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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328351/natural-infection-of-leptospira-species-in-the-native-rodents-degu-octodon-degus-and-darwin-s-pericote-phyllotis-darwini-in-mediterranean-ecosystem-of-chile
#1
Juana Paola Correa, Antonella Bacigalupo, Carezza Botto-Mahan, Sergio Bucarey, Pedro Eduardo Cattan, Rodrigo García de Cortázar, Carlos Landaeta-Aqueveque, Juan Ramírez-Estrada
We report natural infections by pathogenic Leptospira of two rodent species endemic to Chile: the degu ( Octodon degus ) and Darwin's pericote ( Phyllotis darwini ). We detected Leptospira DNA in kidney and urine samples taken in different years and sites, reaching 33% infection. The effects of infection in these species requires further evaluation.
March 22, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327780/-leptospira-infections-in-cats
#2
Sonia Weis, Katrin Hartmann
Leptospirosis is a widespread zoonosis found in over 150 mammalian species. Subclinically infected rodents and farm animals serve as reservoir hosts. Cats are exposed to leptospires regularly, particularly through hunting infected rodents. However, clinical leptospirosis is rare in cats. Nevertheless, infected cats can shed the pathogen through urine and thus, cats could play an important role in the epidemiology of leptospires.
March 22, 2017: Tierärztliche Praxis. Ausgabe K, Kleintiere/Heimtiere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321895/the-role-of-leptospira-spp-in-horses-affected-with-recurrent-uveitis-in-the-uk
#3
F Malalana, R J Blundell, G L Pinchbeck, C M McGowan
BACKGROUND: Equine Recurrent Uveitis (ERU) is a common cause of ocular pain and blindness in horses. Leptospira spp. have commonly been implicated in the pathophysiology of ERU in mainland Europe and USA. No recent studies have been carried out in the UK but it is reported that Leptospira is not a major factor in the aetiology of ERU in the UK. OBJECTIVES: to establish the prevalence of Leptospira-associated ERU in the UK and identify the serovars involved in these cases in the UK; compare serum versus aqueous humour antibody levels in cases and controls in order to confirm the diagnosis of Leptospira-associated ERU; and assess the usefulness of serology alone as a confirmatory test for Leptospira-associated ERU in the UK...
March 20, 2017: Equine Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318380/pup-mortality-and-evidence-for-pathogen-exposure-in-galapagos-sea-lions-zalophus-wollebaeki-on-san-cristobal-island-galapagos-ecuador
#4
Judith Denkinger, Nataly Guevara, Sofia Ayala, Juan Carlos Murillo, Maximilian Hirschfeld, Ignasi Montero-Serra, Katharina Fietz, Tracey Goldstein, Mark Ackermann, Veronica Barragán, Francisco Cabrera, Cristina Chavez, Edward J Dubovi, Jael Martinez, Gabriel Trueba
The Galapagos sea lion ( Zalophus wollebaeki ), an endangered species, experiences high pup mortality (up to 100%) in years when El Niño events reduce food supply in the Galapagos Islands. Mortality of pups in non-El Niño years is estimated to be 5% in undisturbed colonies. From 2009 to 2012 we observed high pup mortality (up to 66%) in colonies close to the Galapagos capital, Puerto Baquerizo Moreno, where contact with humans, domestic animals, and rats is frequent. Gross postmortem findings from 54 pups included hemorrhagic lesions in liver and congestion in lungs; histopathology suggested a possible association with infectious diseases...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303833/antimicrobial-susceptibility-of-leptospira-spp-isolated-from-environmental-human-and-animal-sources-in-malaysia
#5
Douadi Benacer, Siti Nursheena Mohd Zain, Peck Toung Ooi, Kwai Lin Thong
Leptospirosis is a zoonosis with worldwide distribution caused by pathogenic spirochetes of the genus Leptospira. The aim of this study was to evaluate the susceptibility of isolates obtained from different hosts. A total of 65 Leptospira isolates from humans (n = 1), zoonoses (rat, n = 60; dog, n = 1; swine, n = 1) and environment (n = 2) were tested against six antibiotics. All the isolates were resistant to trimethoprim and sulphamethoxazole and had high MIC toward chloramphenicol (MIC90: 6.25 μg/ml). All except one environment isolate were sensitive to ampicillin, doxycycline and penicillin G...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301479/ligb-subunit-vaccine-confers-sterile-immunity-against-challenge-in-the-hamster-model-of-leptospirosis
#6
Neida L Conrad, Flávia W Cruz McBride, Jéssica D Souza, Marcelle M Silveira, Samuel Félix, Karla S Mendonça, Cleiton S Santos, Daniel A Athanazio, Marco A Medeiros, Mitermayer G Reis, Odir A Dellagostin, Alan J A McBride
Neglected tropical diseases, including zoonoses such as leptospirosis, have a major impact on rural and poor urban communities, particularly in developing countries. This has led to major investment in antipoverty vaccines that focus on diseases that influence public health and thereby productivity. While the true, global, impact of leptospirosis is unknown due to the lack of adequate laboratory diagnosis, the WHO estimates that incidence has doubled over the last 15 years to over 1 million cases that require hospitalization every year...
