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Calcium metabolism

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778345/health-literacy-and-uptake-of-anti-fracture-medications-in-a-population-based-sample-of-australian-women
#1
Sarah M Hosking, Sharon L Brennan-Olsen, Alison Beauchamp, Rachelle Buchbinder, Lana J Williams, Julie A Pasco
This study investigated associations between health literacy and use of anti-fracture medications in women with osteoporosis. Data were collected for women participating in the population-based Geelong Osteoporosis Study in Australia. Health literacy was ascertained using the Health Literacy Questionnaire (HLQ) and bone mineral density by dual x-ray absorptiometry. Self-reported current medications were classified using MIMS codes, with the category 'Agent affecting calcium and bone metabolism' indicating osteoporosis treatment...
May 9, 2018: Research in Social & Administrative Pharmacy: RSAP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775864/exogenous-hydrogen-peroxide-inhibits-primary-root-gravitropism-by-regulating-auxin-distribution-during-arabidopsis-seed-germination
#2
Lina Zhou, Hongzhou Hou, Tao Yang, Yuke Lian, Yan Sun, Zhiyuan Bian, Chongying Wang
Hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) is the key factor in many physiological and metabolic processes in plants. During seed germination, exogenous H2 O2 application influences gravitropism and induces curvature of the primary root in grass pea and pea seedlings. However, it remains unclear whether and how this happens in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. In the present study, the effect of exogenous H2 O2 on the gravitropic response of primary roots during Arabidopsis seed germination was studied using histology and molecular biology approaches...
May 15, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775442/-copeptin-in-children-with-chronic-kidney-disease
#3
Piotr Skrzypczyk, Magdalena Okarska-Napierała, Elżbieta Górska, Anna Stelmaszczyk-Emmel, Małgorzata Pańczyk-Tomaszewska
Studies in adult patients suggest that copeptin (C-terminal fragment of antidiuretin propeptide) is related to kidney and cardiovascular diseases. AIM: The aim was to assess copeptin concentration in children with chronic kidney disease (CKD). MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a group of 38 children with CKD (age: from 4.70 to 18.00 mean 12.23±4.19 years) we evaluated: serum copeptin concentration [ng/mL], age, sex, etiology of CKD, presence of arterial hypertension (AH), medications, glomerular filtration rate (GFR), hemoglobin, calcium-phosphorus metabolism parameters, and lipids...
April 23, 2018: Polski Merkuriusz Lekarski: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773188/the-toxic-effect-of-gallic-acid-on-biochemical-factors-viability-and-proliferation-of-rat-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cells-was-compensated-by-boric-acid
#4
Mohammad Hussein Abnosi, Somayeh Yari
OBJECTIVE: Gallic acid (GA) and boron are found in many plants. Our previous studies showed 6 ng/ml boric acid (BA) had positive effect on biochemistry of rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and their osteogenic differentiation. Therefore, we investigate the effect of different doses of GA alone and in the presence of BA on MSCs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: the viability of MSCs was assayed using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and trypan blue at 12, 24 and 36 h in presence of different concentration of GA...
July 2018: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772707/pimt-ncoa6ip-deletion-in-the-mouse-heart-causes-delayed-cardiomyopathy-attributable-to-perturbation-in-energy-metabolism
#5
Yuzhi Jia, Ning Liu, Navin Viswakarma, Ruya Sun, Mathew J Schipma, Meng Shang, Edward B Thorp, Yashpal S Kanwar, Bayar Thimmapaya, Janardan K Reddy
PIMT/NCOA6IP, a transcriptional coactivator PRIP/NCOA6 binding protein, enhances nuclear receptor transcriptional activity. Germline disruption of PIMT results in early embryonic lethality due to impairment of development around blastocyst and uterine implantation stages. We now generated mice with Cre-mediated cardiac-specific deletion of PIMT (csPIMT-/- ) in adult mice. These mice manifest enlargement of heart, with nearly 100% mortality by 7.5 months of age due to dilated cardiomyopathy. Significant reductions in the expression of genes (i) pertaining to mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes I to IV; (ii) calcium cycling cardiac muscle contraction ( Atp2a1 , Atp2a2 , Ryr2 ); and (iii) nuclear receptor PPAR- regulated genes involved in glucose and fatty acid energy metabolism were found in csPIMT-/- mouse heart...
