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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241042/seeking-the-environmental-source-of-leptospirosis-reveals-durable-bacterial-viability-in-river-soils
#1
Roman Thibeaux, Sophie Geroult, Claire Benezech, Stéphane Chabaud, Marie-Estelle Soupé-Gilbert, Dominique Girault, Emilie Bierque, Cyrille Goarant
BACKGROUND: Leptospirosis is an important re-emerging infectious disease that affects humans worldwide. Infection occurs from indirect environment-mediated exposure to pathogenic leptospires through contaminated watered environments. The ability of pathogenic leptospires to persist in the aqueous environment is a key factor in transmission to new hosts. Hence, an effort was made to detect pathogenic leptospires in complex environmental samples, to genotype positive samples and to assess leptospiral viability over time...
February 27, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237664/il-10-deficient-mice-express-ifn-%C3%AE-mrna-and-clear-leptospira-interrogans-from-their-kidneys-more-rapidly-than-normal-c57bl-6-mice
#2
Amy A Devlin, Priya J Halvorsen, Jennifer C Miller, Scott M Laster
Leptospira interrogans (L. interrogans), the causative agent of leptospirosis, is a widespread zoonotic spirochete that lives a dual lifestyle. L. interrogans infects mice, rats, and wildlife in a persistent and asymptomatic fashion, while also causing productive and acute infections in other mammals such as humans and hamsters. Infections in humans can be fatal, accompanied by a cytokine storm and shock-like symptoms. Production of IL-10 has been noted in both rodent and human infections which has led a number of investigators to hypothesize that IL-10 plays a role in the pathogenesis of this disease...
February 10, 2017: Immunobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235787/evaluation-of-a-rapid-igm-detection-test-for-diagnosis-of-acute-leptospirosis-in-dogs
#3
J Lizer, M Grahlmann, H Hapke, S Velineni, D Lin, B Kohn
Recently, a lateral flow assay (LFA) for detection of Leptospira-specific IgM in canine sera became commercially available in Europe. The present study aims to evaluate the diagnostic performance of this assay using canine sera from a collection of diagnostic accessions. Diagnostic sensitivity was assessed by testing 37 acute-phase and 9 corresponding convalescent-phase sera from dogs with a confirmed diagnosis of leptospirosis. Specificity was determined by testing sera from sick dogs with non-leptospiral infections (n=15) and healthy dogs with incomplete history of vaccination (n=45)...
February 24, 2017: Veterinary Record
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221126/imported-leptospira-licerasiae-infection-in-traveler-returning-to-japan-from-brazil
#4
Motoyuki Tsuboi, Nobuo Koizumi, Kayoko Hayakawa, Shuzo Kanagawa, Norio Ohmagari, Yasuyuki Kato
We describe a case of intermediate leptospirosis resulting from Leptospira licerasiae infection in a traveler returning to Japan from Brazil. Intermediate leptospirosis should be included in the differential diagnosis for travelers with fever returning from South America. This case highlights the need for strategies that detect pathogenic and intermediate Leptospira species.
March 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213654/molecular-epidemiology-of-leptospira-serogroup-pomona-infections-among-wild-and-domestic-animals-in-spain
#5
Z J Arent, C Gilmore, J M San-Miguel Ayanz, L Quevedo Neyra, F J García-Peña
Strains of Leptospira serogroup Pomona are known to cause widespread animal infections in many parts of the world. Forty-three isolates retrieved from domestic animals and wild small mammals suggest that serogroup Pomona is epidemiologically relevant in Spain. This is supported by the high prevalence of serovar Pomona antibodies in livestock and wild animals. In this study, the strains were serologically and genetically characterized in an attempt to elucidate their epidemiology. Serological typing was based on the microscopic agglutination test but molecular typing involved species-specific polymerase chain reaction, restriction endonuclease analysis, and multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis...
