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leptospirosis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446740/biological-risk-among-agriculture-and-construction-workers-in-molise-region-central-italy
#1
Manuela Tamburro, Vincenza Anzelmo, Paolo Bianco, Michela Lucia Sammarco, Francesco Salierno, Giancarlo Ripabelli
BACKGROUND: Biological risk is a significant issue in workplaces due to continuous modification of work organization and condition. OBJECTIVES: In this pilot study, perception and knowledge of biological risk, as well as adoption of prevention measures were evaluated among construction and agriculture workers. METHODS: A structured questionnaire was administered to workers to collect socio-demographic and employment information, in addition to data on risk perception and knowledge, and adoption of preventive measures, including those related to work activities...
April 21, 2017: La Medicina del Lavoro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437186/leptospira-species-in-feral-cats-and-black-rats-from-western-australia-and-christmas-island
#2
Narelle A Dybing, Caroline Jacobson, Peter Irwin, David Algar, Peter J Adams
Leptospirosis is a neglected, re-emerging bacterial disease with both zoonotic and conservation implications. Rats and livestock are considered the usual sources of human infection, but all mammalian species are capable of carrying Leptospira spp. and transmitting pathogenic leptospires in their urine, and uncertainty remains about the ecology and transmission dynamics of Leptospira in different regions. In light of a recent case of human leptospirosis on tropical Christmas Island, this study aimed to investigate the role of introduced animals (feral cats and black rats) as carriers of pathogenic Leptospira spp...
May 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434776/a-patient-who-made-an-impact-on-how-i-practice-severe-leptospirosis-presenting-as-ards-in-the-icu
#3
Evangelia S Panagiotidou, Sofia V Akritidou, Seraphim T Kotoulas, Evdokia K Sourla, Basilis G Mpikos, Basilis P Bagalas, Ioannis T Stanopoulos, Katalin M Fekete, Athanasia D Pataka
Severe leptospirosis can be a rare cause of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and multiorgan failure. A patient who made an impact on how I practice was a case of severe leptospirosis (Weil's disease) that presented as ARDS in the ICU. Leptospirosis is an under-reported infectious disease worldwide and should be considered as a cause of ARDS especially in patients with exposure history complicated with diffuse alveolar bleeding (DAH), icteric hepatitis and renal deterioration. Empiric treatment should be recommended before confirmation of laboratory tests as serological diagnosis is time consuming...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Infection and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418764/disease-surveillance-of-california-ground-squirrels-spermophilus-beecheyi-in-a-drive-through-zoo-in-oregon-usa
#4
Julia Ter Beest, Andrew Cushing, Modesto McClean, Wendy Hsu, Robert Bildfell
Rodents and other small wild mammals are often considered to be pests and vectors for disease in zoos that house small populations of valuable threatened and endangered animals. In 2005, three nonhuman primates at a drive-through zoo in Oregon, USA, acquired tularemia from an unknown source. Due to an abundance of California ground squirrels ( Spermophilus beecheyi ) on zoo grounds, we instituted serosurveillance of this species from July through September 2008 to determine the prevalence of antibodies against pathogens considered to be potentially transmissible to collection animals...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414662/weil-s-disease-from-a-local-new-orleans-bar
#5
H P Kahn, L Bateman
INTRODUCTION: Leptospirosis is a zoonotic infection that typically presents with fever, myalgias, nausea, and vomiting after contact with contaminated waters or infected animals (typically rodents); and their excrements. Conditions favorable to the transmission of leptospirosis are common in LA and, without treatment, leptospirosis can lead to both liver and renal failure, meningitis, pulmonary hemorrhage and ultimately death. CASE: A 56 year old woman with no past medical history presented to the Emergency Department with weakness, myalgias, jaundice and decreased urine output for one week...
March 2017: Journal of the Louisiana State Medical Society: Official Organ of the Louisiana State Medical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410673/hotspots-of-canine-leptospirosis-in-the-united-states-of-america
#6
Allison M White, Carlos Zambrana-Torrelio, Toph Allen, Melinda K Rostal, Andrea K Wright, Eileen C Ball, Peter Daszak, William B Karesh
Leptospirosis is a widespread zoonotic disease that causes hepatic and renal disease in dogs and human beings. The incidence of leptospirosis in dogs in the USA appears to be increasing. This study used 14 years of canine leptospirosis testing data across 3109 counties in the USA to analyze environmental and socio-economic correlates with rates of infection and to produce a map of locations of increased risk for canine leptospirosis. Boosted regression trees were used to identify the probability of a dog testing positive for leptospirosis based on microscopic agglutination test (MAT) results, and environmental and socio-economic data...
