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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641918/resistance-of-mice-to-leptospira-infection-and-correlation-with-chemokine-response
#1
R H Domingos, E B Pavanel, E Nakajima, L Schons-Fonseca, R M A Da Costa, M De Franco, E Carvalho, P L Ho, E A Martins, J B Da Silva
Leptospirosis is globally widespread neglected disease, affecting most mammalian species. Clinical signs can be confused with other diseases which make the diagnosis and treatment difficult. Chemokines and cytokines are known for their role in the inflammatory and immune response to infections. The profile determination of chemokines' expressions in the course of infection may elucidate the defense mechanisms of the host and support the search for effective treatment strategies. We investigated the mechanisms of innate immunity through the comparison of chemokines induced during infection with L...
May 26, 2017: Immunobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635524/serology-and-protein-electrophoresis-for-evidence-of-exposure-to-12-mink-pathogens-in-free-ranging-american-mink-neovison-vison-in-argentina
#2
Pablo Eduardo Martino, Luis Ernesto Samartino, Néstor Oscar Stanchi, Nilda Esther Radman, Eduardo Joaquín Parrado
BACKGROUND: Basic pathologic characteristics for farmed minks were previously reported worldwide. However, its status in the wild has not been studied in detail. OBJECTIVE: Serology and electrophoresis were carried out for evidence of exposure to 12 mink pathogens on two different locations. ANIMALS AND METHODS: Serology was done in 87 wild minks by reference techniques against Toxoplasma gondii, Encephalitozoon cuniculi, Neospora caninum, Brucella abortus, Mycobacterium bovis, Leptospira interrogans, canine distemper virus (CDV), canine adenovirus (CAV), canine parvovirus (CPV), rabies virus (RV), Influenza A virus (FLUAV) and Aleutian disease virus (ADV)...
December 2017: Veterinary Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622856/survey-for-selected-pathogens-in-wild-pigs-sus-scrofa-from-guam-marianna-islands-usa
#3
Christopher A Cleveland, Anthony DeNicola, J P Dubey, Dolores E Hill, Roy D Berghaus, Michael J Yabsley
Pigs (Sus scrofa) were introduced to Guam in the 1600's and are now present in high densities throughout the island. Wild pigs are reservoirs for pathogens of concern to domestic animals and humans. Exposure to porcine parvovirus, transmissible gastroenteritis, and Leptospira interrogans has been documented in domestic swine but data from wild pigs are lacking. The close proximity of humans, domestic animals, and wild pigs, combined with the liberal hunting of wild pigs, results in frequent opportunities for pathogen transmission...
June 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620258/development-of-indirect-enzyme-linked-immunosorbent-assay-for-diagnosis-of-canine-leptospirosis
#4
A Sathiyamoorthy, G Selvaraju, K M Palanivel, And P Srinivasan
AIM: This study was taken up to develop an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (i-ELISA) for screening antibodies against Leptospira spp. in canines. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An i-ELISA was developed using outer membrane protein extracted from Leptospira interrogans serovar canicola used for coating the well with concentration of 0.5 µg/µl. A total of 250 serum samples from clinically affected and apparently healthy dogs were collected along with relevant epidemiological data at Teaching Veterinary Clinical Complex, Veterinary College and Research Institute, Namakkal, and subjected to i-ELISA...
May 2017: Veterinary World
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619055/molecular-typing-of-leptospira-interrogans-serovar-hardjo-isolates-from-leptospirosis-outbreaks-in-brazilian-livestock
#5
Maria Raquel V Cosate, Tetsu Sakamoto, Tiago Antônio de Oliveira Mendes, Élvio C Moreira, Carlos G Regis da Silva, Bruno S A F Brasil, Camila S F Oliveira, Vasco Ariston de Azevedo, José Miguel Ortega, Rômulo C Leite, João Paulo Haddad
BACKGROUND: Leptospirosis is caused by pathogenic spirochetes of the genus Leptospira spp. This zoonotic disease is distributed globally and affects domestic animals, including cattle. Leptospira interrogans serogroup Sejroe serovar Hardjo and Leptospira borgpetersenii serogroup Sejroe serovar Hardjo remain important species associated with this reproductive disease in livestock production. Previous studies on Brazilian livestock have reported that L. interrogans serovar Hardjo is the most prevalent leptospiral agent in this country and is related to clinical signs of leptospirosis, which lead to economic losses in production...