March 16, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294222/comparison-of-leptospira-interrogans-and-leptospira-biflexa-genomes-analysis-of-potential-leptospiral-host-interactions
#7
Prachi Mehrotra, Gayatri Ramakrishnan, Gunasekaran Dhandapani, Narayanaswamy Srinivasan, Madathiparambil G Madanan
Leptospirosis, a potentially life-threatening disease, remains the most widespread zoonosis caused by pathogenic species of Leptospira. The pathogenic spirochaete, Leptospira interrogans, is characterized by its ability to permeate human host tissues rapidly and colonize multiple organs in the host. In spite of the efforts taken to comprehend the pathophysiology of the pathogen and the heterogeneity posed by L. interrogans, the current knowledge on the mechanism of pathogenesis is modest. In an attempt to contribute towards the same, we demonstrate the use of an established structure-based protocol coupled with information on subcellular localization of proteins and their tissue-specificity, in recognizing a set of 49 biologically feasible interactions potentially mediated by proteins of L...
March 15, 2017: Molecular BioSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291747/crystallization-of-fcpa-from-leptospira-a-novel-flagellar-protein-that-is-essential-for-pathogenesis
#8
Fabiana San Martin, Ariel E Mechaly, Nicole Larrieux, Elsio A Wunder, Albert I Ko, Mathieu Picardeau, Felipe Trajtenberg, Alejandro Buschiazzo
The protein FcpA is a unique component of the flagellar filament of spirochete bacteria belonging to the genus Leptospira. Although it plays an essential role in translational motility and pathogenicity, no structures of FcpA homologues are currently available in the PDB. Its three-dimensional structure will unveil the novel motility mechanisms that render pathogenic Leptospira particularly efficient at invading and disseminating within their hosts, causing leptospirosis in humans and animals. FcpA from L. interrogans was purified and crystallized, but despite laborious attempts no useful X ray diffraction data could be obtained...
March 1, 2017: Acta Crystallographica. Section F, Structural Biology Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270811/animal-models-of-leptospirosis-of-mice-and-hamsters
#9
REVIEW
Maria Gomes-Solecki, Ignacio Santecchia, Catherine Werts
Pathogenic Leptospira sp. are spirochetal bacteria responsible for leptospirosis, an emerging worldwide zoonosis. These spirochetes are very successful pathogens that infect a wide range of hosts such as fish, reptiles, birds, marsupials, and mammals. Transmission occurs when chronically infected animals excrete live bacteria in their urine, contaminating the environment. Leptospira sp. enter their hosts through damaged skin and mucosa. Chronically infected rats and mice are asymptomatic and are considered as important reservoirs of the disease...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260339/-epidemiological-investigation-of-two-leptospirosis-death-cases-in-guizhou-province
#10
Y Liu, S J Li, G H Yao, H Huang, Q Ma, J Z Zhou, G P Tang, D M Wang
Objective: To conduct an epidemiological investigation of two leptospirosis death cases reported in Guizhou Province in 2014. Methods: The information of the patients were investigated and analyzed. The serological detection, samples of the two patients was detected using ELISA and microscopic agglutination test (MAT). Leptospira carrier status of murine host animal in the living environment of the two patients was investigated in October and November of 2014. Leptospires in the kidney were cultured and isolated, the isolates were identified using Leptospira specific PCR and further identified with serogroup specific PCR and the conventional MAT...
