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Calcium metabolism

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333933/geometry-dependent-functional-changes-in-ipsc-derived-cardiomyocytes-probed-by-functional-imaging-and-rna-sequencing
#1
Christopher A Werley, Miao-Ping Chien, Jellert Gaublomme, Karthik Shekhar, Vincent Butty, B Alexander Yi, Joel M Kralj, William Bloxham, Laurie A Boyer, Aviv Regev, Adam E Cohen
Human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CM) are a promising platform for cardiac studies in vitro, and possibly for tissue repair in humans. However, hiPSC-CM cells tend to retain morphology, metabolism, patterns of gene expression, and electrophysiology similar to that of embryonic cardiomyocytes. We grew hiPSC-CM in patterned islands of different sizes and shapes, and measured the effect of island geometry on action potential waveform and calcium dynamics using optical recordings of voltage and calcium from 970 islands of different sizes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333387/pathophysiological-fundamentals-of-diabetic-cardiomyopathy
#2
Xinyue Hu, Tao Bai, Zheng Xu, Qiuju Liu, Yang Zheng, Lu Cai
Diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) was first recognized more than four decades ago and occurred independent of cardiovascular diseases or hypertension in both type 1 and type 2 diabetic patients. The exact mechanisms underlying this disease remain incompletely understood. Several pathophysiological bases responsible for DCM have been proposed, including the presence of hyperglycemia, nonenzymatic glycosylation of large molecules (e.g., proteins), energy metabolic disturbance, mitochondrial damage and dysfunction, impaired calcium handling, reactive oxygen species formation, inflammation, cardiac cell death, and cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis, leading to impairment of cardiac contractile functions...
March 16, 2017: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333383/calcium-transport-and-signaling-in-mitochondria
#3
Roberto Bravo-Sagua, Valentina Parra, Camila López-Crisosto, Paula Díaz, Andrew F G Quest, Sergio Lavandero
Calcium (Ca2+) is a key player in the regulation of many cell functions. Just like Ca2+, mitochondria are ubiquitous, versatile, and dynamic players in determining both cell survival and death decisions. Given their ubiquitous nature, the regulation of both is deeply intertwined, whereby Ca2+ regulates mitochondrial functions, while mitochondria shape Ca2+ dynamics. Deregulation of either Ca2+ or mitochondrial signaling leads to abnormal function, cell damage or even cell death, thereby contributing to muscle dysfunction or cardiac pathologies...
March 16, 2017: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329522/multiple-miliary-osteoma-cutis-of-the-face-associated-with-albright-hereditary-osteodystrophy-in-the-setting-of-acne-vulgaris-a-case-report
#4
Joseph V Caravaglio, Rema Gupta, David Weinstein
Osteoma cutis is a condition characterized by theformation of bone within the skin. Such aberrantossification of the skin and subcutaneous tissue isconsidered primary when it arises in the absence ofunderlying tissue damage or a preceding cutaneouslesion. Conversely, secondary osteoma cutis occurswhen skin ossification is the result of a pre-existingskin lesion, trauma, or inflammatory process [1,2].Although rare, primary osteoma cutis has beenassociated with a number of different geneticdisorders. Albright hereditary osteodystrophy (AHO),a condition first described in 1942 by Fuller Albright,is an autosomal dominant metabolic disorder causedby a mutation in the GNAS1 gene [3]...
March 15, 2017: Dermatology Online Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328802/curative-effect-of-neutral-macroporous-resin-hemoperfusion-on-treating-hemodialysis-patients-with-refractory-uremic-pruritus
#5
Wen-Hong Li, Yu-Min Yin, Hao Chen, Xiao-Dan Wang, He Yun, Hui Li, Jie Luo, Jin-Wen Wang
This study aims to investigate the efficacy and safety of neutral macroporous resin hemoperfusion in treating maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients with refractory uremic pruritus (RUP).Ninety patients were enrolled and were randomly divided into 3 groups: control group, experiment 1 group, and experiment 2 group. Clinical symptom scores of skin itching were recorded before and at 4 and 8 weeks after the treatment. In addition, serum parathyroid hormone (PTH), calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), and C-reactive protein (CRP) were detected; and the calcium-phosphorus product ([Ca] × [P]) was calculated to compare the curative effect...