April 2017: Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410507/high-level-of-il-10-expression-in-the-blood-of-animal-models-possibly-relates-to-resistance-against-leptospirosis
#7
Mariko Matsui, Louise Roche, Marie-Estelle Soupé-Gilbert, Milena Hasan, Didier Monchy, Cyrille Goarant
Leptospirosis is a severe zoonosis which immunopathogenesis is poorly understood. We evaluated correlation between acute form of the disease and the ratio of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 to the pro-inflammatory TNF-α and IL-1β expression during the early phase of infection comparing resistant mice and susceptible hamsters infected with two different species of virulent Leptospira. The IL-10/TNF-α and IL-10/IL-1β expression ratios were higher in mouse compared to hamster independently of the Leptospira strain, suggesting a preponderant role of the host response and notably these cytokines in the clinical expression and survival to leptospirosis...
April 11, 2017: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405850/retrospective-study-of-leptospirosis-in-malaysia
#8
REVIEW
Bashiru Garba, Abdul Rani Bahaman, Siti Khairani-Bejo, Zunita Zakaria, Abdul Rahim Mutalib
Leptospirosis is a bacterial disease transmitted to humans and animals by direct or indirect contact with urine or body fluids from infected animals especially rodents. Infection can be associated with wide clinical spectrum varying from asymptomatic to severe multi-organ syndrome with life-threatening consequences. We conducted a review of published studies on incidences, case reports, sero-epidemiological surveys from year 2000 to 2015 using different electronic data bases. Our study revealed that majority of the studies were conducted in Peninsular Malaysia and predominantly among high-risk human groups...
April 12, 2017: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400758/leptospira-infection-interferes-with-the-prothrombinase-complex-assembly-during-experimental-leptospirosis
#9
Monica L Vieira, Sonia A de Andrade, Zenaide M Morais, Silvio A Vasconcellos, Maria Lucia Z Dagli, Ana Lucia T O Nascimento
Leptospirosis is a worldwide zoonotic and neglected infectious disease of human and veterinary concern, caused by pathogenic Leptospira species. Although bleeding is a common symptom of severe leptospirosis, the cause of hemorrhage is not completely understood. In severe infections, modulation of hemostasis by pathogens is an important virulence mechanism, and hemostatic impairments such as coagulation/fibrinolysis dysfunction are frequently observed. Here, we analyze the coagulation status of experimentally infected hamsters in an attempt to determine coagulation interferences and the origin of leptospirosis hemorrhagic symptomatology...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397515/prevalence-and-renal-pathology-of-pathogenic-i-leptospira-i-spp-in-wildlife-in-abeokuta-ogun-state-nigeria
#10
Olusola L Ajayi, Richard E Antia, Olufemi E Ojo, Olajoju J Awoyomi, Latifa A Oyinlola, Oluwabusola G Ojebiyi
There is paucity of information on the prevalence of leptospirosis in wildlife in Nigeria. This study investigated the prevalence and renal pathology of leptospirosis in wild animals in Southwest Nigeria. One hundred and five kidney samples were examined from 10 different wildlife species (antelope) greater cane rat (GCR), hare, African giant rat (AGR), tree hyrax, civet cat, monitor lizard, python, bushbuck and partridge) using a combination of Ellinghausen McCullough Johnson Harris (EMJH) medium, microscopic agglutination test (MAT), Warthin- Starry silver stain (WSss) and immunohistochemistry...
March 24, 2017: Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391058/control-of-bovine-leptospirosis-aspects-for-consideration-in-a-tropical-environment
#11
REVIEW
G Martins, W Lilenbaum
Due to the complex and dynamic epidemiology of leptospirosis on livestock, control is still controversial and frustrating. In this context, this paper discusses the main challenges and perspectives for the control of bovine leptospirosis, particularly under tropical conditions. In order to reduce the effects of the disease in cattle, it has been proposed that the control should integrate the trinomial antibiotic therapy (mainly streptomycin); vaccination (whole-cell bacterins); and environmental management...
