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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904956/day-flying-moths-are-smaller-evidence-for-ecological-costs-of-being-large
#1
Toomas Tammaru, Niko R Johansson, Erki Õunap, Robert B Davis
Research on evolutionary forces determining optimal body sizes has primarily relied on experimental evaluation of respective selective pressures. Accounting for among-species variation through application of phylogenetic comparative methods is a complementary though little used approach. It enables the direct association of body size values with particular environments. Using phylogenetically explicit comparative analyses, we show that small body size is associated with diurnal (rather than nocturnal) activity of adults among temperate species of the moth family Geometridae...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904391/midday-depression-vs-midday-peak-in-diurnal-light-interception-contrasting-patterns-at-crown-and-leaf-scales-in-a-tropical-evergreen-tree
#2
Agustina Ventre-Lespiaucq, Nicola S Flanagan, Nhora H Ospina-Calderón, Juan A Delgado, Adrián Escudero
Crown architecture usually is heterogeneous as a result of foraging in spatially and temporally heterogeneous light environments. Ecologists are only beginning to identify the importance of temporal heterogeneity for light acquisition in plants, especially at the diurnal scale. Crown architectural heterogeneity often leads to a diurnal variation in light interception. However, maximizing light interception during midday may not be an optimal strategy in environments with excess light. Instead, long-lived plants are expected to show crown architectures and leaf positions that meet the contrasting needs of light interception and avoidance of excess light on a diurnal basis...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29902747/elucidating-the-relationship-between-aerosol-concentration-and-summertime-boundary-layer-structure-in-central-china
#3
Lin Liu, Jianping Guo, Yucong Miao, Lin Liu, Jian Li, Dandan Chen, Jing He, Chunguang Cui
Wuhan, a megacity in central China, suffers from frequent aerosol pollution and is accompanied by meteorological factors at both synoptic and local scales. Partly due to the lack of appropriate observations of planetary boundary layer (PBL), the associations between synoptic conditions, PBL, and pollution there are not yet fully understood. Thus, systematic analyses were conducted using the fine-resolution soundings, surface meteorological measurements, and aerosol observations in Wuhan during summer for the period 2013-2016, in combination with T-mode principal component analysis and simulations of backward trajectory...
June 11, 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29902095/diurnal-variations-of-foveoschisis-by-optical-coherence-tomography-in-patients-with-rs1-x-linked-juvenile-retinoschisis
#4
Maria Fernanda Abalem, David C Musch, David G Birch, Mark E Pennesi, John R Heckenlively, Thiran Jayasundera
BACKGROUND: To evaluate diurnal variations in macular schisis cavities in patients with X-linked juvenile retinoschisis (XLRS) with pathogenic variants in the RS1 gene using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). METHODS: Three consecutive patients with a clinical diagnosis of XLRS and pathogenic variants in the RS1, treated with carbonic anhydrase inhibitors (CAIs). Observational procedures: SD-OCT scans of the macula were acquired at 9 a.m., 1 p...
June 14, 2018: Ophthalmic Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29900145/daily-weather-conditions-and-anticipated-death-from-cancer
#5
Young Saing Kim, Dong Kyun Park, In Cheol Hwang, Hong Yup Ahn
Background: The effect of weather conditions on human health has been documented. However, the role of daily weather on anticipated death remains unclear. This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between daily weather conditions and death in terminally ill cancer patients. Methods: We retrospectively searched a medical database of 935 consecutive terminally ill cancer patients who passed away in the palliative care unit from Oct 2009 to Sep 2013. We used Poisson regression to assess the relative risk (RR) of anticipated death based on various weather variables, using mean values calculated from the 10 d around the time of death...
