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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350160/effects-of-culling-on-leptospira-interrogans-carriage-by-rats
#1
Michael J Lee, Kaylee A Byers, Christina M Donovan, Julie J Bidulka, Craig Stephen, David M Patrick, Chelsea G Himsworth
We found that lethal, urban rat control is associated with a significant increase in the odds that surviving rats carry Leptospira interrogans. Our results suggest that human interventions have the potential to affect and even increase the prevalence of zoonotic pathogens within rat populations.
February 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349716/detection-of-bovine-carriers-of-leptospira-by-serological-bacteriological-and-molecular-tools
#2
Melissa H Pinna, Gabriel Martins, Ana Paula Loureiro, Walter Lilenbaum
Bovine leptospirosis is an important infectious disease that causes reproductive problems and economic risks, particularly in the tropics. The present study aimed to determine the extent of Leptospira infection among bovines on a slaughterhouse from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil via serological, bacteriological, and molecular tests. Two hundred eight bovines were examined in total, and we obtained 208 blood samples for serology, 198 urine samples collected via direct bladder puncture for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and culture, 208 kidney samples (one from each animal) for PCR and culture, and 92 vaginal fluid samples from sterile swabs for PCR and culture...
January 18, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340468/serosurvey-of-leptospira-spp-and-toxoplasma-gondii-in-rats-captured-from-two-zoos-in-southern-brazil
#3
Maysa Pellizzaro, Francisco de Oliveira Conrado, Camila Marinelli Martins, Sâmea Fernandes Joaquim, Fernando Ferreira, Helio Langoni, Alexander Welker Biondo
INTRODUCTION: Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) are zoonotic reservoirs for Leptospira spp. and Toxoplasma gondii, and influence diseases in urban areas. METHODS: Free-ranging and laboratory-raised rats from two zoos in southern Brazil were tested for Leptospira spp. and T. gondii using microscopic agglutination and modified agglutination tests, respectively. RESULTS: Overall, 25.6% and 4.6% free-ranging rats tested positive for Leptospira spp...
November 2017: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327530/splenic-abscess-caused-by-salmonella-typhi-and-co-infection-with-leptospira
#4
Monalisa Sahu, Arvind Kumar, Neeraj Nischal, B G Bharath, Smita Manchanda, Naveet Wig
Splenic abscesses caused by Salmonella typhi are a very rare complication of typhoid fever in this era of use of specific antibiotics. Co-infection with Leptospira in such a patient is even rarer. Clinical diagnosis of splenic abscess caused by Salmonella is difficult owing to its rarity, being insidious in onset and having nonspecific clinical presentation. Splenic abscesses are potentially fatal complication of typhoid fever. In most of these patients, hemoglobinopathies or some other underlying immunocompromised state is usually present...
December 2017: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326966/transcriptome-datasets-of-macrophages-infected-with-different-strains-of-leptospira-spp
#5
Erivelto Corrêa de Araújo Junior, Leandro Encarnação Garcia, Larissa Martins Melo, Jaqueline Poleto Bragato, Valéria Marçal Félix de Lima, Juliana Regina Peiró, Flavia Lombardi Lopes, Márcia Marinho
The datasets reported herein provide information about microarray experiment of macrophage cell line J774A.1 infected with three different strains of Leptospira spp. Transcriptomic profiles were generated using Affymetrix® Mouse Gene 2.1 ST Array Strip. Data was normalized and statically process, p-value < 0.01, FDR < 0.05 and log2 fold change (± 2). The microarray raw data are available in Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) under accession number GSE105141.
February 2018: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326780/cardiac-magnetic-resonance-of-myocardial-involvement-in-leptospirosis
#6
Onkar B Auti, Kanav Kansal, K V Shrikanth, Vimal Raj
Leptospirosis is a zoonotic infection caused by the Leptospira interrogans. Although it is endemic in tropical countries, global incidence has increased in several temperate and developed regions. Here, we present a cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) and multidetector computer tomography (MDCT) chest features of active systemic leptospiral infection in a 19-year-old male. The MDCT appearances of lungs and CMR appearances of myocardium in icteric leptospirosis are described. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment is important to manage the cardiothoracic complications...
