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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667799/shrink-that-frown-botulinum-toxin-therapy-is-lifting-the-face-of-psychiatry
#1
M Axel Wollmer, Insa Neumann, Michelle Magid, Tillmann H Kruger
Treating glabellar frown lines with injections of botulinum toxin is the most frequently applied procedure in aesthetic medicine. In addition to its cosmetic effect, botulinum toxin may also positively modulate mood and affect, which may contribute to its popularity. A series of clinical studies has shown that this modulation can be used in the treatment of major depression. After a single glabellar treatment with botulinum toxin, patients suffering from unipolar depression experienced a quick, strong and sustained improvement in the symptoms of depression...
April 18, 2018: Giornale Italiano di Dermatologia e Venereologia: Organo Ufficiale, Società Italiana di Dermatologia e Sifilografia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665163/lowered-quality-of-life-in-mood-disorders-is-associated-with-increased-neuro-oxidative-stress-and-basal-thyroid-stimulating-hormone-levels-and-use-of-anticonvulsant-mood-stabilizers
#2
Caroline Sampaio Nunes, Michael Maes, Chutima Roomruangwong, Juliana Brum Moraes, Kamila Landucci Bonifacio, Heber Odebrecht Vargas, Decio Sabbatini Barbosa, George Anderson, Luiz Gustavo Piccoli de Melo, Stoyanov Drozdstoj, Estefania Moreira, André F Carvalho, Sandra Odebrecht Vargas Nunes
RATIONALE, AIMS: Major affective disorders including bipolar disorder (BD) and major depressive disorder (MDD) are associated with impaired health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Oxidative stress and subtle thyroid abnormalities may play a pathophysiological role in both disorders. Thus, the current study was performed to examine whether neuro-oxidative biomarkers and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels could predict HRQoL in BD and MDD. METHODS: This cross-sectional study enrolled 68 BD and 37 MDD patients and 66 healthy controls...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662523/sexual-health-of-adolescent-patients-admitted-to-a-psychiatric-unit
#3
Megan E Harrison, Stephanie Veldhuijzen van Zanten, Ariana Noel, Louise Gresham, Mark L Norris, Amy Robinson, Jason Chan, Addo Boafo
Objective: To review sexual health screening practices during admission to an adolescent psychiatry unit. Method: Retrospective chart review of randomly selected youth admitted over a one-year period (2013). Data extracted included demographics, reasons for admission, sexual health history, as well as any comorbid behaviours noted. The main outcome measure was whether sexual health details were documented at any time during admission; if so, this information was extracted for analysis...
April 2018: Journal of the Canadian Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660416/cognitive-effects-of-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-treatment-in-patients-with-major-depressive-disorder-an-individual-patient-data-meta-analysis-of-randomised-sham-controlled-trials
#4
REVIEW
Donel M Martin, Adriano Moffa, Stevan Nikolin, Djamila Bennabi, André R Brunoni, William Flannery, Emmanuel Haffen, Shawn M McClintock, Marina L Moreno, Frank Padberg, Ulrich Palm, Colleen K Loo
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has emerged as a promising new treatment for major depression. While recent randomised, sham-controlled studies found tDCS to have antidepressant effects, it remains to be determined whether a tDCS treatment course may also enhance cognitive function independent of mood effects in depressed patients. This systematic review and individual patient data (IPD) meta-analysis examined cognitive outcomes from randomised, sham-controlled trials of tDCS treatment for major depression...
April 13, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656708/outcomes-of-a-peer-mentor-intervention-for-persons-with-recurrent-psychiatric-hospitalization
#5
Maria J O'Connell, William H Sledge, Martha Staeheli, David Sells, Mark Costa, Melissa Wieland, Larry Davidson
OBJECTIVE: This article presents findings from a randomized controlled trial of a peer support mentorship intervention designed for individuals with serious mental illness and frequent, recurrent psychiatric hospitalizations. METHODS: Seventy-six individuals who were diagnosed as having a major psychotic or mood disorder and who had at least two psychiatric hospitalizations or more than three emergency department visits within the 18 months prior to the index hospitalization participated in this trial...
April 16, 2018: Psychiatric Services: a Journal of the American Psychiatric Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643356/disc1-regulates-lactate-metabolism-in-astrocytes-implications-for-psychiatric-disorders
#6
Yan Jouroukhin, Yusuke Kageyama, Varvara Misheneva, Alexey Shevelkin, Shaida Andrabi, Emese Prandovszky, Robert H Yolken, Valina L Dawson, Ted M Dawson, Susan Aja, Hiromi Sesaki, Mikhail V Pletnikov
Our knowledge of how genetic risk variants contribute to psychiatric disease is mainly limited to neurons. However, the mechanisms whereby the same genetic risk factors could affect the physiology of glial cells remain poorly understood. We studied the role of a psychiatric genetic risk factor, Disrupted-In-Schizophrenia-1 (DISC1), in metabolic functions of astrocytes. We evaluated the effects of knockdown of mouse endogenous DISC1 (DISC1-KD) and expression of a dominant-negative, C-terminus truncated human DISC1 (DN-DISC1) on the markers of energy metabolism, including glucose uptake and lactate production, in primary astrocytes and in mice with selective expression of DN-DISC1 in astrocytes...