April 2018: Iranian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29899422/spring-warming-in-yukon-mountains-is-not-amplified-by-the-snow-albedo-feedback
#6
Scott N Williamson, Faron S Anslow, Garry K C Clarke, John A Gamon, Alexander H Jarosch, David S Hik
Decreasing spring snow cover may amplify Arctic warming through the snow albedo feedback. To examine the impact of snowmelt on increasing temperature we used a 5,000 m elevation gradient in Yukon, Canada, extending from valley-bottom conifer forests, through middle elevation tundra, to high elevation icefields, to compare validated downscaled reanalysis air temperature patterns across elevational bands characterized by different patterns of spring snowmelt. From 2000 to 2014 we observed surface warming of 0...
June 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29897948/creeping-in-the-night-what-might-ecologists-be-missing
#7
Carol Anne Nichols, Kathleen Alexander
Wildlife activity patterns tend to be defined by terms such as diurnal and nocturnal that might not fully depict the complexity of a species' life history strategy and behavior in a given system. These activity pattern categories often influence the methodological approaches employed, including the temporal period of study (daylight or nighttime). We evaluated banded mongoose (Mungos mungo) behavior in Northern Botswana through the use of remote sensing cameras at active den sites in order to characterize early morning behavior for this diurnal species...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29881973/camelina-sativa-an-oilseed-at-the-nexus-between-model-system-and-commercial-crop
#8
REVIEW
Meghna R Malik, Jihong Tang, Nirmala Sharma, Claire Burkitt, Yuanyuan Ji, Marie Mykytyshyn, Karen Bohmert-Tatarev, Oliver Peoples, Kristi D Snell
The rapid assessment of metabolic engineering strategies in plants is aided by crops that provide simple, high throughput transformation systems, a sequenced genome, and the ability to evaluate the resulting plants in field trials. Camelina sativa provides all of these attributes in a robust oilseed platform. The ability to perform field evaluation of Camelina is a useful, and in some studies essential benefit that allows researchers to evaluate how traits perform outside the strictly controlled conditions of a greenhouse...
June 7, 2018: Plant Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29878281/functional-and-evolutionary-characterization-of-the-constans-like-family-in-lilium-%C3%A3-formolongi
#9
Yu-Fan Li, Yu-Qian Zhao, Meng Zhang, Gui-Xia Jia, Michele Zaccai
Lilium × formolongi is a facultative long day (LD) plant. Aiming to dissect the molecular regulation of the photoperiodic pathway, largely unknown in Lilium, we explored the CONSTANS/FLOWERING LOCUS T (CO/FT) module, a major regulatory factor in the external coincidence model of photoperiodic flowering pathway in lily. We identified eight CONSTANS-LIKE (COL) family members in L. × formolongi, which could be divided into three types, according to their zinc-finger (B-box) protein domains. Type I included only LfCOL5, containing two B-box motifs...
June 6, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29874057/humic-like-substances-%C3%AF-hulis%C3%AF-in-aerosols-of-central-tibetan-plateau-nam-co-4730-m-asl-abundance-light-absorption-properties-and-sources
#10
Guangming Wu, Xin Wan, Shaopeng Gao, Pingqing Fu, Yongguang Yin, Gang Li, Guoshuai Zhang, Shichang Kang, Kirpa Ram, Zhiyuan Cong
Humic-like substances (HULIS) are major components of light-absorbing brown carbon that play an important role in Earth's radiative balance. However, their concentration, optical properties and sources are least understood over Tibetan Plateau (TP). In this study, the analysis of total suspended particulate (TSP) samples from central of TP (i.e., Nam Co) reveal that atmospheric HULIS are more abundant in summer than that in winter without obvious diurnal variations. The light absorption ability of HULIS in winter is 2 to 3 times higher than that in summer...
