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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437186/leptospira-species-in-feral-cats-and-black-rats-from-western-australia-and-christmas-island
#1
Narelle A Dybing, Caroline Jacobson, Peter Irwin, David Algar, Peter J Adams
Leptospirosis is a neglected, re-emerging bacterial disease with both zoonotic and conservation implications. Rats and livestock are considered the usual sources of human infection, but all mammalian species are capable of carrying Leptospira spp. and transmitting pathogenic leptospires in their urine, and uncertainty remains about the ecology and transmission dynamics of Leptospira in different regions. In light of a recent case of human leptospirosis on tropical Christmas Island, this study aimed to investigate the role of introduced animals (feral cats and black rats) as carriers of pathogenic Leptospira spp...
March 6, 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418764/disease-surveillance-of-california-ground-squirrels-spermophilus-beecheyi-in-a-drive-through-zoo-in-oregon-usa
#2
Julia Ter Beest, Andrew Cushing, Modesto McClean, Wendy Hsu, Robert Bildfell
Rodents and other small wild mammals are often considered to be pests and vectors for disease in zoos that house small populations of valuable threatened and endangered animals. In 2005, three nonhuman primates at a drive-through zoo in Oregon, USA, acquired tularemia from an unknown source. Due to an abundance of California ground squirrels ( Spermophilus beecheyi ) on zoo grounds, we instituted serosurveillance of this species from July through September 2008 to determine the prevalence of antibodies against pathogens considered to be potentially transmissible to collection animals...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410507/high-level-of-il-10-expression-in-the-blood-of-animal-models-possibly-relates-to-resistance-against-leptospirosis
#3
Mariko Matsui, Louise Roche, Marie-Estelle Soupé-Gilbert, Milena Hasan, Didier Monchy, Cyrille Goarant
Leptospirosis is a severe zoonosis which immunopathogenesis is poorly understood. We evaluated correlation between acute form of the disease and the ratio of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 to the pro-inflammatory TNF-α and IL-1β expression during the early phase of infection comparing resistant mice and susceptible hamsters infected with two different species of virulent Leptospira. The IL-10/TNF-α and IL-10/IL-1β expression ratios were higher in mouse compared to hamster independently of the Leptospira strain, suggesting a preponderant role of the host response and notably these cytokines in the clinical expression and survival to leptospirosis...
April 11, 2017: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400758/leptospira-infection-interferes-with-the-prothrombinase-complex-assembly-during-experimental-leptospirosis
#4
Monica L Vieira, Sonia A de Andrade, Zenaide M Morais, Silvio A Vasconcellos, Maria Lucia Z Dagli, Ana Lucia T O Nascimento
Leptospirosis is a worldwide zoonotic and neglected infectious disease of human and veterinary concern, caused by pathogenic Leptospira species. Although bleeding is a common symptom of severe leptospirosis, the cause of hemorrhage is not completely understood. In severe infections, modulation of hemostasis by pathogens is an important virulence mechanism, and hemostatic impairments such as coagulation/fibrinolysis dysfunction are frequently observed. Here, we analyze the coagulation status of experimentally infected hamsters in an attempt to determine coagulation interferences and the origin of leptospirosis hemorrhagic symptomatology...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397515/prevalence-and-renal-pathology-of-pathogenic-i-leptospira-i-spp-in-wildlife-in-abeokuta-ogun-state-nigeria
#5
Olusola L Ajayi, Richard E Antia, Olufemi E Ojo, Olajoju J Awoyomi, Latifa A Oyinlola, Oluwabusola G Ojebiyi
There is paucity of information on the prevalence of leptospirosis in wildlife in Nigeria. This study investigated the prevalence and renal pathology of leptospirosis in wild animals in Southwest Nigeria. One hundred and five kidney samples were examined from 10 different wildlife species (antelope) greater cane rat (GCR), hare, African giant rat (AGR), tree hyrax, civet cat, monitor lizard, python, bushbuck and partridge) using a combination of Ellinghausen McCullough Johnson Harris (EMJH) medium, microscopic agglutination test (MAT), Warthin- Starry silver stain (WSss) and immunohistochemistry...
