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Viral hemorrhagic fever

Eliza M Kellman, Danielle K Offerdahl, Wessam Melik, Marshall E Bloom
Tick-borne flaviviruses have a global distribution and cause significant human disease, including encephalitis and hemorrhagic fever, and often result in neurologic sequelae. There are two distinct properties that determine the neuropathogenesis of a virus. The ability to invade the central nervous system (CNS) is referred to as the neuroinvasiveness of the agent, while the ability to infect and damage cells within the CNS is referred to as its neurovirulence. Examination of laboratory variants, cDNA clones, natural isolates with varying pathogenicity, and virally encoded immune evasion strategies have contributed extensively to our understanding of these properties...
June 16, 2018: Viruses
Indri Hapsari Putri, Rahajeng N Tunjungputri, Philip G De Groot, Andre J van der Ven, Quirijn de Mast
Thrombocytopenia is a well-known manifestation of acute tropical infectious diseases. The role of platelets in infections has received much attention recently because of their emerging activities in modulation of inflammatory responses, host defense, and vascular integrity. However, while many studies have addressed thrombocytopenia in tropical infections, abnormalities in platelet function have been largely overlooked. This is an important research gap, as platelet dysfunction may contribute to the bleeding tendency that characterizes some tropical infections...
June 18, 2018: Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis
Peilin Wang, Yang Liu, Guangshun Zhang, Shaobo Wang, Jiao Guo, Junyuan Cao, Xiaoying Jia, Leike Zhang, Gengfu Xiao, Wei Wang
Lassa virus (LASV) belongs to the Mammarenavirus genus (family Arenaviridae ) and causes severe hemorrhagic fever in humans. At present, there are no Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved drugs or vaccines specific for LASV. Herein, high-throughput screening of an FDA-approved drug library was performed against LASV entry by using pseudotype virus bearing LASV envelope glycoprotein (GPC). Two hit compounds, lacidipine and phenothrin, were identified as LASV entry inhibitors in the micromolar range. A mechanistic study revealed that both compounds inhibited LASV entry by blocking low-pH-induced membrane fusion...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Virology
Claudia Mroz, Kristina M Schmidt, Sven Reiche, Martin H Groschup, Martin Eiden
Rift Valley fever virus is a mosquito-borne virus which is associated with acute hemorrhagic fever leading to large outbreaks among ruminants and humans in Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. RVFV circulates between mosquitoes, ruminants, camels and humans, which requires divergent amplification and maintenance strategies that have not been fully explored on the cellular and molecular level. We therefore assessed monoclonal antibodies for their applicability to monitor the expression pattern and kinetics of viral proteins in different RVFV infected cell species...
June 9, 2018: Journal of Immunological Methods
Marina B Chiappero, María Florencia Piacenza, María Cecilia Provensal, Gladys E Calderón, Cristina N Gardenal, Jaime J Polop
Argentine hemorrhagic fever (AHF) is a serious endemic disease in Argentina, produced by Junín virus, whose host is the Sigmodontinae rodent Calomys musculinus . Within the endemic area, human incidence and proportion of infected rodents remains high for 5-10 years after the first appearance of the disease (epidemic [E] zone) and then gradually declines to sporadic cases (historic [H] zone). We tested the hypothesis that host populations within the E zone are large and well connected by gene flow, facilitating the transmission and maintenance of the virus, whereas those in the H and nonendemic (NE) zones are small and isolated, with the opposite effect...
June 11, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Pedro Enrique Navas-Suárez, Josué Díaz-Delgado, Eliana Reiko Matushima, Cintia Maria Fávero, Angélica Maria Sánchez Sarmiento, Carlos Sacristán, Ana Carolina Ewbank, Adriana Marques Joppert, Jose Mauricio Barbanti Duarte, Cinthya Dos Santos-Cirqueira, Bruno Cogliati, Leonardo Mesquita, Paulo César Maiorka, José Luiz Catão-Dias
This retrospective study describes the biological and epidemiological aspects, gross and microscopical findings, and most likely causes of death (CD) in two species of Neotropical deer in Brazil. The animals were collected between 1995 and 2015 and represented 75 marsh deer (MD) and 136 brown brocket deer (BBD). Summarized, pneumonia was diagnosed microscopically in 48 MD and 52 BBD; 76 deer suffered trauma, involving dog attack (14 BBD) and vehicle-collision (14 BBD). Pulmonary edema (50 MD; 55 BBD) and congestion (57 MD; 78 BBD) were the most common findings for both species...
2018: PloS One
Harindranath Cholleti, Juliette Hayer, Fernando Chanisso Mulandane, Kerstin Falk, Jose Fafetine, Mikael Berg, Anne-Lie Blomström
Background: Ticks are primary vectors for many well-known disease-causing agents that affect human and animal populations globally such as tick-borne encephalitis, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever and African swine fever. In this study, viral metagenomics was used to identify what viruses are present in Rhipicephalus spp. ticks collected in the Zambezi Valley of Mozambique. Methods: The RNA was amplified with sequence-independent single primer amplification (SISPA) and high-throughput sequencing was performed on the Ion Torrent platform...
