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Yinghua Xu, Qiang Ye
The present incidence of leptospirosis in China is significantly lower than past rates, although small localized outbreaks continue to occur in epidemic regions. Improvements in sanitation, as well as vaccination of high-risk populations, have played crucial roles in reducing the disease burden. Several types of human leptospirosis vaccines have been developed, including inactivated whole-cell, outer-envelope, and recombinant vaccines. Of these, only a multivalent inactivated leptospirosis vaccine is available in China, which was added to the Chinese Expanded Program on Immunization in 2007...
November 17, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Hector Gorbea, Enid J Garcia-Rivera, Hilda Torres, Olga D Lorenzi, Aidsa Rivera, Renee L Galloway, Tyler M Sharp
Leptospirosis is an emerging bacterial zoonosis that is endemic but underrecognized throughout the tropics. Through prospective surveillance for acute febrile illness (AFI) among patients who presented to the emergency department of a hospital located in an urban region of Puerto Rico, four patients with laboratory-confirmed leptospirosis were identified. All patients had signs and symptoms of AFI, including fever, headache, and dehydration. Three patients had leukocytosis with thrombocytopenia and were admitted to the hospital...
November 6, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
J Lizer, S Velineni, A Weber, M Krecic, P Meeus
BACKGROUND: Leptospirosis in dogs is a disease of global importance. Early detection and appropriate therapeutic intervention are necessary to resolve infection and prevent zoonotic transmission. However, its diagnosis is hindered by nonspecific clinical signs and lack of rapid diagnostic tests of early infection. Recently, 2 rapid point-of-care tests (WITNESS Lepto [WITNESS Lepto, Zoetis LLC, Kalamazoo, MI, USA] and SNAP Lepto [SNAP Lepto, IDEXX Laboratories, Westbrook, ME, USA]) for detection of Leptospira-specific antibodies in canine sera were developed...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
Juan Ignacio Silesky Jiménez, Jorge Luis Hidalgo Marroquin, Guy A Richards, Pravin Amin
Leptospirosis is a zoonosis caused by a gram negative aerobic spirochete of the genus Leptospira. It is acquired by contact with urine or reproductive fluids from infected animals, or by inoculation from contaminated water or soil. The disease has a global distribution, mainly in tropical and subtropical regions that have a humid, rainy climate and is also common in travelers returning from these regions. Clinical suspicion is critical for the diagnosis and it should be included in the differential diagnosis of any patient with a febrile hepatorenal syndrome in, or returning from endemic regions...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Critical Care
Rafael Bazaglia Sonada, Sérgio Santos de Azevedo, Francisco Rafael Martins Soto, Diego Figueiredo da Costa, Zenaide Maria de Morais, Gisele Oliveira de Souza, Amane Paldês Gonçales, Fabiana Miraglia, Sílvio Arruda Vasconcellos
In swine and bovines, leptospirosis prevention and control is carried out via vaccination of susceptible animals using bacterins. However, the efficiency of leptospirosis vaccines has been questioned. This work aimed to investigate the potency of five leptospirosis vaccines sold commercially in Brazil, challenging the animals with one autochthonous strain of Leptospira, Canicola serovar, denoted LO4, isolated from swine. The standard protocol was followed, and renal carriers of Leptospira were identified among the surviving animals by culture and PCR...
October 12, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Microbiology: [publication of the Brazilian Society for Microbiology]
Benjamin Delmas, Julien Jabot, Paul Chanareille, Cyril Ferdynus, Jérôme Allyn, Nicolas Allou, Loïc Raffray, Bernard-Alex Gaüzere, Olivier Martinet, David Vandroux
OBJECTIVES: Leptospirosis causes reversible multiple organ failure, and its mortality remains high. The aim of this study was to determine the mortality rate of leptospirosis in an ICU offering all types of organ support available nowadays and to compare it with mortality in bacterial sepsis. DESIGN: Retrospective, descriptive, and single-center cohort study. SETTINGS: The largest ICU of Reunion Island (Indian Ocean) in a teaching hospital...
November 7, 2017: Critical Care Medicine
Jadson V Santos, Priscila R M Pereira, Luis G V Fernandes, Gabriela Hase Siqueira, Gisele O de Souza, Antônio Souza Filho, Silvio A Vasconcellos, Marcos B Heinemann, Erica G B Chapola, Ana L T O Nascimento
Leptospirosis is a widespread zoonosis caused by pathogenic Leptospira. Bacteria disseminate via the bloodstream and colonize the renal tubules of reservoir hosts. Leptospiral surface-exposed proteins are important targets, because due to their location they can elicit immune response and mediate adhesion and invasion processes. LipL46 has been previously reported to be located at the leptospiral outer membrane and recognized by antibodies present in serum of infected hamsters. In this study, we have confirmed the cellular location of this protein by immunofluorescence and FACS...