June 15, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614448/seroprevalence-and-factors-associated-with-leptospira-infection-in-an-urban-district-of-cali-colombia
#6
Kevin Escandón-Vargas, Lyda Osorio, Miryam Astudillo-Hernández
Few studies have addressed Leptospira seroprevalence and risk factors in urban populations in Colombia. This study aimed to determine seroprevalence and factors associated with Leptospira infection in inhabitants of an urban district of Cali, Colombia. We collected sociodemographic and environmental data, as well as blood samples, from 353 subjects selected through a multistage cluster sampling design. We performed microagglutination test for the eight main Leptospira serogroups circulating in the region, considering a cut-off titer of ≥ 1:100...
June 12, 2017: Cadernos de Saúde Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611756/pathogenic-leptospira-secreted-proteases-target-the-membrane-attack-complex-a-potential-role-for-thermolysin-in-complement-inhibition
#7
Thais A Amamura, Tatiana R Fraga, Sílvio A Vasconcellos, Angela S Barbosa, Lourdes Isaac
Leptospirosis is a zoonosis caused by spirochetes from the genus Leptospira. This disease is common in tropical and subtropical areas, constituting a serious public health problem. Pathogenic Leptospira have the ability to escape the human Complement System, being able to survive when in contact with normal human serum. In a previous study, our group demonstrated that supernatants of pathogenic Leptospira (SPL) inhibit the three activation pathways of the Complement System. This inhibition can be directly correlated with the activity of secreted proteases, which cleave the Complement molecules C3, Factor B (Alternative Pathway), C4 and C2 (Classical and Lectin Pathways)...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601495/structural-and-enzymatic-characterization-of-a-camp-dependent-diguanylate-cyclase-from-pathogenic-leptospira-species
#8
Fernanda Nogales da Costa Vasconcelos, Nikolas Koshiyama Maciel, Denize Cristina Favaro, Luciana Coutinho de Oliveira, Angela Silva Barbosa, Roberto Kopke Salinas, Robson Francisco de Souza, Chuck Shaker Farah, Cristiane Rodrigues Guzzo
Leptospira interrogans serovar Copenhageni is a human pathogen that causes leptospirosis, a worldwide zoonosis. The L. interrogans genome codes for a wide array of potential diguanylate cyclase enzymes with characteristic GGDEF domains capable of synthesizing the cyclic dinucleotide c-di-GMP, known to regulate transitions between different cellular behavioural states in bacteria. Among such enzymes, LIC13137 (Lcd1), which has an N-terminal GAF domain and a C-terminal GGDEF domain, is notable for having close orthologs present only in pathogenic Leptospira species...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600123/multifunctional-and-redundant-roles-of-leptospira-interrogans-proteins-in-bacterial-adhesion-and-fibrin-clotting-inhibition
#9
Priscila R M Pereira, Luis G V Fernandes, Gisele O de Souza, Silvio A Vasconcellos, Marcos B Heinemann, Eliete C Romero, Ana L T O Nascimento
Pathogenic Leptopira is the etiological agent of leptospirosis, the most widespread zoonotic infection in the world. The disease represents a major public health problem, especially in tropical countries. The present work focused on two hypothetical proteins of unknown function, encoded by the genes LIC13059 and LIC10879, and predicted to be surface-exposed proteins. The genes were cloned and the proteins expressed using E. coli as a host system. We report that the recombinant proteins interacted with extracellular matrix (ECM) laminin, in a dose-dependent fashion and are novel potential adhesins...