October 2017: Heart Views: the Official Journal of the Gulf Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322764/rapid-veterinary-diagnosis-of-bovine-reproductive-infectious-diseases-from-semen-using-paper-origami-dna-microfluidics
#7
Zhugen Yang, Gaolian Xu, Julien Reboud, Syed Atif Ali, Gurpreet Kaur, John McGiven, Nongthombam Boby, Praveen Gupta, Pallab Chaudhuri, Jonathan Mark Cooper
The health and well-being of cattle is a significant concern for global agricultural output. In dairy production within low and middle income countries (LMICs), there is a significant biosensing challenge in detecting sexually transmitted infection (STI) pathogens during animal husbandry, due in part to difficulties associated with the limited infrastructure for veterinary medicine. Here we demonstrate low-cost, multiplexed and sample-to-answer paper-origami tests for the detection of three bovine infectious reproductive diseases in semen samples, collected at a test site in rural India...
January 11, 2018: ACS Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318786/detection-of-pathogenic-leptospira-species-associated-with-phyllostomid-bats-mammalia-chiroptera-from-veracruz-mexico
#8
G G Ballados-González, S Sánchez-Montes, D Romero-Salas, P Colunga Salas, R Gutiérrez-Molina, L León-Paniagua, I Becker, M L Méndez-Ojeda, C Barrientos-Salcedo, R Serna-Lagunes, A Cruz-Romero
The genus Leptospira encompass 22 species of spirochaetes, with ten pathogenic species that have been recorded in more than 160 mammals worldwide. In the last two decades, the numbers of records of these agents associated with bats have increased exponentially, particularly in America. Although order Chiroptera represents the second most diverse order of mammals in Mexico, and leptospirosis represents a human and veterinary problem in the country, few studies have been conducted to identify potential wildlife reservoirs...
January 10, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310748/deciphering-the-unexplored-leptospira-diversity-from-soils-uncovers-genomic-evolution-to-virulence
#9
Roman Thibeaux, Gregorio Iraola, Ignacio Ferrés, Emilie Bierque, Dominique Girault, Marie-Estelle Soupé-Gilbert, Mathieu Picardeau, Cyrille Goarant
Despite recent advances in our understanding of the genomics of members of the genus Leptospira, little is known on how virulence has emerged in this heterogeneous bacterial genus as well as on the lifestyle of pathogenic members of the genus Leptospira outside animal hosts. Here, we isolated 12 novel species of the genus Leptospira from tropical soils, significantly increasing the number of known species to 35 and finding evidence of highly unexplored biodiversity in the genus. Extended comparative phylogenomics and pan-genome analyses at the genus level by incorporating 26 novel genomes, revealed that, the traditional leptospiral 'pathogens' cluster, as defined by their phylogenetic position, can be split in two groups with distinct virulence potential and accessory gene patterns...
January 3, 2018: Microbial Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305960/antibiotic-susceptibilities-of-livestock-isolates-of-leptospira
#10
Geoffroy Liegeon, Tristan Delory, Mathieu Picardeau
Leptospirosis is the most common zoonotic disease and is endemic worldwide. The antibiotic susceptibilities of Leptospira isolated from both humans and animals are poorly documented. This issue is particularly important for isolates from food-producing animals which are regularly exposed to antibiotic treatments. In this study, we assess the susceptibility of 35 Leptospira strains isolated from food-producing animals of diverse geographical origins between 1936 and 2016 to the antimicrobial agents most commonly used in animals...