March 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327260/vitamin-d-and-dental-caries-in-primary-dentition
#6
Ana Lucia Seminario, Elizabet Velan
Traditionally classified as a vitamin, vitamin D represents a group of fat-soluble secosteroids with D2 (ergocalciferol) and D3 (cholecalciferol) being the most relevant of the group. The importance of this prohormone exceeds its known ability to maintain intra- and extracellular calcium and phosphate concentrations, thereby preserving essential metabolic functions such as the promotion of mineralization and maintenance and remodeling of the bone. Current observational research recognizes the potential antiproliferative, prodifferentiative, and immunomodulatory effects of vitamin D and its metabolites in the human body...
September 15, 2016: Journal of Dentistry for Children
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326354/vitamin-d-status-in-children-over-three-decades-do-children-get-enough-vitamin-d
#7
Björn Andersson, Diana Swolin-Eide, Per Magnusson, Kerstin Albertsson-Wikland
Vitamin D is a key player in the endocrine regulation of calcium and phosphate metabolism and plays a pivotal role in the acquisition of bone mass during childhood. This study investigated long-term data of vitamin D levels in children and adolescents between 1 and 18 years of age. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) was analyzed between 1982 and 2013 in 2048 Swedish Caucasian children (mean age ± SD, 8.59 ± 3.68 years; 1197 boys). Overall, 704 (34%) children had below recommended levels of 50 nmol/L; however, only 63 (3%) had levels below 25 nmol/L, i...
December 2016: Bone Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326297/coronary-artery-calcium-score-and-bone-metabolism-a-pilot-study-in-postmenopausal-women
#8
Pooneh Salari, Abbasali Keshtkar, Shapour Shirani, Leila Mounesan
BACKGROUND: Since 1991 many studies evaluated the link between cardiovascular diseases and osteoporosis, two age-related conditions, but the main common pathologic pathway has not been determined yet. The histological similarity between arterial calcified plaque and bone matrix and involvement of similar cells and mediators provide a special field of research. Therefore in the present study, we aimed to evaluate the relationship between coronary artery calcium score (CACS) as a surrogate marker of atherosclerosis and bone mediators and parameters in postmenopausal women...
February 2017: Journal of Bone Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326074/diversity-and-biomineralization-potential-of-the-epilithic-bacterial-communities-inhabiting-the-oldest-public-stone-monument-of-cluj-napoca-transylvania-romania
#9
Adrian-Ştefan Andrei, Manuela R Păuşan, Tudor Tămaş, Nicolae Har, Lucian Barbu-Tudoran, Nicolae Leopold, Horia L Banciu
In this study, we investigated the biomineralization potential and diversity of the epilithic bacterial communities dwelling on the limestone statue of Saint Donatus, the oldest public monument of Cluj-Napoca city (Transylvania region, NW Romania). Their spatial distribution together with phylogenetic and metabolic diversity, as well as their capacity to precipitate calcium carbonate was evaluated by combining molecular and phenotypic fingerprinting methods with X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and scanning electron-microscopy analyses...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325894/sumoylation-and-calcium-control-syntaxin-1a-and-secretagogin-sequestration-by-tomosyn-to-regulate-insulin-exocytosis-in-human-%C3%A3-cells
#10
Mourad Ferdaoussi, Jianyang Fu, Xiaoqing Dai, Jocelyn E Manning Fox, Kunimasa Suzuki, Nancy Smith, Gregory Plummer, Patrick E MacDonald
Insulin secretion from pancreatic ß cells is a multistep process that requires the coordination of exocytotic proteins that integrate diverse signals. These include signals derived from metabolic control of post-translational SUMOylation and depolarization-induced rises in intracellular Ca(2+). Here we show that tomosyn, which suppresses insulin exocytosis by binding syntaxin1A, does so in a manner which requires its SUMOylation. Glucose-dependent de-SUMOylation of tomosyn1 at K298 releases syntaxin1A and controls the amplification of exocytosis in concert with a recently-identified tomosyn1-interacting partner; the Ca(2+)-binding protein secretagogin, which dissociates from tomosyn1 in response to Ca(2+)-raising stimuli and is required for insulin granule trafficking and exocytosis downstream of Ca(2+) influx...