2018: Infection Ecology & Epidemiology
Wei-Ting Lai, Chien-Hsiun Chen, Hsin Hung, Ray-Bing Chen, Sanjay Shete, Chih-Chieh Wu
BACKGROUND: Dengue fever is the most common arboviral infection in humans, with viral transmissions occurring in more than 100 countries in tropical regions. A global strategy for dengue prevention and control was established more than 10 years ago. However, the factors that drive the transmission of the dengue virus and subsequent viral infection continue unabated. The largest dengue outbreaks in Taiwan since World War II occurred in two recent successive years: 2014 and 2015. METHODS: We performed a systematic analysis to detect and recognize spatial and temporal clustering patterns of dengue incidence in geographical areas of Taiwan, using the map-based pattern recognition procedure and scan test...
June 4, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
Jesica A Swanstrom, Sandra Henein, Jessica A Plante, Boyd L Yount, Douglas G Widman, Emily N Gallichotte, Hansi J Dean, Jorge E Osorio, Charalambos D Partidos, Aravinda M de Silva, Ralph S Baric
Background: Dengue virus serotypes 1-4 (DENV-1-4) are the most common vector-borne viral pathogens of humans and the etiological agents of dengue fever and dengue hemorrhagic syndrome. A live-attenuated tetravalent dengue vaccine (TDV) developed by Takeda Vaccines has recently progressed to phase 3 safety and efficacy evaluation. Methods: We analyzed the qualitative features of the neutralizing antibody (nAb) response induced in naive and DENV-immune individuals after TDV administration...
May 25, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Boris A Lapin, Zinaida V Shevtsova
The data characterizing spontaneous infections of Old World monkeys: measles, poliomyelitis, hepatitis A (HPA), encephalomyocarditis, coronavirus infection, simian hemorrhagic fever (SHF), are presented. The experimental infections were reproduced with the isolated pathogens. On these models, pathogenesis and epidemiology of these diseases were studied. The efficiency of poliomyelitis, measles and HPA vaccines is shown. The priority of data on the discovery of earlier unknown disease-SHF and "Sukhumi" virus-are emphasized...
May 25, 2018: Journal of Medical Primatology
Emil Pal, Misa Korva, Katarina Resman Rus, Nataša Kejžar, Petra Bogovič, Franc Strle, Tatjana Avšič-Županc
Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) is characterized by endothelial dysfunction with capillary leakage without obvious cytopathology in the capillary endothelium. The aim of the study was to analyze the kinetics of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its soluble receptor (sVEGFR-2) in HFRS patients infected with Dobrava (DOBV) or Puumala virus (PUUV). VEGF and sVEGFR-2 levels were measured in daily plasma and urine samples of 73 patients with HFRS (58 with PUUV, 15 with DOBV) and evaluated in relation to clinical and laboratory variables...
May 16, 2018: Emerging Microbes & Infections
Lars E Clark, Selma Mahmutovic, Donald D Raymond, Taleen Dilanyan, Takaaki Koma, John T Manning, Sundaresh Shankar, Silvana C Levis, Ana M Briggiler, Delia A Enria, Kai W Wucherpfennig, Slobodan Paessler, Jonathan Abraham
While five arenaviruses cause human hemorrhagic fevers in the Western Hemisphere, only Junin virus (JUNV) has a vaccine. The GP1 subunit of their envelope glycoprotein binds transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1) using a surface that substantially varies in sequence among the viruses. As such, receptor-mimicking antibodies described to date are type-specific and lack the usual breadth associated with this mode of neutralization. Here we isolate, from the blood of a recipient of the live attenuated JUNV vaccine, two antibodies that cross-neutralize Machupo virus with varying efficiency...
May 14, 2018: Nature Communications
Gopinathan Pillai Sreekanth, Pa-Thai Yenchitsomanus, Thawornchai Limjindaporn
Dengue virus (DENV) infection is a disease that is endemic to many parts of the world, and its increasing prevalence ranks it among the diseases considered to be a significant threat to public health. The clinical manifestations of DENV infection range from mild dengue fever (DF) to more severe dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) and dengue shock syndrome (DSS). Increased proinflammatory cytokines and vascular permeability, both of which cause organ injury, are the hallmarks of severe dengue disease. Signs of liver injury were observed in studies using hepatic cell lines, mouse models, and autopsy specimens from DENV-infected patients, and these signs substantiated the effects of inflammatory responses and hepatic cell apoptosis...
