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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934773/leptospirosis-in-three-workers-on-a-dairy-farm-with-unvaccinated-cattle
#1
Jackie Benschop, Julie Collins-Emerson, Allie Maskill, Patrick O'Connor, Margaret Tunbridge, Yuni Yupiana, Jenny Weston
AIM: We report a one-health investigation of three cases of leptospirosis on a dairy farm with unvaccinated cattle in New Zealand. The cases are discussed in the context of diagnostics, risk factors, persistence of symptoms and outbreak mitigation measures. METHOD: Clinical and laboratory records from the human cases were reviewed and serological and molecular investigations were conducted into the Leptospira status of cattle and pigs on the farm. RESULTS: Cases presented early in their illness and all three were confirmed within seven days of onset of symptoms by urine PCR and within 18 days by convalescent MAT (two Hardjo-bovis, one Pomona)...
September 22, 2017: New Zealand Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926845/leptospirosis-renal-disease-emerging-culprit-of-chronic-kidney-disease-unknown-etiology
#2
Chih-Wei Yang
Leptospirosis is the most prevalent zoonosis affecting more than 1 million populations worldwide. Interestingly, leptospirosis endemic regions coincide with chronic kidney disease (CKD) hotspots largely due to flooding and agricultural overlaps. Acute leptospirosis induces multiple organ dysfunction including acute kidney injury and may predispose to CKD and end-stage renal disease, if not treated timely. Asymptomatic infection may carry the bacteria in the kidney and CKD progresses insidiously. Histologic finding of leptospirosis renal disease includes tubulointerstitial nephritis, interstitial fibrosis, and tubular atrophy...
September 20, 2017: Nephron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923024/sero-epidemiology-study-of-leptospirosis-in-febrile-patients-from-terai-region-of-nepal
#3
Lalmani Regmi, Kishor Pandey, Meena Malla, Santosh Khanal, Basu Dev Pandey
BACKGROUND: Leptospirosis is a re-emerging zoonotic disease caused by pathogenic strains of bacteria belonging to genus Leptospira whose symptoms can range from mild clinical manifestations to a severe life threatening illness. This disease may be under-recognized in resource poor settings like Nepal where many clinical laboratories lack appropriate equipment, technology and personnel for proper diagnosis. METHODS: We used IgM ELISA to estimate the sero-prevalence of leptospirosis in a group of febrile patients in a western region of Nepal...
September 18, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915243/rapid-actionable-diagnosis-of-urban-epidemic-leptospirosis-using-a-pathogenic-leptospira-lipl32-based-real-time-pcr-assay
#4
Irina N Riediger, Robyn A Stoddard, Guilherme S Ribeiro, Sueli M Nakatani, Suzana D R Moreira, Irene Skraba, Alexander W Biondo, Mitermayer G Reis, Alex R Hoffmaster, Joseph M Vinetz, Albert I Ko, Elsio A Wunder
BACKGROUND: With a conservatively estimated 1 million cases of leptospirosis worldwide and a 5-10% fatality rate, the rapid diagnosis of leptospirosis leading to effective clinical and public health decision making is of high importance, and yet remains a challenge. METHODOLOGY: Based on parallel, population-based studies in two leptospirosis-endemic regions in Brazil, a real-time PCR assay which detects lipL32, a gene specifically present in pathogenic Leptospira, was assessed for the diagnostic effectiveness and accuracy...
September 15, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912108/leptospira-borgpetersenii-hybrid-leucine-rich-repeat-protein-cloning-and-expression-immunogenic-identification-and-molecular-docking-evaluation
#5
Tepyuda Sritrakul, Supachai Nitipan, Worawidh Wajjwalku, Anchalee La-Ard, Chattip Suphatpahirapol, Wimol Petkarnjanapong, Boonsong Ongphiphadhanakul, Siriwan Prapong
Leptospirosis is an important zoonotic disease, and the major outbreak of this disease in Thailand in 1999 was due largely to the Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar Sejroe. Identification of the leucine-rich repeat (LRR) LBJ_2271 protein containing immunogenic epitopes and the discovery of the LBJ_2271 ortholog in Leptospira serovar Sejroe, KU_Sej_R21_2271, led to further studies of the antigenic immune properties of KU_Sej_LRR_2271. The recombinant hybrid (rh) protein was created and expressed from a hybrid PCR fragment of KU_Sej_R21_2271 fused with DNA encoding the LBJ_2271 signal sequence for targeting protein as a membrane-anchoring protein...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Microbiological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902845/clinical-and-epidemiologic-characteristics-of-dengue-and-other-etiologic-agents-among-patients-with-acute-febrile-illness-puerto-rico-2012-2015
#6
Kay M Tomashek, Olga D Lorenzi, Doris A Andújar-Pérez, Brenda C Torres-Velásquez, Elizabeth A Hunsperger, Jorge Luis Munoz-Jordan, Janice Perez-Padilla, Aidsa Rivera, Gladys E Gonzalez-Zeno, Tyler M Sharp, Renee L Galloway, Mindy Glass Elrod, Demetrius L Mathis, M Steven Oberste, W Allan Nix, Elizabeth Henderson, Jennifer McQuiston, Joseph Singleton, Cecilia Kato, Carlos García Gubern, William Santiago-Rivera, Jesús Cruz-Correa, Robert Muns-Sosa, Juan D Ortiz-Rivera, Gerson Jiménez, Ivonne E Galarza, Kalanthe Horiuchi, Harold S Margolis, Luisa I Alvarado
Identifying etiologies of acute febrile illnesses (AFI) is challenging due to non-specific presentation and limited availability of diagnostics. Prospective AFI studies provide a methodology to describe the syndrome by age and etiology, findings that can be used to develop case definitions and multiplexed diagnostics to optimize management. We conducted a 3-year prospective AFI study in Puerto Rico. Patients with fever ≤7 days were offered enrollment, and clinical data and specimens were collected at enrollment and upon discharge or follow-up...
