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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099077/disease-complexity-in-a-declining-alaskan-muskox-ovibos-moschatus-population
#1
Josephine A Afema, Kimberlee B Beckmen, Stephen M Arthur, Kathy Burek Huntington, Jonna A K Mazet
The muskox ( Ovibos moschatus ) population inhabiting the eastern North Slope (ENS) of Alaska declined dramatically during 1999-2006, whereas populations in western Alaska (WA) were stable or increasing. To understand morbidity and mortality factors contributing to the decline, Alaska Department of Fish and Game conducted pathologic investigations of carcasses from 2005 until 2008. Additionally, archived sera from both ENS and WA muskoxen collected during 1984-1992, before the documented beginning of the ENS decline; sera collected during 2000, near the beginning of the decline; and contemporary sera (from live capture-release, adult females) collected during 2006, 2007, and 2008 were analyzed to determine whether prevalence of antibody to potential pathogens differed in the two areas or changed over time...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098813/reverse-vaccinology-an-approach-for-identifying-leptospiral-vaccine-candidates
#2
REVIEW
Odir A Dellagostin, André A Grassmann, Caroline Rizzi, Rodrigo A Schuch, Sérgio Jorge, Thais L Oliveira, Alan J A McBride, Daiane D Hartwig
Leptospirosis is a major public health problem with an incidence of over one million human cases each year. It is a globally distributed, zoonotic disease and is associated with significant economic losses in farm animals. Leptospirosis is caused by pathogenic Leptospira spp. that can infect a wide range of domestic and wild animals. Given the inability to control the cycle of transmission among animals and humans, there is an urgent demand for a new vaccine. Inactivated whole-cell vaccines (bacterins) are routinely used in livestock and domestic animals, however, protection is serovar-restricted and short-term only...
January 14, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28036244/viscosity-dependent-variations-in-the-cell-shape-and-swimming-manner-of-leptospira
#3
Kyosuke Takabe, Hajime Tahara, Md Shafiqul Islam, Samia Affroze, Seishi Kudo, Shuichi Nakamura
Spirochetes are spiral or flat-wave-shaped Gram-negative bacteria that have periplasmic flagella (PF) between the peptidoglycan layer and outer membrane. Rotation of the PF transforms the cell body shape periodically, allowing the cell to swim in aqueous environments. Because the virulence of motility-deficient mutants of pathogenic species is drastically attenuated, motility is thought to be an essential virulence factor in spirochetes. However, it remains unknown how motility practically contributes to the infection process...
December 30, 2016: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027297/efficacy-of-the-rabbit-polyclonal-anti-leptospira-antibody-against-homotype-or-heterotype-leptospira-infection-in-hamster
#4
Xuemin Jin, Wenlong Zhang, Zhuang Ding, Hai Wang, Dianjun Wu, Xufeng Xie, Tao Lin, Yunhe Fu, Naisheng Zhang, Yongguo Cao
Leptospirosis, caused by Leptospira, is one of the most important of neglected emerging zoonotic diseases that has important impacts on public health worldwide. Polyclonal antibody (pcAb) therapy is a potential method to process a series of pathogens for which there are limited determination of treatment, such as leptospirosis. First, we evaluated the efficacy of pcAb, derived from the sera of rabbits inoculated with Leptospira, against homotype (Leptospira interrogans serovar Lai) or heterotype (Leptospira interrogans serovar Autumnalis) Leptospira infection in a lethal hamster model...
December 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012903/multiple-host-pathogens-in-domestic-hunting-dogs-in-nicaragua-s-bosaw%C3%A3-s-biosphere-reserve
#5
Christine V Fiorello, Mary H Straub, Laura M Schwartz, James Liu, Amanda Campbell, Alexa K Kownacki, Janet E Foley
Nicaragua's Bosawás Biosphere Reserve is a vast forested area inhabited largely by indigenous Mayangna and Miskitu people. Most Bosawás residents rely on subsistence hunting and swidden agriculture, and hunting dogs are important for finding and securing wild game. We investigated the health of hunting dogs in three communities differing in location, size, and economy. Dogs in all communities were nutritionally compromised and experienced a heavy burden of disease. Seroprevalence of canine distemper, canine parvovirus, Rickettsia rickettsii, and Leptospira spp...
