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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166164/a-physiological-signature-of-the-cost-of-reproduction-associated-with-parental-care
#1
Melinda A Fowler, Tony D Williams
Costs of reproduction are an integral and long-standing component of life-history theory, but we still know relatively little about the specific physiological mechanisms underlying these trade-offs. We experimentally manipulated workload during parental care in female European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) using attachment of radios and/or wing clipping and assessed measures of workload, current breeding productivity, future fecundity, and survival (local return rate) in relation to treatment. Females with wing clipping and radio attachment paid a clear cost of reproduction compared with all other treatment groups: they had lower future fecundity and lower return rates despite having lower current breeding productivity...
December 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165492/controlling-the-sn-c-bonds-content-in-sno2-cnts-composite-to-form-in-situ-pulverized-structure-for-enhanced-electrochemical-kinetics
#2
Yayi Cheng, Jianfeng Huang, Hui Qi, Liyun Cao, Xiaomin Luo, Jiayin Li, Zhanwei Xu, Jun Yang
The Sn-C bonding content between the SnO2 and CNTs interface was controlled by the hydrothermal method and subsequent heat treatment. Electrochemical analysis found that the SnO2@CNTs with high Sn-C bonding content exhibited much higher capacity contribution from alloying and conversion reaction compared with the low content of Sn-C bonding even after 200 cycles. The high Sn-C bonding content enabled the SnO2 nanoparticles to stabilize on the CNTs surface, realizing an in situ pulverization process of SnO2...
November 22, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165178/sasa-veitchii-extracts-suppress-acetaminophen-induced-hepatotoxicity-in-mice
#3
Hiroki Yoshioka, Haruki Usuda, Hirohisa Fujii, Tsunemasa Nonogaki
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate the therapeutic effects of a Sasa veitchii leaf extract (SE) on acetaminophen (APAP)-induced hepatotoxicity. METHODS: Seven-week-old male ddY mice were orally administered SE or saline (0.2 mL) once a day for a week. Twenty-four hours after the last pretreatment, the mice were intraperitoneally injected with 550 mg/kg APAP or saline under fasting conditions. The mice from each group were euthanized and bled for plasma analysis 2, 6, 24, and 72 h after the injection...
June 12, 2017: Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164810/anionic-redox-chemistry-in-polysulfide-electrode-materials-for-rechargeable-batteries
#4
Ekaterina D Grayfer, Egor M Pazhetnov, Mariia N Kozlova, Sofya B Artemkina, Vladimir E Fedorov
Classical Li-ion battery technology is based on the insertion of lithium ions into cathode materials involving metal (cationic) redox reactions. However, this vision is now being reconsidered, as many new-generation electrode materials with enhanced reversible capacities operate through combined cationic and anionic (non-metal) reversible redox processes or even exclusively through anionic redox transformations. Anionic participation in the redox reactions is observed in materials with more pronounced covalency, which is less typical for oxides, but quite common for phosphides or chalcogenides...
November 22, 2017: ChemSusChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164657/resveratrol-protects-leydig-cells-from-nicotine-induced-oxidative-damage-through-enhanced-autophagy
#5
Shengxian Liu, Qinyu Sun, Zhaomin Li
Some studies have revealed that nicotine can damage the male reproductive system through various ways including oxidative stress, which is a primary factor in the pathogenesis of male infertility. The strong antioxidative capacity of resveratrol has been demonstrated previously, but its role in the context of male reproduction remains inconclusive. To explore the biological role of resveratrol in protecting male reproductive function and the potential underlying mechanism, nicotine-induced Leydig cells were used as a cell model of oxidative damage...
November 22, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164506/enzymatic-production-of-glutathione-coupling-with-an-atp-regeneration-system-based-on-polyphosphate-kinase
#6
Hao Cao, Chengcheng Li, Jing Zhao, Fang Wang, Tianwei Tan, Luo Liu
Glutathione (GSH) is an important reducing agent in the living cells. It is synthesized by a two-step reaction and requires two molecules of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) for one molecule GSH. The enzymatic cascade reaction in vitro is a promising approach to achieve a high titer and limit side reactions; although, a cost-effective phosphate donor for ATP regeneration is required. Triphosphate (PolyP(3)), tetraphosphate (PolyP(4)), and hexametaphosphate (PolyP(6)) were investigated in this study. Triphosphate inhibited the bifunctional GSH synthetase (GshF) from Streptococcus agalactiae, while no significant inhibition was observed by adding hexametaphosphate...
November 21, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164457/drying-submergence-alternation-enhanced-crystalline-ratio-and-varied-surface-properties-of-iron-plaque-on-rice-oryza-sativa-roots
#7
Xu-Jian Yang, Zhihong Xu, Hong Shen
Iron plaque (IP) is valuable in nutrient management and contaminant tolerance for rice (Oryza sativa) because it can adsorb various nutrients and toxic ions. Crystalline ratio (CR) can be defined as the proportion of crystalline iron (CI) to total IP to describe IP crystallinity. Although the knowledge on IP has abounded, the information on the relationship among its formation condition, surface properties, and CR remains insufficient. In this study, quartz sand-soil cultivation with rice was conducted to explore the effect of drying-submergence alternation (DSA) on CI, amorphous iron (AI), CR, root oxidizing capacity (ROC), and surface properties of IP with different treatment durations and at different stages...