May 16, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771914/regulation-of-vitamin-d-metabolizing-enzymes-in-murine-renal-and-extrarenal-tissues-by-dietary-phosphate-fgf23-and-1-25-oh-2d3
#6
Larissa Kägi, Carla Bettoni, Eva M Pastor-Arroyo, Udo Schnitzbauer, Nati Hernando, Carsten A Wagner
BACKGROUND: The 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) together with parathyroid hormone (PTH) and fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) regulates calcium (Ca2+) and phosphate (Pi) homeostasis, 1,25(OH)2D3 synthesis is mediated by hydroxylases of the cytochrome P450 (Cyp) family. Vitamin D is first modified in the liver by the 25-hydroxylases CYP2R1 and CYP27A1 and further activated in the kidney by the 1α-hydroxylase CYP27B1, while the renal 24-hydroxylase CYP24A1 catalyzes the first step of its inactivation...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769317/lysophospholipids-induce-innate-immune-transdifferentiation-of-endothelial-cells-resulting-in-prolonged-endothelial-activation
#7
Xinyuan Li, Luqiao Wang, Pu Fang, Yu Sun, Xiaohua Jiang, Hong Wang, Xiao-Feng Yang
Innate immune cells express danger-associated molecular pattern (DAMP) receptors, T-cell co-stimulation/co-inhibition receptors, and the major histocompatibility complex II (MHC-II). We have recently proposed that endothelial cells can serve as innate immune cells, but the molecular mechanisms involved still await discovery. Here, we investigated whether human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs) could be transdifferentiated into innate immune cells by exposing them to hyperlipidemia-upregulated DAMP molecules, i...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767698/mechanisms-by-which-dietary-fatty-acids-regulate-mitochondrial-structure-function-in-health-and-disease
#8
E Madison Sullivan, Edward Ross Pennington, William D Green, Melinda A Beck, David A Brown, Saame Raza Shaikh
Mitochondria are the energy-producing organelles within a cell. Furthermore, mitochondria have a role in maintaining cellular homeostasis and proper calcium concentrations, building critical components of hormones and other signaling molecules, and controlling apoptosis. Structurally, mitochondria are unique because they have 2 membranes that allow for compartmentalization. The composition and molecular organization of these membranes are crucial to the maintenance and function of mitochondria. In this review, we first present a general overview of mitochondrial membrane biochemistry and biophysics followed by the role of different dietary saturated and unsaturated fatty acids in modulating mitochondrial membrane structure-function...
May 1, 2018: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765509/resveratrol-induced-downregulation-of-naf-1-enhances-the-sensitivity-of-pancreatic-cancer-cells-to-gemcitabine-via-the-ros-nrf2-signaling-pathways
#9
Liang Cheng, Bin Yan, Ke Chen, Zhengdong Jiang, Cancan Zhou, Junyu Cao, Weikun Qian, Jie Li, Liankang Sun, Jiguang Ma, Qingyong Ma, Huanchen Sha
NAF-1 (nutrient-deprivation autophagy factor-1), which is an outer mitochondrial membrane protein, is known to play important roles in calcium metabolism, antiapoptosis, and antiautophagy. Resveratrol, a natural polyphenolic compound, is considered as a potent anticancer agent. Nevertheless, the molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of resveratrol and NAF-1 and their mediation of drug resistance in pancreatic cancer remain unclear. Here, we demonstrate that resveratrol suppresses the expression of NAF-1 in pancreatic cancer cells by inducing cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation and activating Nrf2 signaling...
2018: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764979/the-complex-relationship-between-tfeb-transcription-factor-phosphorylation-and-subcellular-localization
#10
REVIEW
Rosa Puertollano, Shawn M Ferguson, James Brugarolas, Andrea Ballabio
The MiT-TFE family of basic helix-loop-helix leucine-zipper transcription factors includes four members: TFEB, TFE3, TFEC, and MITF Originally described as oncogenes, these factors play a major role as regulators of lysosome biogenesis, cellular energy homeostasis, and autophagy. An important mechanism by which these transcription factors are regulated involves their shuttling between the surface of lysosomes, the cytoplasm, and the nucleus. Such dynamic changes in subcellular localization occur in response to nutrient fluctuations and various forms of cell stress and are mediated by changes in the phosphorylation of multiple conserved amino acids...