March 24, 2017: Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396445/cryoem-structure-of-a-prokaryotic-cyclic-nucleotide-gated-ion-channel
#6
Zachary M James, Andrew J Borst, Yoni Haitin, Brandon Frenz, Frank DiMaio, William N Zagotta, David Veesler
Cyclic nucleotide-gated (CNG) and hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-regulated (HCN) ion channels play crucial physiological roles in phototransduction, olfaction, and cardiac pace making. These channels are characterized by the presence of a carboxyl-terminal cyclic nucleotide-binding domain (CNBD) that connects to the channel pore via a C-linker domain. Although cyclic nucleotide binding has been shown to promote CNG and HCN channel opening, the precise mechanism underlying gating remains poorly understood...
April 10, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384550/molecular-detection-and-isolation-of-pathogenic-leptospira-from-asymptomatic-humans-domestic-animals-and-water-sources-in-nan-province-a-rural-area-of-thailand
#7
Alongkorn Kurilung, Pattrarat Chanchaithong, Kittitat Lugsomya, Waree Niyomtham, Vanaporn Wuthiekanun, Nuvee Prapasarakul
Leptospirosis is an important zoonotic disease that is often associated with animal carriers and contamination of the environment via infected urine. This study aimed to assess pathogenic leptospiral carriage in Nan province, a rural area of Thailand where leptospirosis is endemic. Samples from 20 villages were obtained during the period 2013 to 2016, comprising urine samples collected from asymptomatic people (n=37) and domestic animals (n=342), and environmental water samples (n=14). Leptospira were cultured in Ellinghauson McCullough Johnson and Harris (EMJH) media...
March 29, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368857/serovar-prevalence-of-leptospira-in-semirural-india-and-the-development-of-an-igm-based-indirect-elisa
#8
MULTICENTER STUDY
Sara Chandy, Lokeshwaran Kirubanandhan, Priya Hemavathy, Anees Mohammad Khadeeja, Siby Jacob Kurian, Krishnan Venkataraman, Kristine Mørch, Dilip Mathai, Anand Manoharan
INTRODUCTION: Leptospirosis is a major public health problem in India. However, it has been underreported and under-diagnosed due to a lack of awareness of the disease, a functional surveillance system, and appropriate laboratory diagnostic facilities. METHODOLOGY: This multicenter study aimed to understand the Leptospira serovars causing leptospirosis in seven secondary-level hospitals in six states in India. Since early and accurate diagnosis of leptospirosis is one of the challenges faced by clinicians in India due to the poor specificity and sensitivity of commercially available diagnostic systems, an in-house indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed...
March 31, 2017: Journal of Infection in Developing Countries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367783/high-number-of-asymptomatic-dogs-as-leptospiral-carriers-in-an-endemic-area-indicates-a-serious-public-health-concern
#9
R Sant'anna, A S Vieira, J Grapiglia, W Lilenbaum
Asymptomatic dogs can be potential hosts of leptospirosis. However, the extension of this phenomenon in endemic areas has not yet been clearly defined. This study is aimed at evaluating the role of asymptomatic dogs as carriers of Leptospira in an endemic area of Brazil. A total of 131 male dogs without apparent leptospirosis symptoms were included in the study based on clinical and hematologic exams. Serum and urine samples were collected for microscopic agglutination tests (MAT) and polymerase chain reactions (PCR) targeted the LipL32 gene, respectively...
April 3, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365095/human-leptospirosis-occurrence-of-serovars-of-leptospira-spp-in-the-state-of-minas-gerais-brazil-from-2008-to-2012
#10
Marluce Aparecida Assunção Oliveira, Élida Aparecida Leal, Max Assunção Correia, José Carlos Serufo Filho, Ricardo Souza Dias, José Carlos Serufo
BACKGROUND: Leptospirosis is an infectious and acute disease caused by Leptospira spp. that have high epidemic potential. This study verified the main Leptospira spp. serovars detected by MAT from serum of patients with suspicion of leptospirosis from 2008 to 2012 in Minas Gerais State. METHODS: The laboratory received sera from 4654 patients. All serum were screened by IgM-ELISA according to the manufacturer's instructions. Each sample reactive or indeterminate were tested against twenty-four serovars of Leptospira by MAT...
