Read by QxMD icon Read


Mark Moseley, Soanandrasana Rahelinirina, Minoarisoa Rajerison, Benoit Garin, Stuart Piertney, Sandra Telfer
We identified mixed infections of pathogenic Leptospira in small mammals across a landscape-scale study area in Madagascar by using primers targeting different Leptospira spp. Using targeted primers increased prevalence estimates and evidence for transmission between endemic and invasive hosts. Future studies should assess rodentborne transmission of Leptospira to humans.
June 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Hui-Ju Han, Hong-Ling Wen, Jian-Wei Liu, Xiang-Rong Qin, Min Zhao, Li-Jun Wang, Li-Mei Luo, Chuan-Min Zhou, Ye-Lei Zhu, Rui Qi, Wen-Qian Li, Hao Yu, Xue-Jie Yu
PCR amplification of the rrs2 gene indicated that 50% (62/124) of insectivorous bats from eastern China were infected with Leptospira borgpetersenii, L. kirschneri, and several potentially new Leptospira species. Multilocus sequence typing defined 3 novel sequence types in L. kirschneri, suggesting that bats are major carriers of Leptospira.
June 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Elís Rosélia Dutra de Freitas Siqueira Silva, Vanessa Castro, Ana Lys Bezerra Barradas Mineiro, Maria das Graças Prianti, Gustavo Henrique Chaves Martins, Misael das Virgens Santana, Lucas Moreira Brito, Silvana Maria Medeiros de Sousa Silva
Leptospirosis is a worldwide zoonosis whose transmission is interlinked by multiple factors in the man-animal-ecosystem interface. This study aimed to evaluate the risk factors for the occurrence of anti-Leptospira antibodies in dogs in the capital Teresina (PI), and to determine their spatial distribution. Five hundred fifty-eight dog blood samples were submitted to the Microscopic Serum Agglutination (MSA) test. We applied semi-structured questionnaires to dog owners and obtained the area of residence for projection in geographical maps...
May 2018: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
Sara Zaidi, Amar Bouam, Amina Bessas, Djamila Hezil, Hicham Ghaoui, Khatima Ait-Oudhia, Michel Drancourt, Idir Bitam
BACKGROUND: Leptospirosis is an important worldwide zoonosis. This disease is caused by pathogenic species of the genus Leptospira which are maintained in the environment via chronic renal infection of carrier animals which can be asymptomatic excretors of the organisms in their urines and become a source of infection for humans and other hosts. The prevalence of animal leptospirosis in Algiers, Algeria, is unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Real-time PCR and standard PCR and sequencing were used to detect pathogenic Leptospira organisms in the urines of stray dogs and cats in Algiers...
2018: PloS One
Roman Thibeaux, Dominique Girault, Emilie Bierque, Marie-Estelle Soupé-Gilbert, Anna Rettinger, Anthony Douyère, Michael Meyer, Gregorio Iraola, Mathieu Picardeau, Cyrille Goarant
Leptospirosis is an important environmental disease and a major threat to human health causing at least 1 million clinical infections annually. There has recently been a growing interest in understanding the environmental lifestyle of Leptospira . However, Leptospira isolation from complex environmental samples is difficult and time-consuming and few tools are available to identify Leptospira isolates at the species level. Here, we propose a polyphasic isolation and identification scheme, which might prove useful to recover and identify environmental isolates and select those to be submitted to whole-genome sequencing...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Guohui Xiao, Liangliang Kong, Rongbo Che, Yusi Yi, Qinchao Zhang, Jie Yan, Xu'ai Lin
Leptospirosis is a widespread zoonotic disease caused by pathogenic Leptospira species. The most common species, Leptospira interrogans , can transfer from contaminated soil or water to the human body. It is able to survive these changing environments through sensing and responding to the changes of environmental cues. Cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) is a special secondary messenger in bacteria, which can respond to the environment and regulate diverse bacterial behaviors. The c-di-GMP levels in bacterial cells are regulated by diguanylatecyclases (DGC) and phosphodiesterases (PDE), which are responsible for synthesizing or hydrolyzing c-di-GMP, respectively...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Garba Bashiru, Abdul Rani Bahaman
Considerable progress has been made in the field of leptospiral vaccines development since its first use as a killed vaccine in guinea pigs. Despite the fact that the immunity conferred is restricted to serovars with closely related lipopolysaccharide antigen, certain vaccines have remained useful, especially in endemic regions, for the protection of high-risk individuals. Other conventional vaccines such as the live-attenuated vaccine and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) vaccine have not gained popularity due to the reactive response that follows their administration and the lack of understanding of the pathogenesis of leptospirosis...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Medical Research
Noraini Philip, Bashiru Garba, Vasantha Kumari Neela
Preservation of leptospiral cultures is tantamount to success in leptospiral diagnostics, research, and development of preventive strategies. Each Leptospira isolate has imperative value not only in disease diagnosis but also in epidemiology, virulence, pathogenesis, and drug development studies. As the number of circulating leptospires is continuously increasing and congruent with the importance to retain their original characteristics and properties, an efficient long-term preservation is critically needed to be well-established...