May 10, 2018: Cellular Signalling
Venancio Avancini Ferreira Alves
From the standpoint of the surgical pathologist "hepatitis" is defined as the set of histologic patterns of lesions found in livers infected by hepatotropic viruses, by non-hepatotrophic viruses leading to liver inflammation in the context of systemic infection, or due to an autoimmune disease, drug, or toxin involving the liver. This article is centered on the histologic patterns of injury in acute viral hepatitis, encompassing the hepatotropic viruses A, B, C, D, and E and the "icteric hemorrhagic fevers" (dengue, hantavirus, yellow fever)...
June 2018: Surgical Pathology Clinics
Annabelle de St Maurice, Jessica Harmon, Luke Nyakarahuka, Stephen Balinandi, Alex Tumusiime, Jackson Kyondo, Sophia Mulei, Annemarion Namutebi, Barbara Knust, Trevor Shoemaker, Stuart T Nichol, Anita K McElroy, Christina F Spiropoulou
Rift Valley fever virus is an arbovirus that affects both livestock and humans throughout Africa and in the Middle East. Despite its endemicity throughout Africa, it is a rare event to identify an infected individual during the acute phase of the disease and an even rarer event to collect serial blood samples from the affected patient. Severely affected patients can present with hemorrhagic manifestations of disease. In this study we identified three Ugandan men with RVFV disease that was accompanied by hemorrhagic manifestations...
May 4, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Fatima Amanat, James Duehr, Lisa Oestereich, Kathryn M Hastie, Erica Ollmann Saphire, Florian Krammer
Arenaviruses pose a major public health threat and cause numerous infections in humans each year. Although most viruses belonging to this family do not cause disease in humans, some arenaviruses, such as Lassa virus and Machupo virus, are the etiological agents of lethal hemorrhagic fevers. The absence of a currently licensed vaccine and the highly pathogenic nature of these viruses both make the necessity of developing viable vaccines and therapeutics all the more urgent. Arenaviruses have a single glycoprotein on the surface of virions, the glycoprotein complex (GPC), and this protein can be used as a target for vaccine development...
May 2018: MSphere
Qing Chen, Ke Tang, Xiaoyu Zhang, Panpan Chen, Ying Guo
Filoviruses cause severe and fatal viral hemorrhagic fever in humans. Filovirus research has been extensive since the 2014 Ebola outbreak. Due to their high pathogenicity and mortality, live filoviruses require Biosafety Level-4 (BSL-4) facilities, which have restricted the development of anti-filovirus vaccines and drugs. An HIV-based pseudovirus cell infection assay is widely used for viral entry studies in BSL-2 conditions. Here, we successfully constructed nine in vitro pseudo-filovirus models covering all filovirus genera and three in vivo pseudo-filovirus-infection mouse models using Ebola virus, Marburg virus, and Lloviu virus as representative viruses...
March 2018: Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica. B
Musa Sekamatte, Vikram Krishnasamy, Lilian Bulage, Christine Kihembo, Noelina Nantima, Fred Monje, Deo Ndumu, Juliet Sentumbwe, Betty Mbolanyi, Robert Aruho, Winyi Kaboyo, David Mutonga, Colin Basler, Sarah Paige, Casey Barton Behravesh
BACKGROUND: Zoonotic diseases continue to be a public health burden globally. Uganda is especially vulnerable due to its location, biodiversity, and population. Given these concerns, the Ugandan government in collaboration with the Global Health Security Agenda conducted a One Health Zoonotic Disease Prioritization Workshop to identify zoonotic diseases of greatest national concern to the Ugandan government. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The One Health Zoonotic Disease Prioritization tool, a semi-quantitative tool developed by the U...
2018: PloS One
Quanjie Li, Ling Ma, Dongrong Yi, Han Wang, Jing Wang, Yongxin Zhang, Ying Guo, Xiaoyu Li, Jinming Zhou, Yi Shi, George F Gao, Shan Cen
Ebola virus (EBOV) causes fatal hemorrhagic fever with high death rates in human. Currently, there are no available clinically-approved prophylactic or therapeutic treatments. The recently solved crystal structure of cleavage-primed EBOV glycoprotein (GPcl) in complex with the C domain of endosomal protein Niemann-Pick C1 (NPC1) provides a new target for the development of EBOV entry inhibitors. In this work, a computational approach using docking and molecular dynamic simulations is carried out for the rational design of peptide inhibitors...
July 2018: Antiviral Research
Chiara Fedeli, Héctor Moreno, Stefan Kunz
Viral hemorrhagic fevers caused by emerging RNA viruses of the Arenavirus family are among the most devastating human diseases. Climate change, global trade, and increasing urbanization promote the emergence and re-emergence of these human pathogenic viruses. Emerging pathogenic arenaviruses are of zoonotic origin and reservoir-to-human transmission is crucial for spillover into human populations. Host cell attachment and entry are the first and most fundamental steps of every virus infection and represent major barriers for zoonotic transmission...
June 22, 2018: Journal of Molecular Biology
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