January 3, 2018: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303684/patterns-of-exposure-of-carnivores-to-selected-pathogens-in-the-betampona-natural-reserve-landscape-madagascar
#11
Fidisoa Rasambainarivo, Mamy Navalona Andriamihajarivo, Edward Dubovi, Patricia G Parker
Carnivores of Madagascar are at increased risk of extinction due to anthropogenic loss of habitat, hunting, and interactions with introduced carnivores. Interactions between introduced and native animals also present the potential for introduction of pathogens into new geographic areas or host species. Here, we provide serologic data regarding pathogen exposure of domestic and native carnivores from the Betampona Natural Reserve Landscape, a protected area in eastern Madagascar. For the Eupleridae, we found limited evidence of exposure to viruses from domestic animals but greater prevalence for Toxoplasma gondii (39%) and Leptospira interrogans (40%)...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298408/exposure-to-rats-and-rat-associated-leptospira-and-bartonella-species-among-people-who-use-drugs-in-an-impoverished-inner-city-neighborhood-of-vancouver-canada
#12
David A McVea, Chelsea G Himsworth, David M Patrick, L Robbin Lindsay, Michael Kosoy, Thomas Kerr
Rat infestations are common, particularly in impoverished, inner-city neighborhoods. However, there has been little research into the nature and consequences of rat exposure in these neighborhoods, particularly in Canada. In this study, we sought to characterize exposure to rats and rat-associated Leptospira interrogans and Bartonella tribocorum, as well as risk factors associated with exposure, in residents (n = 202) of the Downtown Eastside (DTES) neighborhood of Vancouver, Canada. There was no evidence of exposure to rat-associated L...
January 3, 2018: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290296/herd-level-risk-factors-associated-with-leptospira-hardjo-infection-in-dairy-herds-in-the-southern-tohoku-japan
#13
Takeshi Miyama, Eiji Watanabe, Yoshimi Ogata, Yoshiro Urushiyama, Naoya Kawahara, Kohei Makita
A cross-sectional study was designed to generate information on the herd level prevalence and the risk factors for Leptospira serovar Hardjo (L. Hardjo) in Yamagata, the southern Tohoku, Japan. Bulk tank milk samples from 109 dairy herds were used to test the herd level sero-prevalence of L. Hardjo using a commercial ELISA kit, which detects both L. interrogans serovar Hardjo and L. borgpetersenii serovar Hardjo. A questionnaire survey was conducted at the sampled farms, and univariable and multivariable analyses were performed...
January 1, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287070/a-diagnostic-and-epidemiologic-investigation-of-acute-febrile-illness-afi-in-kilombero-tanzania
#14
Christine Hercik, Leonard Cosmas, Ondari D Mogeni, Newton Wamola, Wanze Kohi, Victor Omballa, Melvin Ochieng, Shirley Lidechi, Juma Bonventure, Caroline Ochieng, Clayton Onyango, Barry S Fields, Sayoki Mfinanga, Joel M Montgomery
INTRODUCTION: In low-resource settings, empiric case management of febrile illness is routine as a result of limited access to laboratory diagnostics. The use of comprehensive fever syndromic surveillance, with enhanced clinical microbiology, advanced diagnostics and more robust epidemiologic investigation, could enable healthcare providers to offer a differential diagnosis of fever syndrome and more appropriate care and treatment. METHODS: We conducted a year-long exploratory study of fever syndrome among patients ≥ 1 year if age, presenting to clinical settings with an axillary temperature of ≥37...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286406/high-throughput-parallel-sequencing-to-measure-fitness-of-leptospira-interrogans-transposon-insertion-mutants-during-golden-syrian-hamster-infection
#15
Kristel Lourdault, James Matsunaga, Karen V Evangelista, David A Haake
In this manuscript, we describe a transposon sequencing (Tn-Seq) technique to identify and quantify Leptospira interrogans mutants altered in fitness during infection of Golden Syrian hamsters. Tn-Seq combines random transposon mutagenesis with the power of high-throughput sequencing technology. Animals are challenged with a pool of transposon mutants (input pool), followed by harvesting of blood and tissues a few days later to identify and quantify the number of mutants in each organ (output pools). The output pools are compared to the input pool to evaluate the in vivo fitness of each mutant...