November 21, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163733/can-antioxidative-status-be-involved-in-type-1-diabetes
#8
Cintia Castro-Correia, M Luz Maia, Sonia Norberto, Cristina Costa-Santos, M Fatima Barroso, Ana Carvalho, Manuel Fontoura, Valentina Domingues, Conceicao Calhau
Background: Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is an autoimmune disease with beta-cell destruction, resulting in insulin deficiency. It is now clear that environmental factors also play a role in disease development. The prevalence of type 1 diabetes in children and young people in Portugal is 0.16% between 0 and 19 years of age. The main cause of death in T1DM is cardiovascular disease, and early endothelial dysfunction is its pathophysiologycal precursor. Hyperglycemia is associated with increased production of free radicals and increased oxidative stress...
December 2017: Journal of Clinical Medicine Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163616/co-expression-of-arabidopsis-nhx1-and-bar-improves-the-tolerance-to-salinity-oxidative-stress-and-herbicide-in-transgenic-mungbean
#9
Sanjeev Kumar, Angkana Kalita, Richa Srivastava, Lingaraj Sahoo
Mungbean is an important pulse crop extensively cultivated in Southeast Asia for supply of easily digestible protein. Salinity severely limits the growth and productivity of mungbean, and weeding poses nutritional and disease constraints to mungbean cultivation. To pyramid both salt tolerance and protection against herbicide in mungbean, the AtNHX1 encoding tonoplast Na(+)/H(+) antiporter from Arabidopsis, and bar gene associated with herbicide resistance were co-expressed through Agrobacterium-mediated transformation...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163606/transgenic-peanut-arachis-hypogaea-l-overexpressing-mtld-gene-showed-improved-photosynthetic-physio-biochemical-and-yield-parameters-under-soil-moisture-deficit-stress-in-lysimeter-system
#10
Kirankumar G Patel, Radhakrishnan Thankappan, Gyan P Mishra, Viralkumar B Mandaliya, Abhay Kumar, Jentibhai R Dobaria
Peanut, an important oilseed crop, frequently encounters drought stress (DS) during its life cycle. In this study, four previously developed mtlD transgenic (T) peanut lines were used for detailed characterization under DS, at the reproductive stage using lysimeter system under controlled greenhouse conditions. In dry-down experiments, T lines maintained better photosynthetic machinery, such as, photosynthesis rate, stomatal conductance, transpiration rate, and SPAD (Soil-Plant Analyses Development) values, and had lower oxidative damage, including lipid membrane peroxidation and hydrogen peroxide and superoxide radical accumulation than WT, when exposed to 24 days of DS...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163423/microbial-community-composition-and-functional-capacity-in-a-terrestrial-ferruginous-sulfate-depleted-mud-volcano
#11
Tzu-Hsuan Tu, Li-Wei Wu, Yu-Shih Lin, Hiroyuki Imachi, Li-Hung Lin, Pei-Ling Wang
Terrestrial mud volcanoes (MVs) are an important natural source of methane emission. The role of microbial processes in methane cycling and organic transformation in such environments remains largely unexplored. In this study, we aim to uncover functional potentials and community assemblages across geochemical transitions in a ferruginous, sulfate-depleted MV of eastern Taiwan. Geochemical profiles combined with 16S rRNA gene abundances indicated that anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) mediated by ANME-2a group coincided with iron/manganese reduction by Desulfuromonadales at shallow depths deprived of sulfate...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163008/antioxidative-and-antiapoptotic-effects-of-delta-opioid-peptide-d-ala-2-d-leu-5-enkephalin-on-spinal-cord-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-in-rabbits
#12
Danyun Fu, Haitong Liu, Shitong Li, Lianhua Chen, Junyan Yao
Background: In our previous study, we found that regional administration of delta-opioid peptide [D-Ala(2), D-Leu(5)] enkephalin (DADLE) could provide dose-dependent protection on spinal cord ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury in rabbits. However, the relative protective molecular mechanisms underlying this neuroprotection remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether DADLE provided the protection in spinal cord I/R injury through its antioxidant property by decreasing malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO) levels and increasing glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels and through its antiapoptotic capacity by inhibiting caspase-3 and p53 expression...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160907/inhibition-effects-of-flavonoids-on-2-amino-3-8-dimethyl-imidazo-4-5-f-quinoxaline-and-2-amino-3-7-8-trimethyl-imidazo-4-5-f-quinoxaline-formation-and-alkoxy-radical-scavenging-capabilities-of-flavonoids-in-a-model-system
#13
Zeping Shao, Zhonghui Han, Jinhui Zhang, Yan Zhang, Shuo Wang
BACKGROUND: Heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs) have been considered as carcinogenic and mutagenic chemicals generated during thermal processing of protein-rich foods which can be inhibited by some flavonoids. And free radical scavenging is a major characteristic of flavonoids. RESULTS: The half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50 ) values of nine flavonoids were determined by evaluating their capacity to inhibit 2-amino-3,8-dimethyl-imidazo[4,5-f]-quinoxaline (MeIQx) and 2-amino-3,7,8-trimethyl-imidazo[4,5-f]-quinoxaline (7,8-DiMeIQx) formation in a model system...