September 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893674/seroepidemiology-of-leptospirosis-among-febrile-patients-in-a-rapidly-growing-suburban-slum-and-a-flood-vulnerable-rural-district-in-mozambique-2012-2014-implication-for-the-management-of-fever
#7
Policarpo Ribeiro, Nilesh Bhatt, Sádia Ali, Vanessa Monteiro, Edmilson da Silva, Ilana Teruszkin Balassiano, Carolina Aquino, Nilsa de de Deus, Onelia Guiliche, Argentina Felisbela Muianga, Pascoal Jorge Alho, Virginia Lara Evaristo, Ivan Manhiça, Marco Medeiros, Eduardo Samo Gudo
OBJECTIVE: Leptospirosis, is one of most widespread zoonosis in the world and is caused by spirochetes of the genus Leptospira. In Mozambique, the disease is heavily ignored and its epidemiology is unknown. The objective of this study was to investigate occurrence of leptospirosis in febrile patients. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among febrile patients between June 2012 and September 2015. A total of 373 paired samples were drawn from febrile patients, of whom 208 were from Caia District Hospital (rural setting) in Sofala province and 165 were from Polana Caniço General Hospital (suburban setting) in Maputo city...
September 8, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886097/population-genetics-community-of-parasites-and-resistance-to-rodenticides-in-an-urban-brown-rat-rattus-norvegicus-population
#8
Amélie Desvars-Larrive, Michel Pascal, Patrick Gasqui, Jean-François Cosson, Etienne Benoît, Virginie Lattard, Laurent Crespin, Olivier Lorvelec, Benoît Pisanu, Alexandre Teynié, Muriel Vayssier-Taussat, Sarah Bonnet, Philippe Marianneau, Sandra Lacôte, Pascale Bourhy, Philippe Berny, Nicole Pavio, Sophie Le Poder, Emmanuelle Gilot-Fromont, Elsa Jourdain, Abdessalem Hammed, Isabelle Fourel, Farid Chikh, Gwenaël Vourc'h
Brown rats are one of the most widespread urban species worldwide. Despite the nuisances they induce and their potential role as a zoonotic reservoir, knowledge on urban rat populations remains scarce. The main purpose of this study was to characterize an urban brown rat population from Chanteraines park (Hauts-de-Seine, France), with regards to haematology, population genetics, immunogenic diversity, resistance to anticoagulant rodenticides, and community of parasites. Haematological parameters were measured...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882437/dna-vaccines-against-leptospirosis-a-literature-review
#9
REVIEW
Marcelle Moura Silveira, Thaís Larré Oliveira, Rodrigo Andrade Schuch, Alan John Alexander McBride, Odir Antônio Dellagostin, Daiane Drawanz Hartwig
Leptospirosis is an infectious disease caused by pathogenic Leptospira species. The vaccines that are currently available for leptospirosis are composed of whole-cell preparations and suffer from limitations such as low efficacy, multiple side-effects, poor immunological memory and lack of cross-protection against different serovars of Leptospira spp. In light of the global prevalence of this disease, the development of a more effective vaccine against leptospirosis is of paramount importance. Genetic immunization is a promising alternative to conventional vaccine development...
September 4, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874381/efficacy-of-a-new-recrystallized-enrofloxacin-hydrochloride-dihydrate-against-leptospirosis-in-a-hamster-model
#10
Alma Carrascosa, Lilia Gutierrez, Alejandro De la Peña, Irma E Candanosa, Graciela Tapia, Hector Sumano
A trial on Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) infected with Leptospira interrogans serovar Canicola was established to compare treatment efficacies of daily IM injections of either 10 mg/kg of Baytril® 5% or the same dose of enrofloxacin dihydrate-hydrochloride (enro-C). Hamsters were experimentally infected via oral submucosa with 400 microorganisms/animal, in a sequential time-schedule to align initial treatment day as follows: group BE24 treated with Baytril® daily for 7 days after 24 of infection; group enro-C24 treated with enro-C as in group BE24; group BE74 treated also with Baytril®, but starting 72 h after infection; group enro-C74 treated as group BE74 but injecting enro-C...