June 6, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29873109/assessment-of-chemical-and-microbiological-parameters-of-indoor-swimming-pool-atmosphere-using-multiple-comparisons
#11
Ana Rodríguez, Mercedes Tajuelo, Diana Rodríguez, Susana Seseña, Patricia Ruiz, Mª Llanos Palop
The aim of this study was to evaluate the air quality of an indoor swimming pool, analysing diurnal and seasonal variations in microbiological counts and chemical parameters. The results indicated that yeast and bacteria counts, as well as carbon dioxide (CO2 ), nitrogen oxides (NOx ) and O3 concentrations, showed significant diurnal difference. On the other hand, temperature, relative humidity (R.H.), yeast counts and concentrations of CO2 , particles, O3 , toluene, and benzene showed seasonal differences...
June 5, 2018: Indoor Air
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29870880/diurnal-changes-in-cn-metabolism-and-response-of-rice-seedlings-to-uv-b-radiation
#12
Hyejin Yun, Sunhyung Lim, Yangmin X Kim, Yejin Lee, Seulbi Lee, Deogbae Lee, Keewoong Park, Jwakyung Sung
Plants regulate a number of primary metabolites, including carbohydrates, organic acids, and amino acids, in response to UV-B radiation. Therefore, it is essential to understand the time-dependent response of rice plants to UV-B stress. This study focused on the response of plants to UV-B at different leaf developmental phases (emerging, growing, and maturing) in an attempt to fully comprehend the metabolic shift. We analyzed the expression levels of genes related to starch/sucrose metabolism in the leaf blades of rice seedlings (Oryza sativa L...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29864109/total-sleep-deprivation-and-recovery-sleep-affect-the-diurnal-variation-of-agility-performance-the-gender-differences
#13
Mohamed Romdhani, Omar Hammouda, Khawla Smari, Yassine Chaabouni, Kacem Mahdouani, Tarak Driss, Nizar Souissi
Romdhani, M, Hammouda, O, Smari, K, Chaabouni, Y, Mahdouani, K, Driss, T, and Souissi, N. Total sleep deprivation and recovery sleep affect the diurnal variation of agility performance: The gender differences. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2018-This study aimed to investigate the effects of time-of-day, 24 and 36 hours of total sleep deprivation (TSD), and recovery sleep (RS) on repeated-agility performances. Twenty-two physical education students (11 male and 11 female students) completed 5 repeated modified agility T-test (RMAT) sessions (i...
May 30, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29861827/diurnal-variation-in-physiological-and-immune-responses-to-endurance-sport-in-highly-trained-runners-in-a-hot-and-humid-environment
#14
B Boukelia, E C Gomes, G D Florida-James
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the physiological and immunological response of highly trained runners to an intense bout of exercise performed at two different times of day, in a hot, humid environment. Methods: Using a crossover randomized design, 13 highly trained runners (range [Formula: see text] 64-79 ml·kg-1  min-1 ) performed a 10 km time trial run in hot (28°C) and humid conditions (70%), at 2 different times of day (09:00 hs and 18:00 hs)...
2018: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29860701/anthropogenic-co-2-emissions-from-a-megacity-in-the-yangtze-river-delta-of-china
#15
Cheng Hu, Shoudong Liu, Yongwei Wang, Mi Zhang, Wei Xiao, Wei Wang, Jiaping Xu
Anthropogenic CO2 emissions from cities represent a major source contributing to the global atmospheric CO2 burden. Here, we examined the enhancement of atmospheric CO2 mixing ratios by anthropogenic emissions within the Yangtze River Delta (YRD), China, one of the world's most densely populated regions (population greater than 150 million). Tower measurements of CO2 mixing ratios were conducted from March 2013 to August 2015 and were combined with numerical source footprint modeling to help constrain the anthropogenic CO2 emissions...