April 1, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384550/molecular-detection-and-isolation-of-pathogenic-leptospira-from-asymptomatic-humans-domestic-animals-and-water-sources-in-nan-province-a-rural-area-of-thailand
#12
Alongkorn Kurilung, Pattrarat Chanchaithong, Kittitat Lugsomya, Waree Niyomtham, Vanaporn Wuthiekanun, Nuvee Prapasarakul
Leptospirosis is an important zoonotic disease that is often associated with animal carriers and contamination of the environment via infected urine. This study aimed to assess pathogenic leptospiral carriage in Nan province, a rural area of Thailand where leptospirosis is endemic. Samples from 20 villages were obtained during the period 2013 to 2016, comprising urine samples collected from asymptomatic people (n=37) and domestic animals (n=342), and environmental water samples (n=14). Leptospira were cultured in Ellinghauson McCullough Johnson and Harris (EMJH) media...
March 29, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377329/presumptive-diagnosis-of-leptospirosis-before-seroconversion-a-review-of-338-cases-in-wallis-and-futuna-2008-to-2015
#13
Denis Massenet, Clément Couteaux, Cyrille Goarant
Leptospirosis is a common condition in Wallis and Futuna, and the definitive diagnosis needs to be established urgently at the first patient consultation, which is usually one to two days after the onset of clinical signs. As a diagnostic aid, a composite index was established based on data from 338 patients seen by the Wallis and Futuna admissions services between 2008 and 2015. The data taken into account include: age and sex of the patient, their home island, the consultation period and the results of leukocytes, platelets, CRP, creatinine and GGT tests combined with 2 major clinical signs, headache and conjunctival suffusion...
April 1, 2017: Annales de Biologie Clinique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368857/serovar-prevalence-of-leptospira-in-semirural-india-and-the-development-of-an-igm-based-indirect-elisa
#14
MULTICENTER STUDY
Sara Chandy, Lokeshwaran Kirubanandhan, Priya Hemavathy, Anees Mohammad Khadeeja, Siby Jacob Kurian, Krishnan Venkataraman, Kristine Mørch, Dilip Mathai, Anand Manoharan
INTRODUCTION: Leptospirosis is a major public health problem in India. However, it has been underreported and under-diagnosed due to a lack of awareness of the disease, a functional surveillance system, and appropriate laboratory diagnostic facilities. METHODOLOGY: This multicenter study aimed to understand the Leptospira serovars causing leptospirosis in seven secondary-level hospitals in six states in India. Since early and accurate diagnosis of leptospirosis is one of the challenges faced by clinicians in India due to the poor specificity and sensitivity of commercially available diagnostic systems, an in-house indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed...
March 31, 2017: Journal of Infection in Developing Countries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367783/high-number-of-asymptomatic-dogs-as-leptospiral-carriers-in-an-endemic-area-indicates-a-serious-public-health-concern
#15
R Sant'anna, A S Vieira, J Grapiglia, W Lilenbaum
Asymptomatic dogs can be potential hosts of leptospirosis. However, the extension of this phenomenon in endemic areas has not yet been clearly defined. This study is aimed at evaluating the role of asymptomatic dogs as carriers of Leptospira in an endemic area of Brazil. A total of 131 male dogs without apparent leptospirosis symptoms were included in the study based on clinical and hematologic exams. Serum and urine samples were collected for microscopic agglutination tests (MAT) and polymerase chain reactions (PCR) targeted the LipL32 gene, respectively...
April 3, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365095/human-leptospirosis-occurrence-of-serovars-of-leptospira-spp-in-the-state-of-minas-gerais-brazil-from-2008-to-2012
#16
Marluce Aparecida Assunção Oliveira, Élida Aparecida Leal, Max Assunção Correia, José Carlos Serufo Filho, Ricardo Souza Dias, José Carlos Serufo
BACKGROUND: Leptospirosis is an infectious and acute disease caused by Leptospira spp. that have high epidemic potential. This study verified the main Leptospira spp. serovars detected by MAT from serum of patients with suspicion of leptospirosis from 2008 to 2012 in Minas Gerais State. METHODS: The laboratory received sera from 4654 patients. All serum were screened by IgM-ELISA according to the manufacturer's instructions. Each sample reactive or indeterminate were tested against twenty-four serovars of Leptospira by MAT...