March 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325213/mitochondrion-a-common-organelle-for-distinct-cell-deaths
#11
Z Wang, C Figueiredo-Pereira, C Oudot, H L A Vieira, C Brenner
Mitochondria are deeply involved in cell fate decisions via their multiple roles in metabolism, cell growth, and cell death. In healthy cells, these functions are highly regulated to provide sufficient energy for cell function, maintain cell homeostasis, and avoid undesirable cell death. This is achieved by an orchestrated cooperation of cellular and molecular mechanisms such as mitochondrial mass control (mitophagy vs biogenesis), oxidative phosphorylation, redox and calcium homeostasis, and the balance between pro- and antiapoptotic proteins...
2017: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324491/monitoring-mitophagy-during-aging-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#12
Nikolaos Charmpilas, Konstantinos Kounakis, Nektarios Tavernarakis
Mitochondria constitute the main energy-producing centers of eukaryotic cells. In addition, they are involved in several crucial cellular processes, such as lipid metabolism, calcium buffering, and apoptosis. As such, their malfunction can be detrimental for proper cellular physiology and homeostasis. Mitophagy is a mechanism that protects and maintains cellular function by sequestering harmful or dysfunctional mitochondria to lysosomes for degradation. In this report, we present experimental procedures for quantitative, in vivo monitoring of mitophagy events in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans...
March 22, 2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324001/cyp3a4-induction-by-rifampin-an-alternative-pathway-for-vitamin-d-inactivation-in-patients-with-cyp24a1-mutations
#13
Colin Patrick Hawkes, Dong Li, Hakon Hakonarson, Kevin E Meyers, Kenneth Thummel, Michael A Levine
Context: The P450 enzyme CYP24A1 is the principal inactivator of vitamin D metabolites. Biallelic loss-of-function mutations in CYP24A1 are associated with elevated serum levels of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 with consequent hypercalcemia and hypercalciuria, and represent the most common form of idiopathic infantile hypercalcemia (IIH). Current management strategies for this condition include a low calcium diet, reduced dietary vitamin D intake and limited sunlight exposure. CYP3A4 is a P450 enzyme that inactivates many drugs and xenobiotics and may represent an alternative pathway for inactivation of vitamin D metabolites...
March 3, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323996/molecular-physiology-of-the-hypocalcemic-action-of-fibroblast-growth-factor-23-in-zebrafish-danio-rerio
#14
Chia-Hao Lin, Huei-Jyun Hu, Pung-Pung Hwang
Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), a hormone required for phosphorus metabolism, was recently proposed to act on Ca2+ uptake; however, the available evidences of how FGF23 controls the body fluid Ca2+ homeostasis needs to be further clarified. The use of zebrafish as a model system revealed that FGF23 is specifically expressed in the corpuscles of Stannius (CS), an organ involved in Ca2+ homeostasis in fish, and its expression is stimulated by ambient water with a high Ca2+ level. The overexpression of FGF23 inhibited Ca2+ uptake by downregulating the mRNA expression of epithelium calcium channel (ECaC)...