December 21, 2016: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27996041/leptospira-surface-adhesin-lsa21-induces-toll-like-receptor-2-and-4-mediated-inflammatory-responses-in-macrophages
#6
Syed M Faisal, Vivek P Varma, M Subathra, Sarwar Azam, Anil K Sunkara, Mohd Akif, Mirza S Baig, Yung-Fu Chang
Leptospirosis is zoonotic and emerging infectious disease of global importance. Little is understood about Leptospira pathogenesis and host immune response. In the present work we have investigated how Leptospira modulates the host innate immune response mediated by Toll-like receptors (TLRs) via surface exposed proteins. We screened Leptospira outer membrane/surface proteins for their ability to activate/inhibit TLR2/4 signaling in HEK293 cell lines. Of these the 21 kDa Leptospira surface adhesin, Lsa21 had strong TLR2 and TLR4 activity leading to production of proinflammatory cytokines and expression of costimulatory molecules in mouse macrophages...
December 20, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989763/the-multifaceted-roles-of-leptospira-enolase
#7
Natália Salazar, Matilde Costa Lima de Souza, Amanda Gameiro Biasioli, Ludmila Bezerra da Silva, Angela Silva Barbosa
A previous study had demonstrated that Leptospira enolase is secreted extracellularly by a yet unknown mechanism and reassociates with the bacterial membrane. Surface-anchored leptospiral enolase displays plasminogen binding activity. In this work, we explored the consequences of this interaction and also assessed whether Leptospira enolase might display additional moonlighting functions by interacting with other host effector proteins. We first demonstrated that enolase-bound plasminogen is converted to its active form, plasmin...
October 28, 2016: Research in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986861/quality-controls-for-antimicrobial-disk-diffusion-testing-on-leptospira-vanaporn-wuthiekanun-agar
#8
Vanaporn Wuthiekanun, Nicholas J White, Premjit Amornchai, Nicholas P J Day, Direk Limmathurotsakul
BACKGROUND: Disk diffusion susceptibility testing for Leptospira spp. on Leptospira Vanaporn Wuthiekanun (LVW) solid agar was reported recently. However, it was unclear whether the zone sizes obtained on LVW agar were comparable with those of other bacteria on Mueller-Hinton agar. METHODS: Here, we evaluate the disk diffusion assay on LVW agar using the standard quality control (QC) bacterial strains for 22 antimicrobials. RESULTS: All antimicrobials provided zone sizes within the standard range for each QC bacterial strain, except for fosfomycin...
December 15, 2016: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986822/the-excreted-microbiota-of-bats-evidence-of-niche-specialization-based-on-multiple-body-habitats
#9
Muriel Dietrich, Teresa Kearney, Ernest C J Seamark, Wanda Markotter
Animal-associated microbiotas form complex communities, which play crucial functions for their host, including susceptibility to infections. Despite increasing attention to bats as reservoirs of zoonotic pathogens, their microbiota is poorly documented, especially for samples potentially implicated in pathogen transmission such as urine and saliva. Here, using low-biomass individual samples, we examined the composition and structure of bacterial communities excreted by insectivorous bats, focusing on three body habitats (saliva, urine and faeces)...
December 15, 2016: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27983472/characterization-of-two-new-putative-adhesins-of-leptospira-interrogans
#10
Jupciana Figueredo, Gabriela Siqueira, Gisele Souza, Marcos Heinemann, Silvio Vasconcellos, Erica Chapola, Ana Lucia T O Nascimento
We here report the characterization of two novel proteins encoded by the genes LIC11122 and LIC12287, identified in the genome sequences of Leptospira interrogans, annotated, respectively, as a putative sigma factor and hypothetical. . The coding sequences (CDSs) LIC11122 and LIC12287 have signal peptide SPII and SPI and are predicted to be located mainly at the cytoplasm membrane of the bacteria. The genes were cloned and the proteins expressed using Escherichia coli. Proteinase K digestion showed that both proteins are surface exposed...