September 5, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873022/seroprevalence-of-leptospirosis-brucellosis-and-q-fever-in-a-wild-red-deer-cervus-elaphus-population-kept-in-a-fenced-reserve-in-absence-of-contact-with-livestock
#11
Jose María San-Miguel Ayanz, Francisco Javier Garcia-Peña, Paula García-Lunar, Luis Miguel Ortega-Mora, María José Ruano, Gema Álvarez-García, Esther Collantes-Fernández
Wildlife health is of interest for public and animal health because wild animals have been identified as important sentinels for the surveillance for zoonotic pathogens. This work investigated Brucella spp., Coxiella burnetii, and Leptospira spp. infection seroprevalence in a free-ranging red deer population. The study was conducted in a fenced reserve with controlled hunting activity in central Spain with animals that did not have any contact with livestock. Sampling was performed at two time points before and 5 years after the implementation of new management measures, including a reduction in the red deer population in the reserve...
September 5, 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866698/isolation-by-culture-and-pcr-identification-of-lipl32-gene-of-pathogenic-leptospira-spp-in-wild-rats-of-kuala-lumpur
#12
I Latifah, A Abdul Halim, M S Rahmat, M F Nadia, Z E Ubil, H Asmah, I Shafariatul Akmar, M Picardeau, O Siti Haslina, M A Nasir
BACKGROUND: A study was conducted to confirm the status of rats as the carrier of pathogenic leptospira in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. METHOD: A total of 140 urine samples were collected from trapped rats. These samples were cultured in EMJH enriched media and 18 of these samples (12.9%) were found to be positive when observed under x40 by dark field microscope. Genomic DNA was extracted from all the 18 native isolates for PCR. RESULT: All the 18 isolates generated the expected 786 base pair band when the set of primers known to amplify LipL32 gene were utilized...
August 2017: Malaysian Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861677/seroepidemiological-survey-on-leptospira-spp-infection-in-wild-and-domestic-mammals-in-two-distinct-areas-of-the-semi-arid-region-of-northeastern-brazil
#13
Laís Ferrari Dos Santos, Maíra Freitas Guimarães, Gisele Oliveira de Souza, Ivo Wesley Gomes da Silva, Josenilton Rodrigues Santos, Sérgio Santos Azevedo, Marcelo Bahia Labruna, Marcos Bryan Heinemann, Mauricio Claudio Horta
Leptospirosis is a bacterial zoonotic disease that causes severe reproductive problems in livestock and generates economic losses for farmers. This study aimed to determine the seroprevalence of anti-Leptospira antibodies in small mammals, both wild and domestic, in two distinct areas of the semi-arid region of northeastern Brazil: the National Park of Serra das Confusões (NPSC), state of Piauí, a preserved area; and rural areas in the municipalities of Petrolina and Lagoa Grande, state of Pernambuco, non-preserved areas...
August 31, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28846678/human-leptospirosis-in-seychelles-a-prospective-study-confirms-the-heavy-burden-of-the-disease-but-suggests-that-rats-are-not-the-main-reservoir
#14
Leon Biscornet, Koussay Dellagi, Frédéric Pagès, Jastin Bibi, Jeanine de Comarmond, Julien Mélade, Graham Govinden, Maria Tirant, Yann Gomard, Vanina Guernier, Erwan Lagadec, Jimmy Mélanie, Gérard Rocamora, Gildas Le Minter, Julien Jaubert, Patrick Mavingui, Pablo Tortosa
BACKGROUND: Leptospirosis is a bacterial zoonosis caused by pathogenic Leptospira for which rats are considered as the main reservoir. Disease incidence is higher in tropical countries, especially in insular ecosystems. Our objectives were to determine the current burden of leptospirosis in Seychelles, a country ranking first worldwide according to historical data, to establish epidemiological links between animal reservoirs and human disease, and to identify drivers of transmission. METHODS: A total of 223 patients with acute febrile symptoms of unknown origin were enrolled in a 12-months prospective study and tested for leptospirosis through real-time PCR, IgM ELISA and MAT...
