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Mounira Kebouchi, Frederick Saul, Raleb Taher, Annie Landier, Benedicte Beaudeau, Sarah Dubrac, Patrick Weber, Ahmed Haouz, Mathieu Picardeau, Nadia Benaroudj
Peroxide sensing is essential for bacteria survival during aerobic metabolism and host infection. Peroxide stress regulators (PerRs) are homodimeric transcriptional repressors with each monomer typically containing both structural and regulatory metal-binding sites. PerR binding to gene promoters is controlled by the presence of iron in the regulatory site, and iron-catalyzed oxidation of PerR by H2O2 leads to the dissociation of PerR from DNA. In addition to a regulatory metal, most PerRs require a structural metal for proper dimeric assembly...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
J Lizer, S Velineni, A Weber, M Krecic, P Meeus
BACKGROUND: Leptospirosis in dogs is a disease of global importance. Early detection and appropriate therapeutic intervention are necessary to resolve infection and prevent zoonotic transmission. However, its diagnosis is hindered by nonspecific clinical signs and lack of rapid diagnostic tests of early infection. Recently, 2 rapid point-of-care tests (WITNESS Lepto [WITNESS Lepto, Zoetis LLC, Kalamazoo, MI, USA] and SNAP Lepto [SNAP Lepto, IDEXX Laboratories, Westbrook, ME, USA]) for detection of Leptospira-specific antibodies in canine sera were developed...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
Juan Ignacio Silesky Jiménez, Jorge Luis Hidalgo Marroquin, Guy A Richards, Pravin Amin
Leptospirosis is a zoonosis caused by a gram negative aerobic spirochete of the genus Leptospira. It is acquired by contact with urine or reproductive fluids from infected animals, or by inoculation from contaminated water or soil. The disease has a global distribution, mainly in tropical and subtropical regions that have a humid, rainy climate and is also common in travelers returning from these regions. Clinical suspicion is critical for the diagnosis and it should be included in the differential diagnosis of any patient with a febrile hepatorenal syndrome in, or returning from endemic regions...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Critical Care
Rafael Bazaglia Sonada, Sérgio Santos de Azevedo, Francisco Rafael Martins Soto, Diego Figueiredo da Costa, Zenaide Maria de Morais, Gisele Oliveira de Souza, Amane Paldês Gonçales, Fabiana Miraglia, Sílvio Arruda Vasconcellos
In swine and bovines, leptospirosis prevention and control is carried out via vaccination of susceptible animals using bacterins. However, the efficiency of leptospirosis vaccines has been questioned. This work aimed to investigate the potency of five leptospirosis vaccines sold commercially in Brazil, challenging the animals with one autochthonous strain of Leptospira, Canicola serovar, denoted LO4, isolated from swine. The standard protocol was followed, and renal carriers of Leptospira were identified among the surviving animals by culture and PCR...
October 12, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Microbiology: [publication of the Brazilian Society for Microbiology]
Brittney Beigel, Ashutosh Verma
This protocol describes a method for the rapid detection of leptospiral DNA in environmental water. In summary, the DNA is extracted from water samples and tested in a TaqMan-based real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) for the presence of lipl32, a gene that is present only in pathogenic Leptospira spp. The gene target used in this assay is important in that it only detects pathogenic leptospires and not the saprophytic leptospires that may be present in environmental samples. © 2017 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc...
November 9, 2017: Current Protocols in Microbiology
Xiao-Ming Lu, Peng-Zhen Lu
Under conditions of Azolla imbricata restoration, the high-throughput sequencing technology was employed to determine change trends of microbial community structures in the soil that had undergone long-term application of pesticides. The relationship between the content of pesticide residues in the soil and the microbial community structure was analyzed. The results indicated that the microbial diversity was strongly negatively correlated with the contents of pesticide residues in the soil. At a suitable dosage of 5 kg fresh A...
November 8, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Jadson V Santos, Priscila R M Pereira, Luis G V Fernandes, Gabriela Hase Siqueira, Gisele O de Souza, Antônio Souza Filho, Silvio A Vasconcellos, Marcos B Heinemann, Erica G B Chapola, Ana L T O Nascimento
Leptospirosis is a widespread zoonosis caused by pathogenic Leptospira. Bacteria disseminate via the bloodstream and colonize the renal tubules of reservoir hosts. Leptospiral surface-exposed proteins are important targets, because due to their location they can elicit immune response and mediate adhesion and invasion processes. LipL46 has been previously reported to be located at the leptospiral outer membrane and recognized by antibodies present in serum of infected hamsters. In this study, we have confirmed the cellular location of this protein by immunofluorescence and FACS...
