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Jorg J M Massen, Lisa Bauer, Benjamin Spurny, Thomas Bugnyar, Mariska E Kret
Humans are considered to be highly prosocial, especially in comparison to other species. However, most tests of prosociality are conducted in highly artificial settings among anonymous participants. To gain a better understanding of how human hyper-cooperation may have evolved, we tested humans' willingness to share in one of the most competitive fields of our current society: academia. Researchers were generally prosocial with 80% sharing a PDF of one of their latest papers, and almost 60% willing to send us their data...
October 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
Robert J Ruben
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the way in which otology was practiced at the Academy of Gondishapur in ancient Persia from 200 to 600 CE. METHOD: The pertinent literature, using German and English translations of Latin, Greek, Arabic, and Sanskrit documents, was identified and reviewed through the indices of available books and through a PDF search for the following topics: auricle, deaf, deafness, dizziness, ear, hearing, medicine, otitis, pinna, punishment-ear, speech, surgery, vertigo, and voice...
October 4, 2017: Otology & Neurotology
Maram B Hakoum, Nahla Jouni, Eliane A Abou-Jaoude, Divina Justina Hasbani, Elias A Abou-Jaoude, Luciane Cruz Lopes, Mariam Khaldieh, Mira Zein Hammoud, Mounir Al-Gibbawi, Sirine Anouti, Gordon Guyatt, Elie A Akl
OBJECTIVES: To provide a detailed and current characterisation of funding of a representative sample clinical trials. We also aimed to develop guidance for standardised reporting of funding information. METHODS: We addressed the extent to which clinical trials published in 2015 in any of the 119 Core Clinical Journals included a statement on the funding source (eg, whether a not-for-profit organisation was supported by a private-for-profit organisation), type of funding, amount and role of funder...
October 5, 2017: BMJ Open
Enric Saiz, Albert Calbet, Kaiene Griffell
Planktonic copepods are a very successful group in marine pelagic environments, with a key role in biogeochemical cycles. Among them, the genus Oithona is one of the more abundant and ubiquitous. We report here on the effects of caloric (food) restriction on the ageing patterns of the copepod Oithona davisae. The response of O. davisae to caloric restriction was sex dependent: under food limitation, females have lower age-specific mortality rates and longer lifespans and reproductive periods; male mortality rates and life expectancy were not affected...
October 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
Olivier Masson, Abid Berghout, Emilie Béchade, Jenny Jouin, Philippe Thomas, Toru Asaka, Koichiro Fukuda
The local structure of apatite-type lanthanum silicates of general formula La9.33+x(SiO4)6O2+3x/2 has been investigated by combining the atomic pair distribution function (PDF) method, conventional X-ray and neutron powder diffraction (NPD) data and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. DFT was used to build structure models with stable positions of excess oxide ions within the conduction channel. Two stable interstitial positions were obtained in accordance with literature, the first one located at the very periphery of the conduction channel, neighbouring the SiO4 tetrahedral units, and the second one closer to the channel axis...
2017: Science and Technology of Advanced Materials
Houxiang Zhu, Emily Richmond, Chun Liang
Summary: CRISPR-Cas systems have been successfully applied in genome editing. Recently, the CRISPR-C2c2 system has been reported as a tool for RNA editing. Here we describe CRISPR-RT (CRISPR RNA-Targeting), the first web application to help biologists design the crRNA with improved target specificity for the CRISPR-C2c2 system. CRISPR-RT allows users to set up a wide range of parameters, making it highly flexible for current and future research in CRISPR-based RNA editing. CRISPR-RT covers major model organisms and can be easily extended to cover other species...
September 14, 2017: Bioinformatics
Saeed El-Ashram, Xun Suo
A correction has been published and is appended to both the HTML and PDF versions of this paper. The error has not been fixed in the paper.