August 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843682/herd-level-prevalence-of-selected-endemic-infectious-diseases-of-dairy-cows-in-great-britain
#15
Martina Velasova, Angela Damaso, Bhagyalakshmi Chengat Prakashbabu, Jenny Gibbons, Nick Wheelhouse, David Longbottom, Steven Van Winden, Martin Green, Javier Guitian
To implement appropriate and effective disease control programs at the national level, up-to-date and unbiased information on disease frequency is needed. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of selected endemic infectious diseases in the population of dairy herds in Great Britain. Bulk milk tank (BMT) samples from 225 randomly selected dairy farms, stratified by region and herd size, were tested for antibodies against bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), bovine herpesvirus type 1, Mycobacterium avium ssp...
August 23, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28841659/pre-treatment-with-lactobacillus-plantarum-prevents-severe-pathogenesis-in-mice-infected-with-leptospira-interrogans-and-may-be-associated-with-recruitment-of-myeloid-cells
#16
Hari-Hara Potula, Luciana Richer, Catherine Werts, Maria Gomes-Solecki
Recent estimates on global morbidity and mortality caused by Leptospirosis point to one million cases and almost 60,000 deaths a year worldwide, especially in resource poor countries. We analyzed how a commensal probiotic immunomodulator, Lactobacillus plantarum, affects Leptospira interrogans pathogenesis in a murine model of sub-lethal leptospirosis. We found that repeated oral pre-treatment of mice with live L. plantarum restored body weight to normal levels in mice infected with L. interrogans. Pre-treatment did not prevent L...
August 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28839519/lingual-microbiota-profiles-of-patients-with-geographic-tongue
#17
Amal Dafar, Maria Bankvall, Hülya Çevik-Aras, Mats Jontell, Fei Sjöberg
Geographic tongue (GT) is an oral mucosal lesion that affects the tongue. The association between GT and the bacterial colonization profiles of the tongue is not clear. Lingual swabs were collected from lesion sites and healthy sites of 35 patients with GT (19 males and 16 females; Mage = 54.3 ± 16.1 years) and 22 controls (12 males and 10 females; Mage = 56.3 ± 15.8 years). Bacterial DNA was extracted and sequenced by next-generation sequencing. At the phylum level, Fusobacteria were significantly less abundant, while Spirochaetes were significantly more abundant in GT patients compared to controls...
2017: Journal of Oral Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827637/active-components-of-leptospira-outer-membrane-protein-lipl32-to-toll-like-receptor-2
#18
Shen-Hsing Hsu, Cheng-Chieh Hung, Ming-Yang Chang, Yi-Ching Ko, Huang-Yu Yang, Hsiang-Hao Hsu, Ya-Chung Tian, Li-Fang Chou, Rong-Long Pan, Fan-Gang Tseng, Chih-Wei Yang
Proteins belonging to the toll-like receptor (TLR) family, particularly TLR2, are the major components of innate immunity against Leptospira infection. The ligands for TLR2 harbor several conserved patterns such as lipidation molecules, leucine-rich repeat (LRR) domains, TLR2 binding motifs, and TLR2 binding structure. In Leptospira, LipL32 interacts with TLR2 on human kidney cells concomitantly stimulating inflammatory responses. However, the binding mechanism of LipL32 to TLR2 is unknown. The computational prediction suggests that β1β2, loop-α3-loop, and α4 domains of LipL32 play vital roles in LipL32-TLR2 complex formation...
August 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820712/scrub-typhus-as-an-etiology-of-acute-febrile-illness-in-gorakhpur-uttar-pradesh-india-2016
#19
Jeromie Wesley Vivian Thangraj, Mahima Mittal, Valsan Philip Verghese, C P Girish Kumar, Winsley Rose, R Sabarinathan, Ashok Kumar Pandey, Nivedita Gupta, Manoj Murhekar
Seasonal outbreaks of acute encephalitis syndrome (AES) with high mortality occur every year in Gorakhpur region of Uttar Pradesh, India. Earlier studies indicated the role of scrub typhus as the important etiology of AES in the region. AES cases were hospitalized late in the course of their illness. We established surveillance for acute febrile illness (AFI) (fever ≥ 4 days duration) in peripheral health facilities in Gorakhpur district to understand the relative contribution of scrub typhus. Of the 224 patients enrolled during the 3-month period corresponding to the peak of AES cases in the region, about one-fifth had immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies against Orientia tsutsugamushi...
August 14, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818623/leptospira-species-molecular-epidemiology-in-the-genomic-era
#20
K Caimi, S A Repetto, V Varni, P Ruybal
Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease which global burden is increasing often related to climatic change. Hundreds of whole genome sequences from worldwide isolates of Leptospira spp. are available nowadays, together with online tools that permit to assign MLST sequence types (STs) directly from raw sequence data. In this work we have applied R7L-MLST to near 500 genomes and strains collection globally distributed. All 10 pathogenic species as well as intermediate were typed using this MLST scheme. The correlation observed between STs and serogroups in our previous work, is still satisfied with this higher dataset sustaining the implementation of MLST to assist serological classification as a complementary approach...
August 15, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
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