May 31, 2017: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575082/the-role-of-reactive-oxygen-intermediates-in-the-intracellular-fate-of-leptospira-interrogans-in-the-macrophages-of-different-hosts
#10
Shijun Li, Peili Li, Lei Zhang, Weilin Hu, Ming Wang, Ying Liu, Guangpeng Tang, Dingming Wang, Bijun Zhou, Jie Yan
BACKGROUND: Pathogenic species of Leptospira cause leptospirosis, a global zoonotic disease. Our previous work showed that leptospires survive and replicate in human macrophages but are killed in murine macrophages. However, the mechanism responsible for the different intracellular fates of leptospires within the macrophages of different hosts remains unclear. RESULTS: The present study demonstrates that infection with Leptospira interrogans caused significant up-regulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and superoxide in J774A...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28562764/serosurvey-of-anti-leptospira-sp-and-anti-toxoplasma-gondii-antibodies-in-capybaras-and-collared-and-white-lipped-peccaries
#11
Leila Sabrina Ullmann, Mara Lúcia Gravinatti, Ricardo Seiti Yamatogi, Leonilda Correa Dos Santos, Wanderlei de Moraes, Zalmir Silvino Cubas, Lucilene Granuzzio Camossi, Ivan Roque de Barros, Helio Langoni, Rafael Felipe da Costa Vieira, Alexander Welker Biondo
INTRODUCTION: Brazilian native species are reemerging as increasingly free-ranging populations. METHODS: Sera from 31 capybaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) and 28 peccaries (Pecari tajacu and Tayassu pecari) were tested for anti-Leptospira and anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies using microscopic seroagglutination test. RESULTS: Nineteen percent of free-ranging and 10.0% of captive capybaras, along with 31.8% of collared peccaries, were seropositive for T...
March 2017: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28562762/a-duplex-endpoint-pcr-assay-for-rapid-detection-and-differentiation-of-leptospira-strains
#12
Douadi Benacer, Siti Nursheena Mohd Zain, John W Lewis, Mohd Khairul Nizam Mohd Khalid, Kwai Lin Thong
INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to develop a duplex endpoint PCR assay for rapid detection and differentiation of Leptospira strains. METHODS: Primers were designed to target the rrs (LG1/LG2) and ligB (LP1/LP2) genes to confirm the presence of the Leptospira genus and the pathogenic species, respectively. RESULTS: The assay showed 100% specificity against 17 Leptospira strains with a limit of detection of 23.1pg/µl of leptospiral DNA and sensitivity of 103 leptospires/ml in both spiked urine and water...
March 2017: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28562600/effects-of-flood-irrigation-on-the-risk-of-selected-zoonotic-pathogens-in-an-arid-and-semi-arid-area-in-the-eastern-kenya
#13
Bernard Bett, Mohammed Y Said, Rosemary Sang, Salome Bukachi, Salome Wanyoike, Shem C Kifugo, Fredrick Otieno, Enoch Ontiri, Ian Njeru, Johanna Lindahl, Delia Grace
To investigate the effects of irrigation on land cover changes and the risk of selected zoonotic pathogens, we carried out a study in irrigated, pastoral and riverine areas in the eastern Kenya. Activities implemented included secondary data analyses to determine land use and land cover (LULC) changes as well as human, livestock and wildlife population trends; entomological surveys to characterize mosquitoes population densities and species distribution by habitat and season; and serological surveys in people to determine the risk of Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), West Nile fever virus (WNV), dengue fever virus (DFV), Leptospira spp...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545521/clinical-serological-and-echocardiographic-examination-of-healthy-field-dogs-before-and-after-vaccination-with-a-commercial-tetravalent-leptospirosis-vaccine
#14
Andrea M Spiri, Sabrina Rodriguez-Campos, José M Matos, Tony M Glaus, Barbara Riond, Claudia E Reusch, Regina Hofmann-Lehmann, Barbara Willi
BACKGROUND: Leptospirosis is a re-emerging bacterial zoonosis caused by spirochetes of the genus Leptospira. Severe disease has been reported in dogs in Europe despite vaccination with bivalent Leptospira vaccines. Recently, a tetravalent canine Leptospira vaccine (Nobivac® L4) was licenced in Europe. The goal of this study was to investigate clinical signs, microscopic agglutination test (MAT) titres, haematology, blood biochemistry, cardiac (c) Troponin I levels and echocardiography before and after vaccination with this tetravalent vaccine...