March 6, 2017: Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254582/a-cross-sectional-epidemiological-study-of-domestic-animals-related-to-human-leptospirosis-cases-in-nicaragua
#11
Byron J Flores, Tania Pérez-Sánchez, Héctor Fuertes, Jessica Sheleby-Elías, José Luis Múzquiz, William Jirón, Christianne Duttmann, Nabil Halaihel
Leptospirosis is one of the most extended zoonosis worldwide and humans become infected most commonly through contact with the urine of carrier animals, either directly or via contaminated water or soil. The aim in this study was to analyse the epidemiological behaviour of Leptospira spp., from domestic animals around the sites of human leptospirosis cases in Nicaragua, from 2007 through 2013. We report the results of a cross-sectional epidemiological study with a non-probability sampling of blood (n=3050) and urine (n=299) from Domestic Animals (DA) around the sites of human leptospirosis cases in Nicaragua...
February 28, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250618/utility-of-loop-mediated-isothermal-amplification-assay-polymerase-chain-reaction-and-elisa-for-diagnosis-of-leptospirosis-in-south-indian-patients
#12
Mallika Sengupta, Abhilash Kundavaram Paul Prabhakar, Sowmya Satyendra, David Thambu, Ooriapadickal Cherian Abraham, Veeraraghavan Balaji, Hua-Wei Chen, Chien-Chung Chao, Wei-Mei Ching, John Antony Jude Prakash
BACKGROUND: Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease which requires laboratory diagnosis for confirmation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study serum samples from adults with acute undifferentiated fever (duration ≤15 days) were tested for IgM antibodies to Leptospira by ELISA, PCR for rrs gene and loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for LipL32 and LipL41. RESULTS: Among the 150 sera tested, three were positive by PCR, LAMP and IgM ELISA/modified Faines' criteria, two by only PCR; seven only by LAMP assay and forty fulfilled modified Faine's criteria (illness clinically compatible and IgM ELISA positive for leptospirosis)...
January 2017: Journal of Global Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245231/adipose-tissue-is-the-first-colonization-site-of-leptospira-interrogans-in-subcutaneously-infected-hamsters
#13
Ryo Ozuru, Mitsumasa Saito, Takaaki Kanemaru, Satoshi Miyahara, Sharon Y A M Villanueva, Gerald L Murray, Ben Adler, Jun Fujii, Shin-Ichi Yoshida
Leptospirosis is one of the most widespread zoonoses in the world, and its most severe form in humans, "Weil's disease," may lead to jaundice, hemorrhage, renal failure, pulmonary hemorrhage syndrome, and sometimes,fatal multiple organ failure. Although the mechanisms underlying jaundice in leptospirosis have been gradually unraveled, the pathophysiology and distribution of leptospires during the early stage of infection are not well understood. Therefore, we investigated the hamster leptospirosis model, which is the accepted animal model of human Weil's disease, by using an in vivo imaging system to observe the whole bodies of animals infected with Leptospira interrogans and to identify the colonization and growth sites of the leptospires during the early phase of infection...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241042/seeking-the-environmental-source-of-leptospirosis-reveals-durable-bacterial-viability-in-river-soils
#14
Roman Thibeaux, Sophie Geroult, Claire Benezech, Stéphane Chabaud, Marie-Estelle Soupé-Gilbert, Dominique Girault, Emilie Bierque, Cyrille Goarant
BACKGROUND: Leptospirosis is an important re-emerging infectious disease that affects humans worldwide. Infection occurs from indirect environment-mediated exposure to pathogenic leptospires through contaminated watered environments. The ability of pathogenic leptospires to persist in the aqueous environment is a key factor in transmission to new hosts. Hence, an effort was made to detect pathogenic leptospires in complex environmental samples, to genotype positive samples and to assess leptospiral viability over time...
February 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237664/il-10-deficient-mice-express-ifn-%C3%AE-mrna-and-clear-leptospira-interrogans-from-their-kidneys-more-rapidly-than-normal-c57bl-6-mice
#15
Amy A Devlin, Priya J Halvorsen, Jennifer C Miller, Scott M Laster
Leptospira interrogans (L. interrogans), the causative agent of leptospirosis, is a widespread zoonotic spirochete that lives a dual lifestyle. L. interrogans infects mice, rats, and wildlife in a persistent and asymptomatic fashion, while also causing productive and acute infections in other mammals such as humans and hamsters. Infections in humans can be fatal, accompanied by a cytokine storm and shock-like symptoms. Production of IL-10 has been noted in both rodent and human infections which has led a number of investigators to hypothesize that IL-10 plays a role in the pathogenesis of this disease...