December 15, 2016: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27982303/genetic-diversity-of-leptospira-in-northwestern-colombia-first-report-of-leptospira-santarosai-as-a-recognised-leptospirosis-agent
#11
Ronald Guillermo Peláez Sanchez, Juan Álvaro Lopez, Martha María Pereira, Margarita Arboleda Naranjo, Piedad Agudelo-Flórez
The region of Antioquia in northeastern Colombia has the highest number of reported leptospirosis cases in the country. It also shows high seroprevalence indexes in the general population and socio-environmental conditions favourable for the transmission of the disease between humans and animals. In this study, 25 Leptospira isolates from Colombia's Antioquia department were identified to the species level as L. santarosai (12), L. interrogans (9) and L. meyeri (4) using phylogenetic analysis of the Amidohydrolase gene...
December 2016: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27955629/cerebellar-ataxia-due-to-leptospirosis-a-case-report
#12
Rajveer Singh, Dheeraj Khurana, Sahil Mehta, Aditya Choudhary, Gayathri Petluri, Vivek Lal
BACKGROUND: Leptospirosis involves nervous system in around 10-15% of the cases, the commonest presentation being aseptic meningitis. Most of the clinical features of neuroleptospirosis are due to capillary endothelial damage and vasculitis. Ataxia is an extremely uncommon manifestation of Leptospirosis occuring in <5% of cases. CASE PRESENTATION: A 28 year old female from North India presented with a short febrile illness followed by an acute onset cerebellar ataxia, anemia, thrombocytopenia and transaminitis...
December 12, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935961/emerging-infectious-disease-implications-of-invasive-mammalian-species-the-greater-white-toothed-shrew-crocidura-russula-is-associated-with-a-novel-serovar-of-pathogenic-leptospira-in-ireland
#13
Jarlath E Nally, Zbigniew Arent, Darrell O Bayles, Richard L Hornsby, Colm Gilmore, Siobhan Regan, Allan D McDevitt, Jon Yearsley, Séamus Fanning, Barry J McMahon
The greater white-toothed shrew (Crocidura russula) is an invasive mammalian species that was first recorded in Ireland in 2007. It currently occupies an area of approximately 7,600 km2 on the island. C. russula is normally distributed in Northern Africa and Western Europe, and was previously absent from the British Isles. Whilst invasive species can have dramatic and rapid impacts on faunal and floral communities, they may also be carriers of pathogens facilitating disease transmission in potentially naive populations...
December 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931934/assessing-the-impact-of-tailored-biosecurity-advice-on-farmer-behaviour-and-pathogen-presence-in-beef-herds-in-england-and-wales
#14
J M Cardwell, S Van Winden, W Beauvais, A Mastin, W A De Glanville, J Hardstaff, R E Booth, J Fishwick, D U Pfeiffer
The term 'biosecurity' encompasses many measures farmers can take to reduce the risk of pathogen incursion or spread. As the best strategy will vary between settings, veterinarians play an important role in assessing risk and providing advice, but effectiveness requires farmer acceptance and implementation. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of specifically-tailored biosecurity advice packages in reducing endemic pathogen presence on UK beef suckler farms. One hundred and sixteen farms recruited by 10 veterinary practices were followed for three years...
December 1, 2016: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924792/a-cost-effective-approach-to-the-diagnosis-and-management-of-acute-infectious-encephalitis
#15
Usha Kant Misra, Vinita Elizabeth Mani, Jayantee Kalita
SETTING: A tertiary care teaching hospital in India. OBJECTIVE: To report a syndromic approach to acute encephalitis syndrome (AES) and propose a cost-effective model. STUDY DESIGN: AES patients were categorized by the presence or absence of myalgia/rash into systemic and neurological AES. The patients with systemic AES were investigated for dengue, scrub typhus, leptospira, chikungunya, and malaria, and those with neurological AES were investigated for herpes and Japanese encephalitis (JE)...