November 4, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Probes
Leandro Carvalho Dantas Breda, Silvio Arruda Vasconcellos, Dewton de Moraes Vasconcelos, Lourdes Isaac
Leptospirosis is an important zoonosis of global importance caused by bacteria Leptospira spp. Pathogenic Leptospira is resistant to Complement System killing while non-pathogenic Leptospira is rapidly killed by exposure to normal human serum (NHS). Pathogenic Leptospira interact with Complement Regulators such as Factor H, C4b binding protein and Vitronectin avoiding Complement activation and killing by Alternative and Classical Pathways. One important regulator is C1-inhibitor (C1INH) that interacts with C1s or MASPs controlling the cleavage of C4 and C2 molecules, thereby inhibiting the activation of the Classical and Lectin Pathways...
October 13, 2017: Immunobiology
Juliette Sonet, Anthony Barthélemy, Isabelle Goy-Thollot, Céline Pouzot-Nevoret
Despite the emergence of new serovars, a detailed and current abdominal ultrasonographic description of dogs with leptospirosis is lacking. The purpose of this prospective, observational, single cohort study was to illustrate abdominal ultrasonographic findings in 35 dogs with confirmed leptospirosis. At least one ultrasonographic abnormality was seen in all of the dogs. Ultrasound renal abnormalities were found in all the dogs and included increased renal cortical echogenicity (100%), increased medullary echogenicity (86%), reduced corticomedullary definition (80%), cortical thickening (74%), renomegaly (60%), pelvic dilation (31%), and medullary band (14%)...
November 1, 2017: Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound
Alyson J Brinker, David L Blazes
Background: Leptospirosis is a bacterial zoonotic disease with worldwide distribution. Case presentation: We describe and discuss the clinical course of a leptospirosis outbreak in a running club called the hash house harriers on Guam. Conclusions: Leptospirosis is a potentialy life threatening disease, and has had a reemergence given the popularity of travel adventure sports, teams, and clubs around the world. This case presentation highlights the robust prescence of leptospirosis on Guam...
2017: Tropical Diseases, Travel Medicine and Vaccines
Somjit Chaiwattanarungruengpaisan, Sarin Suwanpakdee, Nareerat Sangkachai, Tatiyanuch Chamsai, Kanokwan Taruyanon, Metawee Thongdee
  We collected water and soil samples from a waterfall in Thailand in order to investigate the presence of potential pathogenic Leptospira. Isolation of Leptospira was completely accomplished from all 17 environmental samples. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, a diverse group of Leptospira species was recovered from waterfall samples including two pathogenic species; L. alstonii (5/17, 29%) and L. kmetyi (1/17, 6%), one intermediate species; L. wolffii (9/17, 53%) and two non-pathogenic species; L...
October 31, 2017: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases
Kate Woods, Caoimhe Nic-Fhogartaigh, Catherine Arnold, Latsaniphone Boutthasavong, Weerawat Phuklia, Cherry Lim, Anisone Chanthongthip, Suhella M Tulsiani, Scott B Craig, Mary-Anne Burns, Steven L Weier, Viengmon Davong, Somsavanh Sihalath, Direk Limmathurotsakul, David Ab Dance, Nandini Shetty, Maria Zambon, Paul N Newton, Sabine Dittrich
OBJECTIVES: To compare two molecular assays (rrs qPCR vs. a combined 16SrRNA and LipL32 qPCR) on different sample types for diagnosing leptospirosis in febrile patients presenting to Mahosot Hospital, Vientiane, Laos. METHODS: Serum, buffy coat and urine samples were collected on admission, and follow up serum ∼10 days later. Leptospira spp. culture and microscopic agglutination tests (MAT) were performed as reference standards. Bayesian latent class modeling was performed to estimate sensitivity and specificity of each diagnostic test...
October 26, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Marcella Mori, Pascale Bourhy, Marine Le Guyader, Marjan Van Esbroeck, Zorée Djelouadji, Alexandra Septfons, Angeli Kodjo, Mathieu Picardeau
Leptospirosis is an under-reported and emerging zoonotic disease which is potentially fatal in humans. Rodents are the main reservoirs for pathogenic Leptospira spp., but diagnosis in these animals is difficult, and their infection, which does not induce symptoms, usually goes unoticed. Although the exposures of most human cases of leptospirosis are poorly documented, we were able to identify six human cases of leptospirosis which were associated with direct contact with pet rodents (mice or rats) in Belgium and France between 2009 and 2016...