November 4, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Probes
Leandro Carvalho Dantas Breda, Silvio Arruda Vasconcellos, Dewton de Moraes Vasconcelos, Lourdes Isaac
Leptospirosis is an important zoonosis of global importance caused by bacteria Leptospira spp. Pathogenic Leptospira is resistant to Complement System killing while non-pathogenic Leptospira is rapidly killed by exposure to normal human serum (NHS). Pathogenic Leptospira interact with Complement Regulators such as Factor H, C4b binding protein and Vitronectin avoiding Complement activation and killing by Alternative and Classical Pathways. One important regulator is C1-inhibitor (C1INH) that interacts with C1s or MASPs controlling the cleavage of C4 and C2 molecules, thereby inhibiting the activation of the Classical and Lectin Pathways...
October 13, 2017: Immunobiology
Toshiyuki Masuzawa, Keiko Sakakibara, Mitsumasa Saito, Yusuke Hidaka, Sharon Y A M Villanueva, Yasutake Yanagihara, Shin-Ichi Yoshida
Leptospira was isolated from soil obtained from Hokkaido, the northernmost island, to Okinawa, the southernmost island, in Japan using sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim, amphotericin B, fosfomycin, and 5- fluorouracil (STAFF). Fifty out of 132 soil samples (37.9%) were culture-positive. Based on 16S-rDNA sequences, 12 were classified into a pathogenic species clade and were closely associated with L. alstonii and L. kmetyi. Nine isolates were classified into intermediate species, which were similar to L. licerasiae...
November 6, 2017: Microbiology and Immunology
Ya Zhang, Masaaki Kitajima, Andrew J Whittle, Wen-Tso Liu
The occurrence of pathogenic bacteria in drinking water distribution systems (DWDSs) is a major health concern, and our current understanding is mostly related to pathogenic species such as Legionella pneumophila and Mycobacterium avium but not to bacterial species closely related to them. In this study, genomic-based approaches were used to characterize pathogen-related species in relation to their abundance, diversity, potential pathogenicity, genetic exchange, and distribution across an urban drinking water system...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
Somjit Chaiwattanarungruengpaisan, Sarin Suwanpakdee, Nareerat Sangkachai, Tatiyanuch Chamsai, Kanokwan Taruyanon, Metawee Thongdee
  We collected water and soil samples from a waterfall in Thailand in order to investigate the presence of potential pathogenic Leptospira. Isolation of Leptospira was completely accomplished from all 17 environmental samples. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, a diverse group of Leptospira species was recovered from waterfall samples including two pathogenic species; L. alstonii (5/17, 29%) and L. kmetyi (1/17, 6%), one intermediate species; L. wolffii (9/17, 53%) and two non-pathogenic species; L...
October 31, 2017: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases
Kate Woods, Caoimhe Nic-Fhogartaigh, Catherine Arnold, Latsaniphone Boutthasavong, Weerawat Phuklia, Cherry Lim, Anisone Chanthongthip, Suhella M Tulsiani, Scott B Craig, Mary-Anne Burns, Steven L Weier, Viengmon Davong, Somsavanh Sihalath, Direk Limmathurotsakul, David Ab Dance, Nandini Shetty, Maria Zambon, Paul N Newton, Sabine Dittrich
OBJECTIVES: To compare two molecular assays (rrs qPCR vs. a combined 16SrRNA and LipL32 qPCR) on different sample types for diagnosing leptospirosis in febrile patients presenting to Mahosot Hospital, Vientiane, Laos. METHODS: Serum, buffy coat and urine samples were collected on admission, and follow up serum ∼10 days later. Leptospira spp. culture and microscopic agglutination tests (MAT) were performed as reference standards. Bayesian latent class modeling was performed to estimate sensitivity and specificity of each diagnostic test...
October 26, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Marcella Mori, Pascale Bourhy, Marine Le Guyader, Marjan Van Esbroeck, Zorée Djelouadji, Alexandra Septfons, Angeli Kodjo, Mathieu Picardeau
Leptospirosis is an under-reported and emerging zoonotic disease which is potentially fatal in humans. Rodents are the main reservoirs for pathogenic Leptospira spp., but diagnosis in these animals is difficult, and their infection, which does not induce symptoms, usually goes unoticed. Although the exposures of most human cases of leptospirosis are poorly documented, we were able to identify six human cases of leptospirosis which were associated with direct contact with pet rodents (mice or rats) in Belgium and France between 2009 and 2016...