June 3, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29851519/daily-rhythms-after-vaccination-on-specific-and-non-specific-responses-in-nile-tilapia-oreochromis-niloticus
#16
Bartira Guerra-Santos, José Fernando López-Olmeda, Denise Soledade Peixoto Pereira, Cristóbal Espinossa Ruiz, Francisco Javier Sánchez-Vázquez, María Ángeles Esteban, Robson Bahia Cerqueira, Rodrigo Fortes-Silva
We evaluated the daily changes in immunological and hematological factors in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) after an immunization period with a subsequent challenge. Experiments were divided into two phases: Phase 1 (immunization): 144 fish were distributed into two groups with 72 fish in six tanks. One group (T1) was immunized, comprising six vaccination time points (ZT schedule = ZT2 h, ZT6 h, ZT10 h, ZT14 h, ZT18 h, ZT22 h). The same schedule was applied to the other group, but with saline solution (non-vaccinated: T2)...
May 31, 2018: Chronobiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29847572/quantification-of-chemical-and-mechanical-bioerosion-rates-of-six-caribbean-excavating-sponge-species-found-on-the-coral-reefs-of-cura%C3%A3-ao
#17
Didier M de Bakker, Alice E Webb, Lisanne A van den Bogaart, Steven M A C van Heuven, Erik H Meesters, Fleur C van Duyl
Excavating sponges are among the most important macro-eroders of carbonate substrates in marine systems. Their capacity to remove substantial amounts of limestone makes these animals significant players that can unbalance the reef carbonate budget of tropical coral reefs. Nevertheless, excavating sponges are currently rarely incorporated in standardized surveys and experimental work is often restricted to a few species. Here were provide chemical and mechanical bioerosion rates for the six excavating sponge species most commonly found on the shallow reef of Curaçao (southern Caribbean): Cliona caribbaea, C...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29847110/seasonally-varying-secondary-organic-aerosol-formation-from-in-situ-oxidation-of-near-highway-air
#18
Provat K Saha, Stephen M Reece, Andrew P Grieshop
The extent to which motor vehicles contribute to ambient secondary organic aerosol (SOA) remains uncertain. Here, we present in-situ measurements of SOA formation at a near-highway site with substantial tree-cover 10 m from Interstate 40 near Durham, North Carolina. In July-2015 (summer) and February-2016 (winter), we exposed ambient air to a range of oxidant (O3 and OH) concentrations in an Oxidation Flow Reactor (OFR), resulting in hours to weeks of equivalent atmospheric aging. We observed substantial seasonal variation in SOA formation upon OFR aging; diurnally varying OA enhancements of ~ 3-8 μg m-3 were observed in summer and significantly lower enhancements (~0...
May 30, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29844534/evaluation-of-psychological-stress-in-confined-environments-using-salivary-skin-and-facial-image-parameters
#19
Mariko Egawa, Shinichiro Haze, Yoko Gozu, Junichi Hosoi, Tomoko Onodera, Yosuke Tojo, Masako Katsuyama, Yusuke Hara, Chika Katagiri, Natsuhiko Inoue, Satoshi Furukawa, Go Suzuki
Detecting the influence of psychological stress is particularly important in prolonged space missions. In this study, we determined potential markers of psychological stress in a confined environment. We examined 23 Japanese subjects staying for 2 weeks in a confined facility at Tsukuba Space Center, measuring salivary, skin, and facial image parameters. Saliva was collected at four points in a single day to detect diurnal variation. Increases in salivary cortisol were detected after waking up on the 4th and 11th days, and at 15:30 on the 1st and in the second half of the stay...
May 29, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29804235/impact-of-weather-factors-on-influenza-hospitalization-across-different-age-groups-in-subtropical-hong-kong
#20
Yapeng Li, Xi-Ling Wang, Xueying Zheng
Accumulating evidence demonstrates the significant influence of weather factors, especially temperature and humidity, on influenza seasonality. However, it is still unclear whether temperature variation within the same day, that is diurnal temperature range (DTR), is related to influenza seasonality. In addition, the different effects of weather factors on influenza seasonality across age groups have not been well documented in previous studies. Our study aims to explore the effects of DTR and humidity on influenza seasonality, and the differences in the association between weather factors and influenza seasonality among different age groups in Hong Kong, China...
May 26, 2018: International Journal of Biometeorology
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