luo, Ruiguang Deng, En-Min Zhou, Gai-Ping Zhang
Once infected by viruses, cells can detect pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) on viral nucleic acid by host pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) to initiate the antiviral response. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is the causative agent of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS), characterized by reproductive failure in sows and respiratory diseases in pigs of different ages. To date, the sensing mechanism of PRRSV has not been elucidated. Here, we reported that the pseudoknot region residing in the 3' untranslated regions (UTR) of PRRSV genome, which has been proposed to regulate RNA synthesis and virus replication, was sensed as non-self by retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) and Toll like receptor (TLR3) and strongly induced type I IFNs and interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs) in porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs)...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29608995/coat-protein-complex-i-facilitates-dengue-virus-production
#7
Nopprarat Tongmuang, Umpa Yasamut, Pucharee Songprakhon, Thanyaporn Dechtawewat, Shilu Malakar, Sansanee Noisakran, Pa-Thai Yenchitsomanus, Thawornchai Limjindaporn
Dengue hemorrhagic fever is a life-threatening disease caused by the dengue virus (DENV). After DENV enters into host cells, it replicates to generate viral particles to infect other cells. DENV exploits components of the cellular trafficking pathway to achieve effective virion production. Understanding of the proteins required for this trafficking process is essential for revealing the pathogenesis of DENV infection. Coat protein complex and soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptors (SNAREs), two host protein families in the cellular trafficking pathway, were investigated to elucidate their respective roles during DENV infection...
March 30, 2018: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29607357/simultaneous-detection-and-serotyping-of-dengue-infection-using-single-tube-multiplex-cdc-dengue-real-time-rt-pcr-from-india
#8
Shashi Sharma, Kundan Tandel, Surabhi Danwe, Puneet Bhatt, P K Dash, Praveer Ranjan, K R Rathi, Rajiv Mohan Gupta, M M Parida
Four antigenically different dengue virus serotypes (DENV-1, DENV-2, DENV-3 and DENV-4) are known to cause infections in humans. Some of these are known to cause more severe disease than the others. Chances for developing Dengue hemorrhagic fever-dengue shock syndrome (DHF-DSS) increases significantly with history of previous infection with one of the four serotypes. Therefore, early diagnosis, serotyping and providing early warning of dengue fever epidemics to concerned authorities becomes very important for better patient outcome and to curb the rapid spread in the community...
March 2018: Virusdisease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593035/a-highly-conserved-leucine-in-mammarenavirus-matrix-z-protein-is-required-for-z-interaction-with-the-virus-l-polymerase-and-z-stability-in-cells-harboring-an-active-viral-ribonucleoprotein
#9
Masaharu Iwasaki, Juan C de la Torre
Mammarenaviruses cause chronic infections in their natural rodent hosts. Infected rodents shed infectious virus into excreta. Humans are infected through mucosal exposure to aerosols or direct contact of abraded skin with fomites, resulting in a wide-range of manifestations from asymptomatic or mild febrile illness to severe life-threatening hemorrhagic fever. The mammarenavirus matrix Z protein has been shown to be a main driving force of virus budding and to act as a negative regulator of viral RNA synthesis...
March 28, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29588492/sfts-phlebovirus-promotes-lc3-ii-accumulation-and-nonstructural-protein-of-sfts-phlebovirus-co-localizes-with-autophagy-proteins
#10
Yue Sun, Miao-Miao Liu, Xiao-Ying Lei, Xue-Jie Yu
Autophagy is essential for eukaryotic cell homeostasis and can perform both anti-viral and pro-viral roles depending on the kinds of viruses, cell types and cell environment. Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome phlebovirus (SFTSV) is a newly discovered tick-borne virus in the Phenuiviridae family that causes a severe hemorrhagic fever disease in East Asia. In this study we determined interactions between SFTSV and autophagy. Our results showed that LC3-II (microtubule associated protein 1 light chain 3-II) protein accumulated from 4 h to 24 h after SFTSV infection compared to mock-infected Vero cells, and the use of E64d and pepstatin A did not affect the expression of LC3-II protein, which indicated that the increased LC3-II may be the result of inhibition of autophagic degradation caused by SFTSV infection...