May 15, 2018: EMBO Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764395/longitudinal-changes-in-bone-and-mineral-metabolism-after-cessation-of-cinacalcet-in-dialysis-patients-with-secondary-hyperparathyroidism
#11
Irene Ruderman, Edward R Smith, Nigel D Toussaint, Tim D Hewitson, Stephen G Holt
BACKGROUND: The calcimimetic agent cinacalcet is effective for the management of secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) in dialysis patients. Changes to reimbursement of cinacalcet in Australia provided an opportunity to assess effects of medication cessation on biochemical and clinical outcomes in dialysis patients, including changes to novel biomarkers such as calciprotein particles (CPP). CPP are nanoparticles of mineral and protein in the circulation associated with increased vascular calcification in patients with chronic kidney disease...
May 15, 2018: BMC Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761657/nesting-environment-may-drive-variation-in-eggshell-structure-and-egg-characteristics-in-the-testudinata
#12
D Charles Deeming
Testudines exhibit considerable variation in the degree of eggshell calcification, which affects eggshell conductance, water physiology of the embryos, and calcium metabolism of embryos. However, the underlying reason for different shell types has not been explored. Phylogenetically controlled analyses examined relationships between egg size, shell mass, and clutch size in ∼200 turtle species from a range of body sizes and assigned by family as laying either rigid- or pliable-shelled eggs. Shell type affected egg breadth relative to pelvic dimensions, egg mass, and relative shell mass but did not affect size, mass, or total shell mass of the clutch...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological and Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761487/the-phytoestrogen-genistein-prevents-trabecular-bone-loss-and-affects-thyroid-follicular-cells-in-a-male-rat-model-of-osteoporosis
#13
Branko Filipović, Branka Šošić-Jurjević, Vladimir Ajdžanović, Jasmina Živanović, Milica Manojlović-Stojanoski, Nataša Nestorović, Nataša Ristić, Svetlana Trifunović, Verica Milošević
As a major phytoestrogen of soy, genistein effectively prevents bone loss in both humans and rat models of osteoporosis. However, although the bone-sparing effects of genistein are achieved directly through estrogen receptors, its mode of action on bone by modulation of other endocrine functions is not entirely clear. Thus, thyroid hormones and calcitonin (CT) have an essential influence on bone metabolism. Besides its action on bones, in this study we examined the effect of genistein on the activity of two different endocrine cell populations, thyroid follicular and C-cells...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760952/downregulation-of-the-psychiatric-susceptibility-gene-cacna1c-promotes-mitochondrial-resilience-to-oxidative-stress-in-neuronal-cells
#14
Susanne Michels, Goutham K Ganjam, Helena Martins, Gerhard M Schratt, Markus Wöhr, Rainer K W Schwarting, Carsten Culmsee
Affective disorders such as major depression and bipolar disorder are among the most prevalent forms of mental illness and their etiologies involve complex interactions between genetic and environmental risk factors. Over the past ten years, several genome wide association studies (GWAS) have identified CACNA1C as one of the strongest genetic risk factors for the development of affective disorders. However, its role in disease pathogenesis is still largely unknown. Vulnerability to affective disorders also involves diverse environmental risk factors such as perinatal insults, childhood maltreatment, and other adverse pathophysiological or psychosocial life events...
2018: Cell Death Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760322/effect-of-dietary-difructose-anhydride-iii-supplementation-on-bone-mineral-density-and-calcium-metabolism-in-late-lactation-dairy-cows
#15
Ayami Maetani, Masayuki Ohtani, Kaoru Hatate, Kotaro Matsumoto, Norio Yamagishi
The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of 28 days of dietary difructose anhydride (DFA) III supplementation on calcium (Ca) metabolism in late-lactation dairy cows. Twenty-four multiparous pregnant Holstein cows were divided into two groups. The DFA group was fed total mixed ration (TMR) supplemented with 40 g of DFA III, and the control group was fed TMR only. The replenishment of bone Ca reserves was evaluated by measuring bone mineral density (BMD) and blood biochemical bone markers. Serum Ca concentrations, urinary Ca-to-creatinine (Cre) (Ca/Cre) ratios, and milk Ca concentrations were also analyzed...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757578/seasonal-variations-in-urinary-calcium-volume-and-vitamin-d-in-kidney-stone-formers
#16
Kyrollis Attalla, Shubha De, Carl Sarkissian, Manoj Monga
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the seasonal variations in urinary calcium, serum vitamin D, and urinary volume in patients with a history of nephrolithiasis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients included were those who completed a 24-hour urine metabolic evaluation on two occasions; one in summer (June-Aug) and one in winter (Nov-Jan), and who had not started any medications or been instructed on dietary modifications in the interval between the two tests that may have impacted the results...