April 12, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642911/gnrh-dysregulation-in-polycystic-ovarian-syndrome-pcos-is-a-manifestation-of-an-altered-neurotransmitter-profile
#7
Nirja Chaudhari, Mitali Dawalbhakta, Laxmipriya Nampoothiri
BACKGROUND: GnRH is the master molecule of reproduction that is influenced by several intrinsic and extrinsic factors such as neurotransmitters and neuropeptides. Any alteration in these regulatory loops may result in reproductive-endocrine dysfunction such as the polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). Although low dopaminergic tone has been associated with PCOS, the role of neurotransmitters in PCOS remains unknown. The present study was therefore aimed at understanding the status of GnRH regulatory neurotransmitters to decipher the neuroendocrine pathology in PCOS...
April 11, 2018: Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology: RB&E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618408/is-major-depression-a-cognitive-disorder
#8
REVIEW
P Fossati
This is a review of cognitive abilities in major depression, which is associated with attention problems, memory deficit and wide impairment in executive functions. Depressed patients show two major cognitive biases: excessive processing of negatively valenced emotional stimuli; and increased self-focus. Both of these biases help to facilitate the integration of negative self-related information in depressed patients and to maintain their negative mood. Brain imaging studies suggest that this cognitive impairment is characterized by abnormal cooperation between the cognitive and limbic networks involved in cognitive control and self-referential processing...
April 1, 2018: Revue Neurologique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618013/fgf21-is-associated-with-metabolic-effects-and-treatment-response-in-depressed-bipolar-ii-disorder-patients-treated-with-valproate
#9
Hui Hua Chang, Po See Chen, Yung Wen Cheng, Tzu-Yun Wang, Yen Kuang Yang, Ru-Band Lu
Background: Patients with bipolar disorder are at high risk of metabolic disturbance after mood stabilizer treatment. However, the mediators linking the two conditions remain unknown. In this study, we investigated whether fibroblast growth factor-21 (FGF21) was associated with metabolic effects and treatment response in depressed bipolar disorder patients. Methods: We recruited 78 community-dwelling controls and 137 bipolar disorder patients; the latter were interviewed using the Chinese Version of the Modified Schedule of Affective Disorder and Schizophrenia-Life Time...
April 1, 2018: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615850/interplay-between-the-gut-brain-axis-obesity-and-cognitive-function
#10
REVIEW
Ana Agustí, Maria P García-Pardo, Inmaculada López-Almela, Isabel Campillo, Michael Maes, Marina Romaní-Pérez, Yolanda Sanz
Obesity continues to be one of the major public health problems due to its high prevalence and co-morbidities. Common co-morbidities not only include cardiometabolic disorders but also mood and cognitive disorders. Obese subjects often show deficits in memory, learning and executive functions compared to normal weight subjects. Epidemiological studies also indicate that obesity is associated with a higher risk of developing depression and anxiety, and vice versa . These associations between pathologies that presumably have different etiologies suggest shared pathological mechanisms...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614896/modeling-strengthens-molecular-link-between-circadian-polymorphisms-and-major-mood-disorders
#11
Amanda R Liberman, Lumbardh Halitjaha, Ahmet Ay, Krista K Ingram
Anxiety and other mood disorders, such as major depressive disorder (MDD) and seasonal affective disorder (SAD), affect nearly one-fifth of the global population and disproportionately affect young adults. Individuals affected by mood disorders are frequently plagued by sleep and circadian problems, and recent genetic studies provide ample support for the association of circadian and sleep syndromes with depression and anxiety. Mathematical modeling has been crucial in understanding some of the essential features of the mammalian circadian clock and is now a vital tool for dissecting how circadian genes regulate the molecular mechanisms that influence mood...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Biological Rhythms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29611101/the-compensatory-immune-regulatory-reflex-system-cirs-in-depression-and-bipolar-disorder
#12
REVIEW
Michael Maes, Andre F Carvalho
Here, we review a novel concept namely the compensatory immune-regulatory reflex system (CIRS) as applied to the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BD). There is evidence that a substantial subset of individuals with MDD and BD exhibit an activation of the immune-inflammatory response system (IRS), as indicated by an increased production of macrophagic M1 and T helper (Th)-1 pro-inflammatory cytokines, interleukin (IL)-6 trans-signaling, positive acute phase proteins (APPs), and complement factors...
April 2, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29602330/the-association-between-depression-and-eating-styles-in-four-european-countries-the-moodfood-prevention-study
#13
Nadine P G Paans, Mariska Bot, Ingeborg A Brouwer, Marjolein Visser, Miquel Roca, Elisabeth Kohls, Ed Watkins, Brenda W J H Penninx
OBJECTIVE: Depression, one of the most prevalent and disabling disorders in Europe, is thought to be associated with unhealthy eating styles. As prevalence of depression and eating styles potentially differ across Europe, the current study aimed to investigate in a large, European sample, the associations of history of major depressive disorder and depression severity with unhealthy eating styles. METHODS: Baseline data of the MooDFOOD prevention study was used...