December 18, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284246/changes-in-leptospirosis-etiology-in-animals-and-humans
#16
Natalia Vasylieva, Mykhaylo Andreychyn, Yulia Kravchuk, Оlena Chervinska, Iaryna Iosyk
INTRODUCTION: Leptospirosis is endemic in Ternopil region. In Ukraine, the disease is registered in almost all regions, including the Ternopil region. The aim of the research is to study the regularities of epidemic and epizootic processes of leptospirosis, and the circulation of its pathogens among different sources (small mammals, animals) and humans. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Etiologic spectrum of leptospirosis registered in Ternopil region in 1972-2016 among small mammals, farm animals and sick people was studied...
December 23, 2017: Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine: AAEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280432/a-combined-syndromic-approach-to-examine-viral-bacterial-and-parasitic-agents-among-febrile-patients-a-pilot-study-in-kilombero-tanzania
#17
Christine Hercik, Leonard Cosmas, Ondari D Mogeni, Newton Wamola, Wanze Kohi, Eric Houpt, Jie Liu, Caroline Ochieng, Clayton Onyango, Barry Fields, Sayoki Mfinanga, Joel M Montgomery
The use of fever syndromic surveillance in sub-Saharan Africa is an effective approach to determine the prevalence of both malarial and nonmalarial infectious agents. We collected both blood and naso/oro-pharyngeal (NP/OP) swabs from consecutive consenting patients ≥ 1 year of age, with an axillary temperature ≥ 37.5°C, and symptom onset of ≤ 5 days. Specimens were analyzed using both acute febrile illness (AFI) and respiratory TaqMan array cards (TAC) for multiagent detection of 56 different bloodstream and respiratory agents...
December 26, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279785/leptospira-seroprevalence-in-domestic-dogs-and-cats-on-the-caribbean-island-of-saint-kitts
#18
Nicola Pratt, Anne Conan, Sreekumari Rajeev
Leptospirosis is an important bacterial zoonotic disease that affects humans and many animal species. Knowledge of prevalence of Leptospira in a given geographic region supports the implementation of effective control/prevention programmes and thus reduces the transmission risks. This study provides Leptospira seroprevalence and serovar distribution in dogs and cats on the Caribbean island of Saint Kitts. Convenient serum samples from domestic dogs (n = 101) and cats (n = 50) were tested by the microscopic agglutination test (MAT) using 21 Leptospira serovars belonging to 17 serogroups...
2017: Veterinary Medicine International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277333/isolation-of-leptospira-kmetyi-from-residential-areas-of-patients-with-leptospirosis-in-kelantan-malaysia
#19
Mohammad Ridhuan Mohd Ali, Amira Wahida Mohamad Safiee, Nik Yuszrin Yusof, Mohd Hashairi Fauzi, Chan Yean Yean, Nabilah Ismail
BACKGROUND: Environmental sampling provides important information that enhances the understanding of the leptospiral human-environment-animal relationship. Several studies have described the distribution of Leptospira in the environment. However, more targeted sites, that is, areas surrounding leptospirosis patients' houses, remain under-explored. Therefore, this study aims to detect the presence of Leptospira spp. in the residential areas of patients with leptospirosis. METHODS: Soil and water samples near leptospirosis patients' residences were collected, processed and cultured into EMJH media...
December 22, 2017: Journal of Infection and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239713/leptospira-venezuelensis-sp-nov-a-new-member-of-the-intermediate-group-isolated-from-rodents-cattle-and-humans
#20
Rafael Puche, Ignacio Ferrés, Lizeth Caraballo, Yaritza Rangel, Mathieu Picardeau, Howard Takiff, Gregorio Iraola
Three strains, CLM-U50T, CLM-R50 and IVIC-Bov1, belonging to the genus Leptospira, were isolated in Venezuela from a patient with leptospirosis, a domestic rat (Rattus norvegicus) and a cow (Bos taurus), respectively. The initial characterisation of these strains based on the rrs gene (16S rRNA) suggested their designation as a novel species within the 'intermediates' group of the genus Leptospira. Further phylogenomic characterisation based on single copy core genes was consistent with their separation into a novel species...
December 14, 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
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