September 29, 2017: Scientific Reports
Badri Thiruvenkatachari, Hanieh Javidi, Sarah Elizabeth Griffiths, Anwar A Shah, Jonathan Sandler
INTRODUCTION: Maxillary canines are generally considered important both cosmetically and functionally. Most claims on the importance of maxillary canines, however, have been based on expert opinions and clinician-based studies. There are no scientific studies in the literature reporting on their cosmetic importance or how laypeople perceive a smile treated by maxillary canine extractions. Our objective was to investigate whether there is any difference in the perceptions of patients' smiles treated by extracting either maxillary canines or first premolars, as judged by orthodontists, dentists, and laypeople...
October 2017: American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics
Sebastian Bette, Tomohiro Takayama, Kentaro Kitagawa, Riku Takano, Hidenori Takagi, Robert E Dinnebier
A powder sample of pure H3LiIr2O6 was synthesized from α-Li2IrO3 powder by a soft chemical replacement of Li(+) with H(+). The crystal structure of H3LiIr2O6 consists of sheets of edge sharing LiO6- and IrO6-octahedra forming a honeycomb network with layers stacked in a monoclinic distorted HCrO2 type pattern. Heavy stacking faulting of the sheets is indicated by anisotropic peak broadening in the X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) pattern. The ideal, faultless crystal structure was obtained by a Rietveld refinement of the laboratory XRPD pattern while using the LiIr2O6(3-)-layers of α-Li2IrO3 as a starting model...
September 29, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Mohsen Ghasemi Nezhadhaghighi
Here, we present results of numerical simulations and the scaling characteristics of one-dimensional random fluctuations with heavy-tailed probability distribution functions. Assuming that the distribution function of the random fluctuations obeys Lévy statistics with a power-law scaling exponent, we investigate the fractional diffusion equation in the presence of μ-stable Lévy noise. We study the scaling properties of the global width and two-point correlation functions and then compare the analytical and numerical results for the growth exponent β and the roughness exponent α...
August 2017: Physical Review. E
Sergio Chibbaro, Giovanni Dematteis, Christophe Josserand, Lamberto Rondoni
The Sagdeev-Zaslavski (SZ) equation for wave turbulence is analytically derived, both in terms of a generating function and of a multipoint probability density function (PDF), for weakly interacting waves with initial random phases. When the initial amplitudes are also random, a one-point PDF equation is derived. Such analytical calculations remarkably agree with results obtained in totally different fashions. Numerical investigations of the two-dimensional nonlinear Schrödinger equation (NLSE) and of a vibrating plate prove the following: (i) Generic Hamiltonian four-wave systems rapidly attain a random distribution of phases independently of the slower dynamics of the amplitudes, vindicating the hypothesis of initially random phases...
August 2017: Physical Review. E
Guanglin He, Ye Li, Xing Zou, Mengge Wang, Pengyu Chen, Miao Liao, Jin Wu
X-chromosomal short tandem repeats (X-STRs) can be serviced as a complementary tool in forensic deficiency cases and other complicated kinship identification. To investigate the genetic variation of the western Chinese Han population, genetic polymorphisms of 19 X-STR loci (DXS8378, DXS7423, DXS10148, DXS10159, DXS10134, DXS7424, DXS10164, DXS10162, DXS7132, DXS10079, DXS6789, DXS101, DXS10103, DXS10101, HPRTB, DXS6809, DXS10075, DXS10074 and DXS10135) included in the AGCU X19 PCR amplification kit were obtained from 201 Chinese Han individuals (108 females and 93 males) residing in Sichuan province, western China...