February 17, 2017: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213528/leptospira-interrogans-serogroup-pomona-infections-in-the-uk-is-there-a-real-threat-for-farm-animals
#6
Z Arent, C Gilmore, A M Barlow, L Smith, W A Ellis
Current typing of Leptospira strains requires a combination of both serological and molecular methods. Study of the epidemiology of strains within the Pomona serogroup has proved problematic due to the limitations of serological typing methods. This is particularly true of the two main complexes within this group, namely the Pomona, Monjakov, Kennewicki cluster in Leptospira interrogans species and the Mozdok, Tsaratsovo, Kunming, Altodouro cluster in Leptospira kirschneri Strains from the south of England have been shown previously to belong to L kirschneri serovar Mozdok, strains of which are maintained by small rodents in western Europe...
February 17, 2017: Veterinary Record
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210912/inhibitory-effects-of-emodin-thymol-and-astragalin-on-leptospira-interrogans-induced-inflammatory-response-in-the-uterine-and-endometrium-epithelial-cells-of-mice
#7
Wenlong Zhang, Xiaojie Lu, Wei Wang, Zhuang Ding, Yunhe Fu, Xiaofei Zhou, Naisheng Zhang, Yongguo Cao
Leptospirosis is a systemic infection that causes, among others, acute kidney injury, acute liver disease, muscle pain, vasculitis, bleeding disorders, and reproductive loss. In an effort to reduce uterine inflammatory responses induced by Leptospira, we evaluated the anti-inflammation effects of emodin, thymol, and astragalin in a mouse model. Our results showed that treatment with emodin, thymol, and astragalin alleviated uterine inflammation induced by leptospira infection via suppression of pro-inflammatory cytokine expression and prevented tissue damage...
February 16, 2017: Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210253/genomic-analysis-of-a-new-serovar-of-leptospira-weilii-serogroup-manhao
#8
Yinghua Xu, Huajun Zheng, Ying Zhang, Yuezhu Wang, Jinlong Zhang, Zhe Li, Shenghui Cui, Xiaofang Xin, Qiang Ye, Yung-Fu Chang, Junzhi Wang
Leptospirosis, caused by pathogenic Leptospira spp., is recognized as an important emerging zoonotic disease throughout the world. In this study, multiple approaches were used to characterize the recently discovered serovar Heyan strain L231. This strain can infect guinea pigs and belonged to the pathogenic species L. weilii. Genome sequencing analysis revealed the draft genome of 4.2 M bp with a G+C content of 40.67% for strain L231, and a total of 4,794 ORFs were identified. The strain L231 genome was found to have a larger LPS biosynthesis locus than that of strains L...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209095/leptospira-seropositivity-as-a-risk-factor-for-mesoamerican-nephropathy
#9
Alejandro Riefkohl, Oriana Ramírez-Rubio, Rebecca L Laws, Michael D McClean, Daniel E Weiner, James S Kaufman, Renee L Galloway, Sean V Shadomy, Marta Guerra, Juan José Amador, José Marcel Sánchez, Damaris López-Pilarte, Chirag R Parikh, Jessica H Leibler, Daniel R Brooks
BACKGROUND: Leptospirosis is postulated as a possible cause of Mesoamerican Nephropathy (MeN) in Central American workers. OBJECTIVES: Investigate job-specific Leptospira seroprevalence and its association with kidney disease biomarkers. METHODS: In 282 sugarcane workers, 47 sugarcane applicants and 160 workers in other industries, we measured anti-leptospiral antibodies, serum creatinine, and urinary injury biomarkers, including neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), interleukin-18 (IL-18), and N-acetyl-D-glucosaminidase (NAG)...