February 10, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Microbiology: [publication of the Brazilian Society for Microbiology]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357645/seroprevalence-and-risk-factors-for-leptospirosis-in-cattle-sheep-and-goats-at-consorted-rearing-from-the-state-of-piau%C3%A3-northeastern-brazil
#17
Ângela Piauilino Campos, Dayane Francisca Higino Miranda, Huanna Waleska Soares Rodrigues, Micherlene da Silva Carneiro Lustosa, Gustavo Henrique Chaves Martins, Ana Lys Bezerra Barradas Mineiro, Vanessa Castro, Sérgio Santos Azevedo, Silvana Maria Medeiros de Sousa Silva
Leptospirosis is an endemic disease in Latin America, caused by pathogenic bacteria of the genus Leptospira. It is considered one of the main causes responsible for the negative economic impact on global livestock by causing reproductive problems. The research aimed to determine the prevalence of leptospirosis in cattle, sheep, and goats at consorted rearing in the micro-region of Teresina, Piauí state, northeastern Brazil, as well as to identify prevalent serovars and risk factors associated with seroprevalence...
March 29, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28352293/using-fine-scale-spatial-genetics-of-norway-rats-to-improve-control-efforts-and-reduce-leptospirosis-risk-in-urban-slum-environments
#18
Jonathan L Richardson, Mary K Burak, Christian Hernandez, James M Shirvell, Carol Mariani, Ticiana S A Carvalho-Pereira, Arsinoê C Pertile, Jesus A Panti-May, Gabriel G Pedra, Soledad Serrano, Josh Taylor, Mayara Carvalho, Gorete Rodrigues, Federico Costa, James E Childs, Albert I Ko, Adalgisa Caccone
The Norway rat (Rattus norvegicus) is a key pest species globally and responsible for seasonal outbreaks of the zoonotic bacterial disease leptospirosis in the tropics. The city of Salvador, Brazil, has seen recent and dramatic increases in human population residing in slums, where conditions foster high rat density and increasing leptospirosis infection rates. Intervention campaigns have been used to drastically reduce rat numbers. In planning these interventions, it is important to define the eradication units - the spatial scale at which rats constitute continuous populations and from where rats are likely recolonizing, post-intervention...
April 2017: Evolutionary Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28352257/a-novel-pan-genome-reverse-vaccinology-approach-employing-a-negative-selection-strategy-for-screening-surface-exposed-antigens-against-leptospirosis
#19
LingBing Zeng, Dongliang Wang, NiYa Hu, Qing Zhu, Kaishen Chen, Ke Dong, Yan Zhang, YuFeng Yao, XiaoKui Guo, Yung-Fu Chang, YongZhang Zhu
Reverse vaccinology (RV) has been widely used for screening of surface-exposed proteins (PSEs) of important pathogens, including outer membrane proteins (OMPs), and extracellular proteins (ECPs) as potential vaccine candidates. In this study, we applied a novel RV negative strategy and a pan-genome analysis for screening of PSEs from 17 L. interrogans strains covering 11 predominately epidemic serovars and 17 multilocus typing (MLST) sequence types (STs) worldwide. Our results showed, for instance, out of a total of 633 predicted PSEs in strain 56601, 92...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351712/bovine-leptospirosis-prevalence-associated-risk-factors-for-infection-and-their-cause-effect-relation
#20
Juscivete F Fávero, Hugo L de Araújo, Walter Lilenbaum, Gustavo Machado, Alexandre A Tonin, Matheus D Baldissera, Lenita M Stefani, Aleksandro S Da Silva
Leptospirosis is a cosmopolitan infectious disease that causes severe reproductive disorders in cattle, especially those related to abortion. This disease has rodents as main reservoirs; however, cattle are responsible for maintenance of the disease. Thus, the aim of this study was to identify the factors associated with infection and cause-effect relation of leptospirosis in dairy herds from Southern of Brazil. Serum samples of 1242 cows were collected from herds classified as of medium and high density, and tested by microscopic agglutination test (MAT)...
March 27, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
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