September 15, 2017: Legal Medicine
Taruna Katyal Arora, Amit KumarArora, Monika Katyal Sachdeva, Satyendra Kumar Rajput, Arun Kumar Sharma
Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a life-threatening lung disorder with towering prevalence and risk for future has been gradually rising worldwide. Even, no specific medications are available for pulmonary hypertension; various classes of treatment based upon the origin and magnitude of hypertension are still used for the treatment of PH. Consideration of molecular or signaling modulation is the imperative approach that can offer a new notion for prevalent pharmacotherapeutic agents. Instead of concurrent targets, including endothelin receptor antagonists (ETA/ETB), phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitor (PDF-5), calcium channel blockers, anticoagulants, diuretics and long acting prostacyclin analogue, recent scientific reports revealed the numerous potential alternative therapeutic approaches that can significantly target the pathological signaling alteration associated with PH...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
R J Scolaro, H M Crilly, E J Maycock, P T McAleer, K A Nicholls, M A Rose, Rih The
These guidelines are a consensus document developed by a working party of the Australian and New Zealand Anaesthetic Allergy Group (ANZAAG) to provide an approach to the investigation of perioperative anaphylaxis. They focus primarily on the use of skin testing as it is the investigation with the greatest clinical utility for the identification of the likely causative agent and potentially safer alternatives. The practicalities and process of skin testing, its limitations, and the place of other tests are discussed...
September 2017: Anaesthesia and Intensive Care
(no author information available yet)
Summaries of the articles in this issue are given in the PDF file.
September 13, 2017: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
Louise Deléger, Leonardo Campillos, Anne-Laure Ligozat, Aurélie Névéol
BACKGROUND: Knowledge representation frameworks are essential to the understanding of complex biomedical processes, and to the analysis of biomedical texts that describe them. Combined with natural language processing (NLP), they have the potential to contribute to retrospective studies by unlocking important phenotyping information contained in the narrative content of electronic health records (EHRs). This work aims to develop an extensive information representation scheme for clinical information contained in EHR narratives, and to support secondary use of EHR narrative data to answer clinical questions...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Semantics
Evgenia I Tolstykh, Marina O Degteva, Alexandra V Vozilova, Lynn R Anspaugh
The method of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) applied to peripheral blood T lymphocytes is used for retrospective dose estimation, and the results obtained from the analysis of stable chromosomal aberrations are usually interpreted as a dose accumulated in the red bone marrow (RBM). However, after local internal exposure of the RBM, doses derived from FISH were found to be lower than those derived from direct measurements of radionuclides accumulated in the bodies of exposed persons. These results were obtained for people residing near the Techa River contaminated by (89,90)Sr (beta-emitters) in 1949-1956 (Chelyabinsk Oblast, Russia)...
September 9, 2017: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics
Renata Grzela, Julien Nusbaum, Sonia Fieulaine, Francesco Lavecchia, Willy V Bienvenut, Cyril Dian, Thierry Meinnel, Carmela Giglione
Prokaryotic proteins must be deformylated before the removal of their first methionine. Peptide deformylase (PDF) is indispensable and guarantees this mechanism. Recent metagenomics studies revealed new idiosyncratic PDF forms as the most abundant family of viral sequences. Little is known regarding these viral PDFs, including the capacity of the corresponding encoded proteins to ensure deformylase activity. We provide here the first evidence that viral PDFs, including the shortest PDF identified to date, Vp16 PDF, display deformylase activity in vivo, despite the absence of the key ribosome-interacting C-terminal region...
September 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2017: Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Frontotemporal Degeneration
Graham King, Maxim Avdeev, Ilyas Qasim, Qingi Zhou, Brendan J Kennedy
The long range average crystal structure, as well as the short and medium range structural features, of the A-site deficient and oxygen deficient perovskite Sr11Mo4O23 have been determined. Rietveld refinement of synchrotron X-ray and neutron powder diffraction data show that this compound is cubic with space group Fd3[combining macron]m and a lattice parameter of a = 16.4108 Å. These findings contradict earlier reports of a tetragonal crystal structure. Sr11Mo4O23 appears to be isostructural with Ba11W4O23, except that the disordered coordination environment around one of the Mo sites seems to be a mixture of octahedral and square pyramidal instead of octahedral and tetrahedral...
September 26, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
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