October 2017: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
Antonio Ortega-Pacheco, Eugenia Guzmán-Marín, Karla Y Acosta-Viana, Ignacio Vado-Solís, Bertha Jiménez-Delgadillo, Maria Cárdenas-Marrufo, Carlos Pérez-Osorio, Marilyn Puerto-Solís, Matilde Jiménez-Coello
To evaluate the serological status for Trypanosoma cruzi, Toxoplasma gondii and Leptospira interrogans antibodies in free roaming dogs and cats from a marginated rural community in Yucatan Mexico, 100 households were visited and animals sampled. From the 106 samples, 93 were from dogs and 13 were from cats. Frequency of positive results for T. gondii, T. cruzi and Leptospira spp was 97.8%, 9.7% and 45.2% for dogs and 92.3%, 0.0% and 15.2% for cats, respectively. No associations with age, sex and body condition was found for T...
February 2017: Veterinary Medicine and Science
Médiha Khamassi Khbou, Kamel Haouala, M'hammed Benzarti
The authors report a survey carried out in a cattle farm between January and April 2009 in Mateur region (Northern Tunisia). Seroprevalence by Microscopic Agglutination Test (MAT) was estimated to 81.4 ± 6% and 35 ± 2% in cows and calves, respectively. Seropositivity to more than one serovar was noticed in 91% (81/89) of infected animals. The examination of the distribution pattern of Leptospira serovars involved in this outbreak indicates that serovar Pomona was the predominant one (75.3%), followed by Autumnalis (59...
February 2017: Veterinary Medicine and Science
Juscivete Fátima Fávero, Alexandro Fritzen, Luciane Lovato, Patrícia Martins, Matheus D Baldissera, Lenita M Stefani, Aleksandro S Da Silva
Good vaccines should confer protection against specific pathogens in experimental and field conditions. However, some commercial vaccines are not capable to confer protection to animals, being inefficient in a bovine vaccine program. In this sense, the aim of this study was to evaluate the antibody levels involved in the immune response in vaccinated cows against leptospirosis, as well as acute phase protein and the immunological markers in a vaccine program in beef cattle. Twenty non-lactating cows, negative for leptospirosis and without vaccination against this disease were evaluated during five months...
October 21, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
Mara Leila Martínez, Sylvia Grune Loffler, Graciela Noemi Romero, Bibiana Felicitas Brihuega
Leptospirosis is a zoonosis having worldwide distribution. The objective of this work was to develop a molecular technique to differentiate pathogenic Leptospira spp. A region of adhesin ligB, present only in the pathogenic species was amplified by PCR and sequenced. ligBRpet and ligBFpet primers were used, which amplified the target DNA from pathogenic L. interrogans reference strains serovars Pomona strain Pomona, Canicola strain Hond Utrecht IV, Copenhageni strain M 20, Wolffi strain 3705, Pyrogenes strain Salinem, Hardjo strain Hardjoprajitmo, L...
October 21, 2017: Revista Argentina de Microbiología
J Millán, A Cevidanes, A D Chirife, M G Candela, L León-Vizcaíno
Urbanization of natural areas can change abiotic factors, providing artificial sources of humidity in summer and decreasing variation of temperatures in winter. Our study aimed at document risk factors of infection in mammal reservoirs of pathogenic Leptospira in the human/wildlife interface of a large metropolitan area. We hypothesize that survival of Leptospira and thus their prevalence in animal reservoirs should be higher in residential areas than in natural habitats, especially after the hot, dry Mediterranean summers...
October 23, 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
Daniela Dezzutto, Raffaella Barbero, Giuseppina Canale, Pier Luigi Acutis, Cristina Biolatti, Andrea Dogliero, Mauthe Degerfeld Mitzy, Paola Francone, Alberto Colzani, Stefania Bergagna, Maria Silvia Gennero
Urban parks are green areas of cities where families and children spend hours outside. Turtles often inhabit urban parks. However, even if the animals seem harmless, they may serve as both reservoirs or accidental hosts for different serotypes of Leptospira spp. Leptospira spp. is a waterborne zoonotic bacterium relevant for public health. Reptiles and amphibians may play a role in the epidemiology, transmission, and persistence of Leptospira spp. In the present study, we observed the presence of anti-leptospiral agglutinins in a group of freshwater turtles (Trachemys scripta) captured in three urban ponds of the metropolitan city of Turin, Italy...
October 10, 2017: Veterinary Sciences
Bernard Grevemeyer, Michel Vandenplas, Brittney Beigel, Ellen Cho, Arve Lee Willingham, Ashutosh Verma
Leptospirosis is a global zoonosis caused by pathogenic spirochetes classified within the genus Leptospira. Leptospires live in the proximal renal tubules of reservoir or chronic carrier animals, and are shed in the urine. Naïve animals acquire infection either when they come in direct contact with a reservoir or infected animals or by exposure to environmental surface water or soil that is contaminated with their urine. In this study, urine samples from a herd of donkeys on the Caribbean island of St. Kitts were screened using a TaqMan-based real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) targeting a pathogen-specific leptospiral gene, lipl32...
January 10, 2017: Veterinary Sciences
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