March 27, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29584885/ribavirin-has-a-demonstrable-effect-on-crimean-congo-hemorrhagic-fever-viral-populations-and-viral-load-during-patient-treatment
#11
Nicole Espy, Unai Pérez-Sautu, Eva Ramírez de Arellano, Anabel Negredo, Michael R Wiley, Sina Bavari, Marta Díaz Menendez, María Paz Sánchez-Seco, Gustavo Palacios
The use of ribavirin to treat infections of Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever virus (CCHFV) has been controversial based on uncertainties on its antiviral efficacy in clinical case studies. We studied the effect of ribavirin treatment on viral populations in a recent case by deep sequencing plasma samples taken from a CCHFV-infected patient before, during, and after a five-day regimen of ribavirin. CCHFV viral load dropped during ribavirin treatment and subclonal diversity (transitions) and indels increased in viral genomes during treatment...
March 23, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29579213/global-aspects-of-viral-glycosylation-enveloped-viruses-herpesvirus-mass-spectrometry-mucin-type-o-glycosylation-viral-glycans
#12
Ieva Bagdonaite, Hans H Wandall
Enveloped viruses encompass some of the most common human pathogens causing infections of different severity, ranging from no or very few symptoms to lethal disease as seen with the viral hemorrhagic fevers. All enveloped viruses possess an envelope membrane derived from the host cell, modified with often heavily glycosylated virally encoded glycoproteins important for infectivity, viral particle formation, and immune evasion. While N-linked glycosylation of viral envelope proteins is well characterized with respect to location, structure, and site occupancy, information on mucin-type O-glycosylation of these proteins is less comprehensive...
March 22, 2018: Glycobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29560461/development-of-single-step-rt-pcr-for-detection-of-kyasanur-forest-disease-virus-from-clinical-samples
#13
Gouri Chaubal, Prasad Sarkale, Pravin Kore, Pragya Yadav
Background: Kyasanur Forest Disease (KFD), a tick borne flavivirus, which was earlier endemic to Karnataka state, India, has been confirmed and detected from neighboring states of Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra, Goa and Kerala states in India. Increased human and vector surveillance therefore becomes essential for the identification of KFD affected regions and control of further spread of the disease. Currently, available KFD detection assays include realtime RT-PCR and nested RT-PCR assays...
February 2018: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29560357/crimean-congo-hemorrhagic-fever-virus-and-borrelia-burgdorferi-sensu-lato-in-ticks-from-kosovo-and-albania
#14
Kurtesh Sherifi, Agim Rexhepi, Kristaq Berxholi, Blerta Mehmedi, Rreze M Gecaj, Zamira Hoxha, Anja Joachim, Georg G Duscher
Tick-borne diseases pose a serious threat to human health in South-Eastern Europe, including Kosovo. While Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a well-known emerging infection in this area, there are no accurate data on Lyme borreliosis and tick-borne encephalitis (TBE). Therefore, we sampled and tested 795 ticks. Ixodes ricinus ( n  = 218), Dermacentor marginatus ( n  = 98), and Haemaphysalis spp. ( n  = 24) were collected from the environment by flagging (all from Kosovo), while Hyalomma marginatum ( n  = 199 from Kosovo, all from Kosovo) and Rhipicephalus bursa ( n  = 130, 126 from Albania) could be collected only by removal from animal pasture and domestic ruminants...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29557328/dengue-fever-as-an-emerging-infection-in-southeast-iran
#15
Mostafa Heydari, Maliheh Metanat, Mohammad-Ali Rouzbeh-Far, Seyed Mehdi Tabatabaei, Mohammad Rakhshani, Nahid Sepehri-Rad, Maryam Keshtkar-Jahromi
Dengue fever (DF) is a mosquito-borne acute viral disease presenting with hemorrhagic manifestations in severe cases. Southeast Iran is in close proximity to Pakistan, an endemic country for DF. This cross-sectional study was conducted in the Sistan and Baluchestan province in the southeast of Iran to investigate possibility of DF (immunoglobulin M [IgM], immunoglobulin G [IgG], and nonstructural protein 1 [NS1] antigen tests) in 60 clinically suspected patients (April 2013 to August 2015). NS1 protein was detected in 5% ( N = 3), at least one of the antibodies (IgM and/ or IgG) was detected in 11% ( N = 7) of the samples...