February 17, 2017: International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208854/polymerase-chain-reaction-an-important-tool-for-early-diagnosis-of-leptospirosis-cases
#10
Summaiya Mullan, Tanvi Harivadanbhai Panwala
INTRODUCTION: Various diagnostic methods like Microscopic Agglutination Test (MAT), IgM ELISA, Isolation of Leptospira from the clinical specimen, Rapid leptocheck tests etc., are available for diagnosis of leptospirosis. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) is used for diagnosis of various diseases of infectious origin including leptospirosis but there is paucity of data about comparison of PCR with other available method of diagnosis of leptospirosis. AIM: The aim of the study was to detect the leptospiral DNA by PCR method and to compare the results of PCR with other available diagnostic methods used for diagnosis of suspected leptospirosis cases in acute phase of illness...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207932/detecting-signals-of-chronic-shedding-to-explain-pathogen-persistence-leptospira-interrogans-in-california-sea-lions
#11
M G Buhnerkempe, K C Prager, C C Strelioff, D J Greig, J L Laake, S R Melin, R L DeLong, F M D Gulland, J O Lloyd-Smith
Identifying mechanisms driving pathogen persistence is a vital component of wildlife disease ecology and control. Asymptomatic, chronically infected individuals are an oft-cited potential reservoir of infection but demonstrations of the importance of chronic shedding to pathogen persistence at the population level remain scarce. Studying chronic shedding using commonly collected disease data is hampered by numerous challenges, including short-term surveillance that focuses on single epidemics and acutely ill individuals, the subtle dynamical influence of chronic shedding relative to more obvious epidemic drivers, and poor ability to differentiate between the effects of population prevalence of chronic shedding versus intensity and duration of chronic shedding in individuals...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198346/characterization-of-two-new-putative-adhesins-of-leptospira-interrogans
#12
Jupciana M Figueredo, Gabriela H Siqueira, Gisele O de Souza, Marcos B Heinemann, Silvio A Vasconcellos, Erica G B Chapola, Ana L T O Nascimento
We here report the characterization of two novel proteins encoded by the genes LIC11122 and LIC12287, identified in the genome sequences of Leptospira interrogans, annotated, respectively, as a putative sigma factor and a hypothetical protein. The CDSs LIC11122 and LIC12287 have signal peptide SPII and SPI and are predicted to be located mainly at the cytoplasmic membrane of the bacteria. The genes were cloned and the proteins expressed using Escherichia coli. Proteinase K digestion showed that both proteins are surface exposed...
January 2017: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193163/prevalence-and-clinical-presentation-of-rickettsia-coxiella-leptospira-bartonella-and-chikungunya-virus-infections-among-hospital-based-febrile-patients-from-december-2008-to-november-2009-in-bangladesh
#13
Labib Imran Faruque, Rashid Uz Zaman, Emily S Gurley, Robert F Massung, A S M Alamgir, Renee L Galloway, Ann M Powers, Ying Bai, Michael Kosoy, William L Nicholson, Mahmudur Rahman, Stephen P Luby
BACKGROUND: We conducted a study to identify Rickettsia, Coxiella, Leptospira, Bartonella, and Chikungunya virus infections among febrile patients presenting at hospitals in Bangladesh. METHODS: We collected blood samples from patients at six tertiary hospitals from December 2008 to November 2009 and performed laboratory tests at the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). RESULTS: Out of 720 enrolled patients, 263 (37%) were infected with Rickettsia; 132 patients had immunofluorescence antibody titer >64 against spotted fever, 63 patients against scrub typhus fever and 10 patients against typhus fever...
February 13, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190497/effects-of-rainfall-on-incidental-and-host-maintained-leptospiral-infections-in-cattle-in-a-tropical-region
#14
Lucas Correia, Ana Paula Loureiro, Walter Lilenbaum
This study investigated the effects of rainfall on incidental and host-maintained leptospiral infections in cattle in a tropical region. Serum and urine specimens were collected from 582 bovines in a slaughterhouse. Seropositivity during rainy seasons was 43.6% (158/362) and during dry seasons was 31.8% (70/220; P = 0.0047). Positivity by urine PCR in rainy seasons was 42.3% (153/362) and 33.2% (73/220; P = 0.0296) in dry seasons. Additionally, increases in rainfall rates had different effects on host-adapted (serogroup Sejroe) and incidental (all other serogroups) leptospiral infections...
February 2017: Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182662/investigation-on-predominant-leptospira-serovars-and-its-distribution-in-humans-and-livestock-in-thailand-2010-2015
#15
Sudarat Chadsuthi, Dominique J Bicout, Anuwat Wiratsudakul, Duangjai Suwancharoen, Wimol Petkanchanapong, Charin Modchang, Wannapong Triampo, Parntep Ratanakorn, Karine Chalvet-Monfray
BACKGROUND: Leptospirosis is a worldwide zoonotic bacterial disease caused by infection with leptospires. Leptospirosis in humans and livestock is an endemic and epidemic disease in Thailand. Livestock may act as reservoirs for leptospires and source for human infection. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Data on leptospirosis infection in humans and livestock (Buffaloes, Cattle, and Pigs) species during 2010 to 2015 were analyzed. Serum samples were examined using Microscopic Agglutination Test (MAT) to identify antibodies against Leptospira serovars using a cut-off titer ≥ 1:100...