February 10, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Microbiology: [publication of the Brazilian Society for Microbiology]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357803/rainwater-harvesting-in-american-samoa-current-practices-and-indicative-health-risks
#11
Marek Kirs, Philip Moravcik, Pradip Gyawali, Kerry Hamilton, Veljo Kisand, Ian Gurr, Christopher Shuler, Warish Ahmed
Roof-harvested rainwater (RHRW) is an important alternative source of water that many island communities can use for drinking and other domestic purposes when groundwater and/or surface water sources are contaminated, limited, or simply not available. The aim of this pilot-scale study was to investigate current RHRW practices in American Samoa (AS) and to evaluate and compare the quality of water from common potable water sources including RHRW stored in tanks, untreated stream water, untreated municipal well water, and treated municipal tap water samples...
March 30, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357645/seroprevalence-and-risk-factors-for-leptospirosis-in-cattle-sheep-and-goats-at-consorted-rearing-from-the-state-of-piau%C3%A3-northeastern-brazil
#12
Ângela Piauilino Campos, Dayane Francisca Higino Miranda, Huanna Waleska Soares Rodrigues, Micherlene da Silva Carneiro Lustosa, Gustavo Henrique Chaves Martins, Ana Lys Bezerra Barradas Mineiro, Vanessa Castro, Sérgio Santos Azevedo, Silvana Maria Medeiros de Sousa Silva
Leptospirosis is an endemic disease in Latin America, caused by pathogenic bacteria of the genus Leptospira. It is considered one of the main causes responsible for the negative economic impact on global livestock by causing reproductive problems. The research aimed to determine the prevalence of leptospirosis in cattle, sheep, and goats at consorted rearing in the micro-region of Teresina, Piauí state, northeastern Brazil, as well as to identify prevalent serovars and risk factors associated with seroprevalence...
March 29, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351712/bovine-leptospirosis-prevalence-associated-risk-factors-for-infection-and-their-cause-effect-relation
#13
Juscivete F Fávero, Hugo L de Araújo, Walter Lilenbaum, Gustavo Machado, Alexandre A Tonin, Matheus D Baldissera, Lenita M Stefani, Aleksandro S Da Silva
Leptospirosis is a cosmopolitan infectious disease that causes severe reproductive disorders in cattle, especially those related to abortion. This disease has rodents as main reservoirs; however, cattle are responsible for maintenance of the disease. Thus, the aim of this study was to identify the factors associated with infection and cause-effect relation of leptospirosis in dairy herds from Southern of Brazil. Serum samples of 1242 cows were collected from herds classified as of medium and high density, and tested by microscopic agglutination test (MAT)...
March 27, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348601/diversity-of-leptospira-spp-in-rats-and-environment-from-urban-areas-of-sarawak-malaysia
#14
Chai Fung Pui, Lesley Maurice Bilung, Kasing Apun, Lela Su'ut
Various prevalence studies on Leptospira in animals and humans, as well as environmental samples, had been conducted worldwide, including Malaysia. However, limited studies have been documented on the presence of pathogenic, intermediate, and saprophytic Leptospira in selected animals and environments. This study was therefore conducted to detect Leptospira spp. in rats, soil, and water from urban areas of Sarawak using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. A total of 107 rats, 292 soil samples, and 324 water samples were collected from April 2014 to February 2015...
2017: Journal of Tropical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342208/serogroups-and-genotypes-of-leptospira-spp-strains-from-bovine-aborted-foetuses
#15
L Delooz, G Czaplicki, F Gregoire, F Dal Pozzo, F Pez, A Kodjo, C Saegerman
Leptospirosis is a global disease of animals, with potential major economic impact on livestock industry and important zoonotic capacities. The disease represents a major challenge in the developing countries as humans and animals frequently live in close association. The serovar Hardjo of Leptospira whose primary host is cattle has been studied extensively, but few data exist on other current circulating or emerging serotypes. To better understand the disease in cattle and how to prevent and/or control it, it is necessary to identify the genotype and the serotype of circulating Leptospira...