March 19, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29551136/filoviruses-ecology-molecular-biology-and-evolution
#16
Jackson Emanuel, Andrea Marzi, Heinz Feldmann
The Filoviridae are a family of negative-strand RNA viruses that include several important human pathogens. Ebola virus (EBOV) and Marburg virus are well-known filoviruses which cause life-threatening viral hemorrhagic fever in human and nonhuman primates. In addition to severe pathogenesis, filoviruses also exhibit a propensity for human-to-human transmission by close contact, posing challenges to containment and crisis management. Past outbreaks, in particular the recent West African EBOV epidemic, have been responsible for thousands of deaths and vaulted the filoviruses into public consciousness...
2018: Advances in Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29522728/unraveling-within-host-signatures-of-dengue-infection-at-the-population-level
#17
Ryan Nikin-Beers, Julie C Blackwood, Lauren M Childs, Stanca M Ciupe
Dengue virus causes worldwide concern with nearly 100 million infected cases reported annually. The within-host dynamics differ between primary and secondary infections, where secondary infections with a different virus serotype typically last longer, produce higher viral loads, and induce more severe disease. We build upon the variable within-host virus dynamics during infections resulting in mild dengue fever and severe dengue hemorrhagic fever. We couple these within-host virus dynamics to a population-level model through a system of partial differential equations creating an immuno-epidemiological model...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29520745/isolation-characterization-and-phylogenetic-analysis-of-two-new-crimean-congo-hemorrhagic-fever-virus-strains-from-the-northern-region-of-xinjiang-province-china
#18
Yanfang Zhang, Shu Shen, Yaohui Fang, Jinliang Liu, Zhengyuan Su, Jinhao Liang, Zhong Zhang, Qiaoli Wu, Cheng Wang, Abulikemu Abudurexiti, Zhihong Hu, Yujiang Zhang, Fei Deng
Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) caused by the CCHF virus (CCHFV) is a tick-borne natural focal disease with a mortality rate of approximately 50%. CCHFV is widely prevalent in Africa, southern Asia, the Middle East, and southeast Europe. CCHF outbreaks have been reported previously in Xinjiang province, China, especially in its southern region. Epidemiological surveys conducted on ticks and animals have revealed the presence of CCHFV strains in ticks, rodents, and infected individuals from cities and counties in southern Xinjiang...
March 8, 2018: Virologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29518863/-clinical-study-of-low-cytomegalovirus-viral-load-thresholds-for-preemptive-antiviral-therapy-in-hematopoietic-cell-transplant-recipients
#19
L Li, Y Wang, C H Yan, X J Huang
Objective: To investigate the threshold of cytomegalovirus (CMV) DNAemia for preemptive antiviral therapy in patients with allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). Methods: Viral load between 1×10(3) copies/ml and 5×10(3) copies/ml was defined as low viral load by real time Q-PCR. Clinical data and outcome were collected. Results: A total of 95 allo-HSCT recipients with low viral load from September 2014 to February 2015 were recruited in this study. The control group included 37 patients who received preemptive initial antiviral therapy...
March 1, 2018: Zhonghua Nei Ke za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Internal Medicine]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29492339/-in-silico-structural-and-functional-prediction-of-african-swine-fever-virus-protein-b263r-reveals-features-of-a-tata-binding-protein
#20
Dickson Kinyanyi, George Obiero, George F O Obiero, Peris Amwayi, Stephen Mwaniki, Mark Wamalwa
African swine fever virus (ASFV) is the etiological agent of ASF, a fatal hemorrhagic fever that affects domestic pigs. There is currently no vaccine against ASFV, making it a significant threat to the pork industry. The ASFV genome sequence has been published; however, about half of ASFV open reading frames have not been characterized in terms of their structure and function despite being essential for our understanding of ASFV pathogenicity. The present study reports the three-dimensional structure and function of uncharacterized protein, pB263R (NP_042780...
2018: PeerJ
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