May 8, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Tamara Ricardo, Laura C Bergero, Esteban P Bulgarella, M Andrea Previtali
BACKGROUND: Leptospirosis is a global and re-emerging zoonotic disease caused by Leptospira spirochetes that are shed into the environment by infected animals. Humans can get infected via contact with animal hosts or contaminated environment. In Argentina, the highest annual incidences were reported in the province of Santa Fe, where epidemic outbreaks occurred during flooding events. This study examined the knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) regarding leptospirosis among residents of riverside slum settlements from Santa Fe after a major flood...
May 7, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Munirah Hishamshah, Norazah Ahmad, Hishamshah Mohd Ibrahim, Nurul Atiqah Nur Halim, Salbiah Nawi, Fairuz Amran
PURPOSE: In this study, we aim to describe and compare the demographical, clinical and laboratory features of leptospirosis and dengue co-infections (LDCI) against single leptospirosis infections in Malaysia. METHODOLOGY: Data of patients admitted to various hospitals in Malaysia from 2011 to 2015 diagnosed with leptospirosis in our laboratory were obtained from their admission records. Co-infection with dengue was determined by collecting dengue serology results...
May 4, 2018: Journal of Medical Microbiology
Kumari Snehkant Lata, Swapnil Kumar, Vibhisha Vaghasia, Priyanka Sharma, Shivarudrappa B Bhairappanvar, Subhash Soni, Jayashankar Das
Leptospirosis is the most widespread zoonotic disease, estimated to cause severe infection in more than one million people each year, particularly in developing countries of tropical areas. Several factors such as variable and nonspecific clinical manifestation, existence of large number of serovars and asymptomatic hosts spreading infection, poor sanitation and lack of an effective vaccine make prophylaxis difficult. Consequently, there is an urgent need to develop an effective vaccine to halt its spread all over the world...
May 2, 2018: Scientific Reports
Kerri Pedersen, Theodore D Anderson, Rachel M Maison, Gerald W Wiscomb, Michael J Pipas, David R Sinnett, John A Baroch, Thomas Gidlewski
From 2011 to 2017, 4,534 serum samples from 13 wildlife species collected across the US and in one territory (US Virgin Islands) were tested for exposure to Leptospira serovars Bratislava, Canicola, Grippotyphosa, Hardjo, Icterohaemorrhagiae, and Pomona. Of 1,759 canids, 1,043 cervids, 23 small Indian mongooses ( Herpestes auropunctatus), 1,704 raccoons ( Procyon lotor), and five striped skunks ( Mephitis mephitis), 27.0%, 44.4%, 30.4%, 40.8%, and 60%, respectively, were antibody positive for any of the six serovars...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Helen J Mayfield, John H Lowry, Conall H Watson, Mike Kama, Eric J Nilles, Colleen L Lau
BACKGROUND: Leptospirosis is a globally important zoonotic disease, with complex exposure pathways that depend on interactions between human beings, animals, and the environment. Major drivers of outbreaks include flooding, urbanisation, poverty, and agricultural intensification. The intensity of these drivers and their relative importance vary between geographical areas; however, non-spatial regression methods are incapable of capturing the spatial variations. This study aimed to explore the use of geographically weighted logistic regression (GWLR) to provide insights into the ecoepidemiology of human leptospirosis in Fiji...