March 24, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341394/serum-biochemical-profile-and-molecular-detection-of-pathogens-in-semen-of-infertile-male-dromedary-camels-camelus-dromedarius
#16
Khaled A Al-Busadah, Sabry M El-Bahr, Abdelmalik I Khalafalla
Detection of pathogens in the semen of camels has not been completely elucidated. Therefore, the current study aimed to determine the association of some economically important pathogens with infertility in 94 male infertile camels through molecular detection and estimation of selected biochemical parameters in serum of these animals compared with a control non infected fertile animals (n=40). PCR analysis of semen samples of infertile camels indicated that, four potential pathogens namely Mycoplasma spp., Leptospira spp...
March 9, 2017: Animal Reproduction Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337203/a-universal-vaccine-against-leptospirosis-are-we-going-in-the-right-direction
#17
André Alex Grassmann, Jéssica Dias Souza, Alan John Alexander McBride
Leptospirosis is the most widespread zoonosis in the world and a neglected tropical disease estimated to cause severe infection in more than one million people worldwide every year that can be combated by effective immunization. However, no significant progress has been made on the leptospirosis vaccine since the advent of bacterins over 100 years. Although protective against lethal infection, particularly in animals, bacterin-induced immunity is considered short term, serovar restricted, and the vaccine can cause serious side effects...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332927/leptospira-spp-in-small-mammals-from-areas-with-low-and-high-human-hantavirus-incidences-in-south-west-germany
#18
Anna Obiegala, Christoph Albrecht, Maysaa Dafalla, Stephan Drewes, Carolin Oltersdorf, Hendrik Turni, Christian Imholt, Jens Jacob, Christiane Wagner-Wiening, Rainer G Ulrich, Martin Pfeffer
INTRODUCTION: Leptospirosis is caused by Leptospira spp. and is considered the most widespread zoonotic disease worldwide. It mimics nephropathia epidemica in humans, a disease mainly caused by Puumala hantavirus (PUUV). Small mammals are reservoirs for Leptospira spp. and PUUV. Seewis virus (SWSV) is a shrew-borne hantavirus with unknown pathogenicity. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence for Leptospira spp. and the frequency of Leptospira-hantavirus co-infections in small mammals collected at locations with high and low incidences in humans...
May 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332640/leptospirosis-in-domestic-animals-in-france-serological-results-from-1988-to-2007
#19
G André-Fontaine
Leptospirosis is a common infection in domestic animals. The microscopic agglutination test (MAT) is used for serological diagnosis. From 1988 to 2007, the Leptospira Medical and Molecular Bacteriology Laboratory at the Nantes National College of Veterinary Medicine, Food Science and Engineering used the MAT to test serum samples from more than 40,000 cattle, 40,000 pigs, 20,000 horses and 9,500 dogs. Five Leptospira serogroups were prominent, with specific variations within the four animal species: Icterohaemorrhagiae, Australis, Sejroë, Grippotyphosa and Autumnalis...
December 2016: Revue Scientifique et Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330585/molecular-detection-of-leptospirosis-and-melioidosis-co-infection-a-case-report
#20
Mohammad Ridhuan Mohd Ali, Amira Wahida Mohamad Safiee, Padmaloseni Thangarajah, Mohd Hashairi Fauzi, Alwi Muhd Besari, Nabilah Ismail, Chan Yean Yean
Leptospirosis and melioidosis are important tropical infections caused by Leptospira and Burkholdheria pseudomallei, respectively. As both infections share similar clinical manifestations yet require different managements, complementary laboratory tests are crucial for the diagnosis. We describe a case of Leptospira and B. pseudomallei co-infection in a diabetic 40-year-old woman with history of visit to a freshwater camping site in northern Malaysia. To our knowledge, this is the first case of such double-infection, simultaneously demonstrated by molecular approach...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Infection and Public Health
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