2017: European Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918150/seroprevalence-and-risk-factors-for-leptospira-seropositivity-in-beef-cattle-sheep-and-deer-farmers-in-new-zealand
#16
J M Sanhueza, C Heuer, P R Wilson, J Benschop, J M Collins-Emerson
Leptospirosis is a global zoonosis that in New Zealand affects primarily people occupationally exposed to livestock. The objective of this study was to estimate the seroprevalence of five Leptospira serovars in farmers working on cattle, sheep and deer farms that had the serological status of animals previously assessed and to identify risk factors for farmer seropositivity. A total of 178 farmers from 127 properties participated in the study. Blood samples were tested using the microscopic agglutination test (MAT) for the presence of antibodies to Leptospira...
December 5, 2016: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913579/risk-factors-for-leptospirosis-seropositivity-in-slaughterhouse-workers-in-western-kenya
#17
Elizabeth Anne Jessie Cook, William Anson de Glanville, Lian Francesca Thomas, Samuel Kariuki, Barend Mark de Clare Bronsvoort, Eric Maurice Fèvre
OBJECTIVES: Leptospirosis has been documented in slaughterhouse workers around the world. Risk factors include smoking and drinking at work, and performing tasks such as cleaning offal. This paper examined risk factors for leptospirosis seropositivity in slaughterhouse workers in western Kenya. METHODS: The study was conducted between May 2011 and October 2012. Questionnaires were used to collect information from workers on demographic data, health and hygiene practices in the slaughterhouse...
December 2, 2016: Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911902/comparison-of-the-estimated-incidence-of-acute-leptospirosis-in-the-kilimanjaro-region-of-tanzania-between-2007-08-and-2012-14
#18
Michael J Maze, Holly M Biggs, Matthew P Rubach, Renee L Galloway, Shama Cash-Goldwasser, Kathryn J Allan, Jo E B Halliday, Julian T Hertz, Wilbrod Saganda, Bingileki F Lwezaula, Sarah Cleaveland, Blandina T Mmbaga, Venance P Maro, John A Crump
BACKGROUND: The sole report of annual leptospirosis incidence in continental Africa of 75-102 cases per 100,000 population is from a study performed in August 2007 through September 2008 in the Kilimanjaro Region of Tanzania. To evaluate the stability of this estimate over time, we estimated the incidence of acute leptospirosis in Kilimanjaro Region, northern Tanzania for the time period 2012-2014. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Leptospirosis cases were identified among febrile patients at two sentinel hospitals in the Kilimanjaro Region...
December 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905634/-serological-evidence-of-leptospira-spp-dengue-hantavirus-and-arenavirus-infection-in-embera-kat%C3%A3-o-indigenous-population-colombia
#19
Berta Restrepo, Juan D Rodas, Carolina Montoya-Ruiz, Angélica M Zuluaga, Gabriel Parra-Henao, Piedad Agudelo-Flórez
We have developed a study in the Embera-Katío indigenous community and we found that the seropositivity for IgG antibodies to Leptospira spp. was 18.1%; to dengue was 61.1%; to arenavirus was 3.1% and to hantavirus was 1.5%. We conclude that this indigenous community live in conditions that promote the reemerging and emerging, infections.
August 2016: Revista Chilena de Infectología: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad Chilena de Infectología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894961/low-dose-norfloxacin-and-ciprofloxacin-therapy-worsen-leptospirosis-in-hamster
#20
Dianjun Wu, Wenlong Zhang, Tingting Wang, Tao Lin, Xuemin Jin, Xufeng Xie, Jian Guo, Yongguo Cao, Rui Wu
Antibiotics play an important role in the treatment of leptospirosis. Many antibiotics at appropriate concentrations improved the survival rate and alleviated tissue injury, while, when dosing strategies fall below subtherapeutic levels, worse therapeutic effects are seen. In the present study, we investigated the efficacy of low-dose norfloxacin (10, 20 and 30 mg/kg) and ciprofloxacin (1, 2 and 5 mg/kg) against leptospirosis in a hamster model using Leptospira interrogans serovar Icterohaemorrhagiae. The histopathology and bacterial loads of target organs (liver, kidney and lung) were also studied by treatment with norfloxacin at the dose of 10 mg/kg in this model...
January 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
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