May 25, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536676/leptospira-immunoglobulin-like-protein-b-interacts-with-the-20th-exon-of-human-tropoelastin-contributing-to-leptospiral-adhesion-to-human-lung-cells
#15
Ching-Lin Hsieh, Andrew Tseng, Hongxuan He, Chih-Jung Kuo, Xuannian Wang, Yung-Fu Chang
Leptospira immunoglobulin-like protein B (LigB), a surface adhesin, is capable of mediating the attachment of pathogenic leptospira to the host through interaction with various components of the extracellular matrix (ECM). Human tropoelastin (HTE), the building block of elastin, confers resilience and elasticity to lung, and other tissues. Previously identified Ig-like domains of LigB, including LigB4 and LigB12, bind to HTE, which is likely to promote Leptospira adhesion to lung tissue. However, the molecular mechanism that mediates the LigB-HTE interaction is unclear...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536558/temperature-and-oxidative-stress-as-triggers-for-virulence-gene-expression-in-pathogenic-leptospira-spp
#16
Tricia Fraser, Paul D Brown
Leptospirosis is a zooanthroponosis aetiologically caused by pathogenic bacteria belonging to the genus, Leptospira. Environmental signals such as increases in temperatures or oxidative stress can trigger response regulatory modes of virulence genes during infection. This study sought to determine the effect of temperature and oxidative stress on virulence associated genes in highly passaged Leptospira borgpeterseneii Jules and L. interrogans Portlandvere. Bacteria were grown in EMJH at 30°C, 37°C, or at 30°C before being transferred to 37°C...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536433/a-new-model-of-self-resolving-leptospirosis-in-mice-infected-with-a-strain-of-leptospira-interrogans-serovar-autumnalis-harboring-lps-signaling-only-through-tlr4
#17
Bili Xia, Le Sun, Xia Fan, Haihan Xiao, Yongzhang Zhu, Jinhong Qin, Chengsong Cai, Wei Zhao, Yung-Fu Chang, Yan Zhang, Xiaokui Guo, Ping He
Leptospirosis is an emerging worldwide zoonosis caused by pathogenic Leptospira spp. Our understanding of leptospirosis pathogenesis and host immune response remains limited, while mechanistic studies are hindered by a lack of proper animal models and immunological reagents. Here we established a murine model of acute and self-resolving leptospirosis by infecting 10-week-old C57BL/6 mice with Leptospira interrogans serovar Autumnalis strain 56606v, with characteristic manifestations including jaundice as well as subcutaneous and pulmonary bleeding, but no kidney lesions...
May 24, 2017: Emerging Microbes & Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535299/analysis-of-bacterial-metagenomes-from-the-southwestern-gulf-of-mexico-for-pathogens-detection
#18
Wendy Escobedo-Hinojosa, Liliana Pardo-López
Little is known about the diversity of bacteria in the Southwestern Gulf of Mexico. The aim of the study illustrated in this perspective was to search for the presence of bacterial pathogens in this ecosystem, using metagenomic data recently generated by the Mexican research group known as the Gulf of Mexico Research Consortium. Several genera of bacteria annotated as pathogens were detected in water and sediment marine samples. As expected, native and ubiquitous pathogenic bacteria genera such as Burkolderia, Halomonas, Pseudomonas, Shewanella and Vibrio were highly represented...
July 31, 2017: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532993/canine-leptospirosis-in-switzerland-a-prospective-cross-sectional-study-examining-seroprevalence-risk-factors-and-urinary-shedding-of-pathogenic-leptospires
#19
Alessandro Delaude, Sabrina Rodriguez-Campos, Anou Dreyfus, Michel Jacques Counotte, Thierry Francey, Ariane Schweighauser, Sophie Lettry, Simone Schuller
Leptospirosis is an important worldwide zoonosis. While human leptospirosis remains rare in Switzerland, the incidence of canine leptospirosis is unusually high compared to other European countries. The aims of this cross-sectional study were to determine the exposure of asymtomatic dogs to pathogenic Leptospira in Switzerland, to characterise risk factors associated with seropositivity and to determine the prevalence of urinary shedding. Sampling was stratified to cover the whole of Switzerland. Sera were tested by microscopic agglutination test for antibodies against a panel of 12 serovars...
June 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529271/evidence-of-infection-with-leptospira-interrogans-and-spotted-fever-group-rickettsiae-among-rodents-in-an-urban-area-of-osaka-city-japan
#20
Kenta Shimizu, Rie Isozumi, Kazutoshi Takami, Isao Kimata, Kanae Shiokawa, Kumiko Yoshimatsu, Yoshimi Tsuda, Sanae Nishio, Jiro Arikawa
We examined 33 rodents captured in an urban area of Osaka City, Japan for IgG antibodies against Seoul virus, severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus, hepatitis E virus, Leptospira interrogans, Yersinia pestis, spotted fever, typhus and scrub typhus group rickettsiae. We found that 3 (9.1%) and 1 (3.0%) of the 33 rodents had antibodies against L. interrogans and spotted fever group rickettsiae, respectively. DNAs of leptospires were detected from 2 of the 3 seropositive rodents, but DNA of rickettsia was not detected...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
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