March 1, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323987/fibroblast-growth-factor-23-mineral-metabolism-and-adiposity-in-normal-kidney-function
#15
Sarah Zaheer, Ian H de Boer, Matthew Allison, Jenifer M Brown, Bruce M Psaty, Cassianne Robinson-Cohen, Erin D Michos, Joachim H Ix, Bryan Kestenbaum, David Siscovick, Anand Vaidya
Context: Obesity is associated with poor bone mineralization and quality. Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) plays an important role in calcium, phosphate, and skeletal physiology. Objective: To test the hypothesis that greater adiposity results in higher FGF23 levels among individuals with normal estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Design, Setting, Participants: Cross-sectional analyses among participants of the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis with eGFR ≥60 mL/min/1...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322240/international-spinal-cord-injury-endocrine-and-metabolic-extended-data-set
#16
W A Bauman, J M Wecht, F Biering-Sørensen
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to develop the International Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) Endocrine and Metabolic Extended Data Set (ISCIEMEDS) within the framework of the International SCI Data Sets that would facilitate consistent collection and reporting of endocrine and metabolic findings in the SCI population. SETTING: This study was conducted in an international setting. METHODS: The ISCIEMEDS was developed by a working group...
March 21, 2017: Spinal Cord
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322159/towards-predicting-the-cytochrome-p450-modulation-from-qsar-to-proteochemometric-modeling
#17
Watshara Shoombuatong, Philip Prathipati, Veda Prachayasittikul, Nalini Schaduangrat, Aijaz Ahmad Malik, Reny Pratiwi, Sompon Wanwimolruk, Jarl E S Wikberg, Matthew Paul Gleeson, Ola Spjuth, Chanin Nantasenamat
Drug metabolism determines the fate of a drug when it enters the human body and is a critical factor in defining their absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion and toxicity (ADMET) characteristics. Among the various drug metabolizing enzymes, cytochrome P450s (CYP450) constitute an important protein family that aside from functioning in xenobiotic metabolism is also responsible for a diverse array of other roles encompassing steroid and cholesterol biosynthesis, fatty acid metabolism, calcium homeostasis, neuroendocrine functions and growth regulation...
March 20, 2017: Current Drug Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322157/diabetes-related-neurological-implications-and-pharmacogenomics
#18
Rojas Carranza Camilo Andrés, Bustos Cruz Rosa Helena, Pino Pinzón Carmen Juliana, Ariza Marquez Yeimy Viviana, Gómez Bello Rosa Margarita, Cañadas Garre Marisa
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is the most commonly occurring cause of neuropathy around the world and is beginning to grow in countries where there is a risk of obesity. DM Type II, (T2DM) is a common age-related disease and is a major health concern, particularly in developed countries in Europe where the population is aging. T2DM is a chronic disease which is characterised by hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance, together with the body's inability to use glucose as energy. Such metabolic disorder produces a chronic inflammatory state, as well as changes in lipid metabolism leading to hypertriglyceridemia, thereby producing chronic deterioration of the organs and premature morbidity and mortality...
March 17, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321337/salivary-distinctiveness-and-modifications-in-males-with-diabetes-and-beh%C3%A3-et-s-disease
#19
Loai Aljerf, Iyad Alhaffar
Oral diseases associated with systematic diseases as metabolic and vasculitic have been included in this paper. This will enhance our understanding of the salivary function in promoting healthy oral condition. The study investigates the effects of type I and type II diabetes mellitus in well-controlled diabetic patients, in addition to Behçet disease (BD) on saliva flow rate (SFR), pH, the decay, missing, and filled tooth (DMFT) index, glucose, and major earth-alkaline ions (Ca(2+) and Mg(2+)) compared to healthy males and age-matched controls...
2017: Biochemistry Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320893/regional-differences-in-nutrient-induced-secretion-of-gut-serotonin
#20
Alyce M Martin, Amanda L Lumsden, Richard L Young, Claire F Jessup, Nick J Spencer, Damien J Keating
Enterochromaffin (EC) cells located in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract provide the vast majority of serotonin (5-HT) in the body and constitute half of all enteroendocrine cells. EC cells respond to an array of stimuli, including various ingested nutrients. Ensuing 5-HT release from these cells plays a diverse role in regulating gut motility as well as other important responses to nutrient ingestion such as glucose absorption and fluid balance. Recent data also highlight the role of peripheral 5-HT in various pathways related to metabolic control...
March 2017: Physiological Reports
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