October 2017: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
Alean A Frawley, Ilana J Schafer, Renee Galloway, Aileen Artus, Raoult C Ratard
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 27, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Antonio Ortega-Pacheco, Eugenia Guzmán-Marín, Karla Y Acosta-Viana, Ignacio Vado-Solís, Bertha Jiménez-Delgadillo, Maria Cárdenas-Marrufo, Carlos Pérez-Osorio, Marilyn Puerto-Solís, Matilde Jiménez-Coello
To evaluate the serological status for Trypanosoma cruzi, Toxoplasma gondii and Leptospira interrogans antibodies in free roaming dogs and cats from a marginated rural community in Yucatan Mexico, 100 households were visited and animals sampled. From the 106 samples, 93 were from dogs and 13 were from cats. Frequency of positive results for T. gondii, T. cruzi and Leptospira spp was 97.8%, 9.7% and 45.2% for dogs and 92.3%, 0.0% and 15.2% for cats, respectively. No associations with age, sex and body condition was found for T...
February 2017: Veterinary Medicine and Science
Médiha Khamassi Khbou, Kamel Haouala, M'hammed Benzarti
The authors report a survey carried out in a cattle farm between January and April 2009 in Mateur region (Northern Tunisia). Seroprevalence by Microscopic Agglutination Test (MAT) was estimated to 81.4 ± 6% and 35 ± 2% in cows and calves, respectively. Seropositivity to more than one serovar was noticed in 91% (81/89) of infected animals. The examination of the distribution pattern of Leptospira serovars involved in this outbreak indicates that serovar Pomona was the predominant one (75.3%), followed by Autumnalis (59...
February 2017: Veterinary Medicine and Science
Juscivete Fátima Fávero, Alexandro Fritzen, Luciane Lovato, Patrícia Martins, Matheus D Baldissera, Lenita M Stefani, Aleksandro S Da Silva
Good vaccines should confer protection against specific pathogens in experimental and field conditions. However, some commercial vaccines are not capable to confer protection to animals, being inefficient in a bovine vaccine program. In this sense, the aim of this study was to evaluate the antibody levels involved in the immune response in vaccinated cows against leptospirosis, as well as acute phase protein and the immunological markers in a vaccine program in beef cattle. Twenty non-lactating cows, negative for leptospirosis and without vaccination against this disease were evaluated during five months...
October 21, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
Mara Leila Martínez, Sylvia Grune Loffler, Graciela Noemi Romero, Bibiana Felicitas Brihuega
Leptospirosis is a zoonosis having worldwide distribution. The objective of this work was to develop a molecular technique to differentiate pathogenic Leptospira spp. A region of adhesin ligB, present only in the pathogenic species was amplified by PCR and sequenced. ligBRpet and ligBFpet primers were used, which amplified the target DNA from pathogenic L. interrogans reference strains serovars Pomona strain Pomona, Canicola strain Hond Utrecht IV, Copenhageni strain M 20, Wolffi strain 3705, Pyrogenes strain Salinem, Hardjo strain Hardjoprajitmo, L...
October 21, 2017: Revista Argentina de Microbiología
Ente J J Rood, Marga G A Goris, Roan Pijnacker, Mirjam I Bakker, Rudy A Hartskeerl
Leptospirosis is a globally emerging zoonotic disease, associated with various climatic, biotic and abiotic factors. Mapping and quantifying geographical variations in the occurrence of leptospirosis and the surrounding environment offer innovative methods to study disease transmission and to identify associations between the disease and the environment. This study aims to investigate geographic variations in leptospirosis incidence in the Netherlands and to identify associations with environmental factors driving the emergence of the disease...
2017: PloS One
Bernard Grevemeyer, Michel Vandenplas, Brittney Beigel, Ellen Cho, Arve Lee Willingham, Ashutosh Verma
Leptospirosis is a global zoonosis caused by pathogenic spirochetes classified within the genus Leptospira. Leptospires live in the proximal renal tubules of reservoir or chronic carrier animals, and are shed in the urine. Naïve animals acquire infection either when they come in direct contact with a reservoir or infected animals or by exposure to environmental surface water or soil that is contaminated with their urine. In this study, urine samples from a herd of donkeys on the Caribbean island of St. Kitts were screened using a TaqMan-based real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) targeting a pathogen-specific leptospiral gene, lipl32...
January 10, 2017: Veterinary Sciences
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