February 10, 2017: Immunobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235787/evaluation-of-a-rapid-igm-detection-test-for-diagnosis-of-acute-leptospirosis-in-dogs
#16
J Lizer, M Grahlmann, H Hapke, S Velineni, D Lin, B Kohn
Recently, a lateral flow assay (LFA) for detection of Leptospira-specific IgM in canine sera became commercially available in Europe. The present study aims to evaluate the diagnostic performance of this assay using canine sera from a collection of diagnostic accessions. Diagnostic sensitivity was assessed by testing 37 acute-phase and 9 corresponding convalescent-phase sera from dogs with a confirmed diagnosis of leptospirosis. Specificity was determined by testing sera from sick dogs with non-leptospiral infections (n=15) and healthy dogs with incomplete history of vaccination (n=45)...
February 24, 2017: Veterinary Record
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221126/imported-leptospira-licerasiae-infection-in-traveler-returning-to-japan-from-brazil
#17
Motoyuki Tsuboi, Nobuo Koizumi, Kayoko Hayakawa, Shuzo Kanagawa, Norio Ohmagari, Yasuyuki Kato
We describe a case of intermediate leptospirosis resulting from Leptospira licerasiae infection in a traveler returning to Japan from Brazil. Intermediate leptospirosis should be included in the differential diagnosis for travelers with fever returning from South America. This case highlights the need for strategies that detect pathogenic and intermediate Leptospira species.
March 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213654/molecular-epidemiology-of-leptospira-serogroup-pomona-infections-among-wild-and-domestic-animals-in-spain
#18
Z J Arent, C Gilmore, J M San-Miguel Ayanz, L Quevedo Neyra, F J García-Peña
Strains of Leptospira serogroup Pomona are known to cause widespread animal infections in many parts of the world. Forty-three isolates retrieved from domestic animals and wild small mammals suggest that serogroup Pomona is epidemiologically relevant in Spain. This is supported by the high prevalence of serovar Pomona antibodies in livestock and wild animals. In this study, the strains were serologically and genetically characterized in an attempt to elucidate their epidemiology. Serological typing was based on the microscopic agglutination test but molecular typing involved species-specific polymerase chain reaction, restriction endonuclease analysis, and multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis...
February 17, 2017: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213528/leptospira-interrogans-serogroup-pomona-infections-in-the-uk-is-there-a-real-threat-for-farm-animals
#19
Z Arent, C Gilmore, A M Barlow, L Smith, W A Ellis
Current typing of Leptospira strains requires a combination of both serological and molecular methods. Study of the epidemiology of strains within the Pomona serogroup has proved problematic due to the limitations of serological typing methods. This is particularly true of the two main complexes within this group, namely the Pomona, Monjakov, Kennewicki cluster in Leptospira interrogans species and the Mozdok, Tsaratsovo, Kunming, Altodouro cluster in Leptospira kirschneri Strains from the south of England have been shown previously to belong to L kirschneri serovar Mozdok, strains of which are maintained by small rodents in western Europe...
February 17, 2017: Veterinary Record
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210912/inhibitory-effects-of-emodin-thymol-and-astragalin-on-leptospira-interrogans-induced-inflammatory-response-in-the-uterine-and-endometrium-epithelial-cells-of-mice
#20
Wenlong Zhang, Xiaojie Lu, Wei Wang, Zhuang Ding, Yunhe Fu, Xiaofei Zhou, Naisheng Zhang, Yongguo Cao
Leptospirosis is a systemic infection that causes, among others, acute kidney injury, acute liver disease, muscle pain, vasculitis, bleeding disorders, and reproductive loss. In an effort to reduce uterine inflammatory responses induced by Leptospira, we evaluated the anti-inflammation effects of emodin, thymol, and astragalin in a mouse model. Our results showed that treatment with emodin, thymol, and astragalin alleviated uterine inflammation induced by leptospira infection via suppression of pro-inflammatory cytokine expression and prevented tissue damage...
April 2017: Inflammation
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