May 2018: Journal of Psychosomatic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29600729/astroglial-5-ht-2b-receptor-in-mood-disorders
#14
Liang Peng, Dan Song, Baoman Li, Alexei Verkhratsky
Astroglia represent the main cellular homeostatic system of the central nervous system (CNS). Astrocytes are intimately involved in regulation and maintenance of neurotransmission by regulating neurotransmitters removal and turnover and by supplying neurons with neurotransmitters precursors. Astroglial cells are fundamental elements of monoaminergic transmission in the brain and in the spinal cord. Astrocytes receive monoaminergic inputs and control catabolism of monoamines through dedicated transporters and intracellular enzymatic pathways...
March 30, 2018: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29599381/secondary-mania-following-cancer-chemotherapy-with-capecitabine
#15
Harshit Garg, Sathya Prakash, Koushik Sinha Deb, Rakesh Kumar Chadda
Mania-like states occurring due to neurological, metabolic or toxic conditions, without a primary mood disorder have been reported in scientific literature as secondary mania. A major clinical problem in such situations often stems from the difficulty to understand if the mood disturbance is indeed secondary to an organic cause or a coincidental primary mood disorder. Chemotherapy regimens have been associated with multiple psychiatric complications, including psychosis, mania and anxiety. Capecitabine is implicated to be associated with encephalopathy whose clinical presentation often mimics that of psychosis...
March 28, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29596328/performance-of-the-adult-adhd-self-report-scale-v1-1-in-adults-with-major-depressive-disorder
#16
Boadie W Dunlop, Ruizhe Wu, Kathleen Helms
Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is an under-recognized comorbid disorder among patients with mood disorders. ADHD is an independent risk factor for suicidal ideation and behavior and contributes to many aspects of impaired function in adults. Diagnosis of ADHD in Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) patients is challenging due to the overlap in cognitive symptoms between the two disorders. The ADHD Self-Report Scale, version 1.1 (ASRS-v1.1) is a widely used screening instrument for ADHD in adults but its accuracy has not been evaluated previously in treatment-seeking MDD patients...
March 29, 2018: Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29596118/treatment-of-depression-with-duloxetine-in-mitochondrial-encephalopathy-lactic-acidosis-and-stroke-like-episodes
#17
Brittany Cozart, Jesus Diaz Vera, James D Denham, William L Whiting
The mitochondrial cytopathies are a heterogeneous group of diseases characterized by heteroplasmic maternal transmission and selective dysfunction of tissues and organs highly dependent on aerobic respiration (eg, skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle, and brain). Mitochondrial encephalomyopathy with lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes (MELAS) is a specific subtype of mitochondrial cytopathy that is commonly associated with mood disturbances in individuals who survive until adulthood. Because of the altered cellular metabolism inherent in MELAS, it is often difficult to determine drug dosing, drug choice, and treatment response in patients with this rare disease...
March 28, 2018: Clinical Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29595146/assessment-of-linear-and-nonlinear-complex-heartbeat-dynamics-in-subclinical-depression-dysphoria
#18
Alberto Greco, Simone Messerotti Benvenuti, Claudio Gentili, Daniela Palomba, Enzo Pasquale Scilingo, Gaetano Valenza
OBJECTIVE: Depression is one of the leading causes of disability worldwide. Most previous studies have focused on major depression, and studies on subclinical depression, such as those on so-called dysphoria, have been overlooked. Indeed, dysphoria is associated with a high prevalence of somatic disorders, and a reduction of quality of life and life expectancy. In current clinical practice, dysphoria is assessed using psychometric questionnaires and structured interviews only, without taking into account objective pathophysiological indices...
March 29, 2018: Physiological Measurement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593576/vagus-nerve-as-modulator-of-the-brain-gut-axis-in-psychiatric-and-inflammatory-disorders
#19
REVIEW
Sigrid Breit, Aleksandra Kupferberg, Gerhard Rogler, Gregor Hasler
The vagus nerve represents the main component of the parasympathetic nervous system, which oversees a vast array of crucial bodily functions, including control of mood, immune response, digestion, and heart rate. It establishes one of the connections between the brain and the gastrointestinal tract and sends information about the state of the inner organs to the brain via afferent fibers. In this review article, we discuss various functions of the vagus nerve which make it an attractive target in treating psychiatric and gastrointestinal disorders...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29589532/targeting-gap-junctions-new-insights-in-the-treatment-of-major-depressive-disorder
#20
Denis Sarrouilhe, Marc Mesnil, Catherine Dejean
BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a multifactorial chronic and debilitating mood disease with high lifetime prevalence and associated with excess mortality. Treatments of this disease are not effective in all patients showing the need to find new therapeutic targets. OBJECTIVE: This review aims to update our knowledge about the involvement of astroglial gap junctions and hemichannels in MDD and to show how they have become potential targets for the treatment of this pathology...
March 26, 2018: Current Medicinal Chemistry
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