February 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173599/quality-controls-for-antimicrobial-disk-diffusion-testing-on-leptospira-vanaporn-wuthiekanun-agar
#16
Vanaporn Wuthiekanun, Nicholas J White, Premjit Amornchai, Nicholas P J Day, Direk Limmathurotsakul
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 1, 2016: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161462/immune-response-and-protective-profile-elicited-by-a-multi-epitope-chimeric-protein-derived-from-leptospira-interrogans
#17
Luis G V Fernandes, Aline F Teixeira, Antonio F S Filho, Gisele O Souza, Silvio A Vasconcellos, Marcos B Heinemann, Eliete C Romero, Ana L T O Nascimento
INTRODUCTION: Pathogenic Leptospira is the causative agent of leptospirosis, a widely disseminated disease of human and veterinary concern. The development of vaccines that elicit cross-protective immunity through multiple leptospiral serovars has long been pursued. The aim of this study was to develop a novel chimeric multi-epitope fusion antigen, containing sequences of previously studied outer membrane proteins (OMPs) of Leptospira. METHODS: The chimeric protein was designed based on the amino acid sequences of the LigA, Mce, Lsa45, OmpL1, and LipL41 proteins, cloned into pAE vector, the protein expressed in Escherichia coli, and its immune response evaluated in the hamster infection model...
February 1, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154810/genome-wide-transcriptional-start-site-mapping-and-srna-identification-in-the-pathogen-leptospira-interrogans
#18
Anna Zhukova, Luis Guilherme Fernandes, Perrine Hugon, Christopher J Pappas, Odile Sismeiro, Jean-Yves Coppée, Christophe Becavin, Christophe Malabat, Azad Eshghi, Jun-Jie Zhang, Frank X Yang, Mathieu Picardeau
Leptospira are emerging zoonotic pathogens transmitted from animals to humans typically through contaminated environmental sources of water and soil. Regulatory pathways of pathogenic Leptospira spp. underlying the adaptive response to different hosts and environmental conditions remains elusive. In this study, we provide the first global Transcriptional Start Site (TSS) map of a Leptospira species. RNA was obtained from the pathogen Leptospira interrogans grown at 30°C (optimal in vitro temperature) and 37°C (host temperature) and selectively enriched for 5' ends of native transcripts...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141801/distinct-antibody-responses-of-patients-with-mild-and-severe-leptospirosis-determined-by-whole-proteome-microarray-analysis
#19
Carolina Lessa-Aquino, Janet C Lindow, Arlo Randall, Elsio Wunder, Jozelyn Pablo, Rie Nakajima, Algis Jasinskas, Jaqueline S Cruz, Alcineia O Damião, Nívison Nery, Guilherme S Ribeiro, Federico Costa, José E Hagan, Mitermayer Galvão Reis, Albert I Ko, Marco Alberto Medeiros, Philip L Felgner
BACKGROUND: Leptospirosis is an important zoonotic disease worldwide. Humans usually present a mild non-specific febrile illness, but a proportion of them develop more severe outcomes, such as multi-organ failure, lung hemorrhage and death. Such complications are thought to depend on several factors, including the host immunity. Protective immunity is associated with humoral immune response, but little is known about the immune response mounted during naturally-acquired Leptospira infection...
January 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138344/detection-of-intestinal-pathogens-in-river-shore-and-drinking-water-in-lima-peru
#20
David C Grothen, Sydney J Zach, Paul H Davis
Water quality management is an ongoing struggle for many locations worldwide. Current testing of water supplies can be time-consuming, expensive, and lack sensitivity. This study describes an alternative, easy-to-use, and inexpensive method to water sampling and testing at remote locations. This method was employed to detect a number of intestinal pathogens in various locations of Lima, Peru. A total of 34 PCR primer pairs were tested for specificity and high-yield amplification for 12 different pathogens using known DNA templates...
2017: Journal of Genomics
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