May 10, 2018: International Braz J Urol: Official Journal of the Brazilian Society of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756571/the-mechanism-of-dietary-protein-modulation-of-bone-metabolism-via-alterations-in-members-of-the-gh-igf-axis
#17
Chen Lv, Songcai Liu, Jichao Xia, Lei Xu, Yunyun Cheng, Wenyue Li, Yu Zhang, Gang Wang, Wenzhen Wei, Hongyu Shi, Shan Huang, Nan Wang, Linlin Hao
Dietary protein intake as a critical regulatory factor of bone metabolism is a vital element to regulate nutritional status of mammals. Under the action of protease, dietary protein is digested into peptides and free amino acids (FAAs). Then, the metabolites are absorbed by enterocytes and metabolized in various organs of mammals. The dietary protein intake regulates bone metabolism generally via two aspects, dietary itself and signaling transduction. At the dietary level, different kinds of amino acids (AAs) of dietary protein may affect various protein metabolism of bone by regulating proteasome depending on proteolysis and protein synthesis...
May 14, 2018: Current Protein & Peptide Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755856/the-guiding-role-of-bone-metabolism-test-in-osteoporosis-treatment
#18
REVIEW
Wei Zhang, Guo-Ji Yang, Shi-Xian Wu, Dong-Qing Li, Ying-Bo Xu, Cheng-Hong Ma, Jun-Ling Wang, Wei-Wen Chen
Osteoporosis (OP) and osteoporotic fractures are becoming a serious health care issue in the world. Calcium and vitamin D are the basic treatment for osteoporosis. Nonetheless, they do not effectively reduce the incidences of fracture. Currently approved treatments for osteoporosis include selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs), bisphosphonates, denosumab, teriparatide, calcitonin and others. However, the appearance of some adverse effects including atypical fracture and breast cancer has limited long-term treatments above mentioned...
2018: American Journal of Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754264/one-year-impact-of-bariatric-surgery-on-serum-anti-mullerian-hormone-levels-in-severely-obese-women
#19
Clara Vincentelli, Marie Maraninchi, René Valéro, Sophie Béliard, Flavia Maurice, Olivier Emungania, Bruno Berthet, Elise Lombard, Anne Dutour, Bénédicte Gaborit, Blandine Courbiere
INTRODUCTION: Although bariatric surgery seems to increase spontaneous fertility by improving ovulatory function in young women, its impact on ovarian reserve remains largely unknown. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate changes in serum anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) levels in reproductive-age severely obese women after bariatric surgery (BS). METHODS: AMH levels were measured retrospectively in 39 women (mean age 34.6 ± 1.1 years, range 18-45) that underwent a sleeve gastrectomy or Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) at baseline, and 6 and 12 months after BS...
May 12, 2018: Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753400/updates-on-the-mechanisms-and-the-care-of-cardiovascular-calcification-in-chronic-kidney-disease
#20
REVIEW
Lucie Hénaut, Jean-Marc Chillon, Saïd Kamel, Ziad A Massy
In chronic kidney disease (CKD), the progressive decrease in renal function leads to disturbances of mineral metabolism that generally cause secondary hyperparathyroidism. The increase in serum parathyroid hormone is associated with reduced serum calcium and calcitriol levels and/or increased serum fibroblast growth factor-23 and phosphate levels. The resulting CKD-associated disorder of mineral and bone metabolism is associated with various other metabolic dysregulations such as acidosis, malnutrition, inflammation, and accumulation of uremic toxins...
May 2018: Seminars in Nephrology
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