May 2018: Lancet. Planetary Health
Arnau Casanovas-Massana, Gabriel Ghizzi Pedra, Elsio A Wunder, Peter J Diggle, Mike Begon, Albert I Ko
Leptospira interrogans is the etiological agent of leptospirosis, a globally distributed zoonotic disease. Human infection usually occurs through skin exposure with water and soil contaminated with the urine of chronically infected animals. In this study, we aimed to quantitatively characterize the survival of Leptospira interrogans serovar Copenhageni in environmental matrices. We constructed laboratory microcosms to simulate natural conditions and determined the persistence of DNA markers in soil, mud, spring water and sewage using a qPCR and a PMA-qPCR assay...
April 27, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Somayeh Namroodi, Amir S Shirazi, Seyyed Reza Khaleghi, James N Mills, Vahid Kheirabady
Canine distemper virus (CDV), Leptospira interrogans, and Toxoplasma gondii are potentially lethal pathogens associated with decline in marine mammal populations. The Caspian Sea is home for the endangered Caspian seal (Pusa caspica). In the late 1990s and early 2000s, CDV caused a series of mortality events involving at least several thousand Caspian seals. To assess current infection status in Caspian seals, we surveyed for antibodies to three pathogens with potential to cause mortality in marine mammals...
2018: PloS One
Dieter Bulach, Ben Adler
Until about 15 years ago, the molecular and cellular basis for pathogenesis in leptospirosis was virtually unknown. The determination of the first full genome sequence in 2003 was followed rapidly by other whole genome sequences, whose availability facilitated the development of transposon mutagenesis and then directed mutagenesis of pathogenic Leptospira spp. The combination of genomics, transcriptomics and mutant construction and characterisation has resulted in major progress in our understanding of the taxonomy and biology of Leptospira...
April 26, 2018: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
Veerapandian Raja, Sankaran Sobana, Charles Solomon Akino Mercy, Bianca Cotto, Durlav Prasad Bora, Kalimuthusamy Natarajaseenivasan
The emergence of >300 serovars of Leptospira confounded the use of generalized bacterin, the whole cell lysate, as vaccines to control leptospirosis. Because of substantial genetic and geographic heterogeneity among circulating serovars, one vaccine strain per serovar cannot be efficacious against all the serovars. We have performed heterologous DNA prime-protein boost vaccination challenge studies in hamsters using in vivo expressed, leptospiral recombinase A (RecA) and flagellar hook associated protein (FliD)...
April 24, 2018: Scientific Reports
Daniel Karcher, Rafaella C Grenfell, Andrea Micke Moreno, Luisa Zanolli Moreno, Silvio Arruda Vasconcellos, Marcos B Heinemann, Joao N de Almeida Junior, Luiz Juliano, Maria A Juliano
Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization and Time of Flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) is a powerful tool for the identification of bacteria through the detection and analysis of their proteins or fragments derived from ribosomes. Slight sequence variations in conserved ribosomal proteins distinguish microorganisms at the subspecies and strain levels. Characterization of Leptospira spp. by 16S RNA sequencing is costly and time-consuming, and recent studies have shown that closely related species (e...
April 13, 2018: Brazilian Journal of Microbiology: [publication of the Brazilian Society for Microbiology]
Fairuz Amran, Yii Ling Liow, Nurul Atiqah Noor Halim
Leptospirosis is a febrile zoonotic disease. Routine diagnosis of leptospirosis is based on the detection of specific antibodies with serological tests. The aim of our study was to determine the usefulness of immunochromatographic assay (ICA), ImmuneMed Leptospira IgM Duo Rapid test kit from Korea, in rapid screening of acute leptospirosis in emergency cases with limited expertise. A total of 197 serum samples (93 positive, 104 negative) were selected randomly. The test has good diagnostic sensitivity 73% and specificity 90%...
April 23, 2018: Journal of Korean Medical Science
Jarlath E Nally, Richard L Hornsby, David P Alt, Darrell Bayles, Jennifer H Wilson-Welder, Debra E Palmquist, Nathan E Bauer
Pathogenic leptospires colonize the renal tubules of reservoir hosts of infection, including cattle, and are excreted via urine. In order to identify circulating serovars of pathogenic leptospires in beef cattle, and their associated rates of urinary excretion, a cross sectional study was performed. Fifty urine samples were collected one day each month over 12 consecutive months (N = 600), directly from the bladder of beef cattle at a single slaughter facility and assessed for the presence of leptospires by culture and the fluorescent antibody test (FAT)...
May 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"