November 21, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160844/altered-aconitase-2-activity-in-huntington-s-disease-peripheral-blood-cells-and-mouse-model-striatum
#14
Chiung-Mei Chen, Yih-Ru Wu, Kuo-Hsuan Chang
Huntington's disease (HD) is caused by an unstable cytosine adenine guanine (CAG) trinucleotide repeat expansion encoding a polyglutamine tract in the huntingtin protein. Previously, we identified several up- and down-regulated protein molecules in the striatum of the Hdh((CAG)150) knock-in mice at 16 months of age, a mouse model which is modeling the early human HD stage. Among those molecules, aconitase 2 (Aco2) located in the mitochondrial matrix is involved in the energy generation and susceptible to increased oxidative stress that would lead to inactivation of Aco2 activity...
November 21, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159707/propionyl-coa-carboxylase-pcca-1-and-pccb-1-gene-deletions-in-caenorhabditis-elegans-globally-impair-mitochondrial-energy-metabolism
#15
Kimberly A Chapman, Julian Ostrovsky, Meera Rao, Stephen D Dingley, Erzsebet Polyak, Marc Yudkoff, Rui Xiao, Michael J Bennett, Marni J Falk
Propionic acidemia (PA) is a classical inborn error of metabolism with high morbidity that results from the inability of the propionyl-CoA carboxylase (PCC) enzyme to convert propionyl-CoA to methylmalonyl-CoA. PA is inherited in an autosomal recessive fashion due to functional loss of both alleles of either PCCA or PCCB. These genes are highly conserved across evolutionarily diverse species and share extensive similarity with pcca-1 and pccb-1 in the nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans. Here, we report the global metabolic effects of deletion in a single PCC gene, either pcca-1 or pccb-1, in C...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159352/improved-li-storage-performance-with-pedot-decorated-mno2-nanoboxes
#16
Xiaoqiao Chen, Zhiguang Cao, Lidan Xing, Youhao Liao, Yongcai Qiu, Weishan Li
In this paper, MnO2 nanoboxes coated with poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) film (denoted as MnO2@PEDOT) are investigated as an anode material in lithium-ion batteries. The MnO2 nanoboxes are developed through the surface chemical oxidation decomposition of MnCO3 cubes and the subsequent removal of their remaining cores. PEDOT is coated on the surface of MnO2 nanoboxes via in situ polymerization of 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene. The charge-discharge tests demonstrate that this special configuration endows the resulting MnO2@PEDOT with remarkable electrochemical performances, that is a reversible capacity of 628 mA h g(-1) after 850 cycles at a current density of 1000 mA g(-1) and a rate capacity of 367 mA h g(-1) at 3000 mA g(-1)...
November 21, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158873/contribution-and-interactions-of-hydroxycinnamic-acids-found-in-bran-and-wholegrain-sorghum-sorghum-bicolor-l-moench-effects-on-the-antioxidant-capacity-and-inhibition-of-human-erythrocyte-hemolysis
#17
Norma Julieta Salazar-López, Gustavo A González-Aguilar, Guadalupe Loarca-Piña, Francisco J Cinco-Moroyoqui, Ofelia Rouzaud-Sández, J Abraham Domínguez-Avila, Maribel Robles-Sánchez
An imbalance between free radicals and antioxidants is known as oxidative stress, and it promotes cellular aging and the development of chronic noncommunicable diseases. The bioactive compounds present in food play an important role in preventing oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to determine the contributions and interactions of the hydroxycinnamic acids found in the bran and whole grain of sorghum and to evaluate their effects on the antioxidant capacity and inhibition of the hemolysis of human erythrocytes...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158345/stable-oxidative-cytosine-modifications-accumulate-in-cardiac-mesenchymal-cells-from-type2-diabetes-patients-rescue-by-alpha-ketoglutarate-and-tet-tdg-functional-reactivation
#18
Francesco Spallotta, Chiara Cencioni, Sandra Atlante, Davide Garella, Mattia Cocco, Mattia Mori, Raffaella Mastrocola, Carsten Künne, Stefan Günther, Simona Nanni, Valerio Azzimato, Sven Zukunft, Angela Kornberger, Duran Sueruen, Frank Schnutgen, Harald von Melchner, Antonella Di Stilo, Manuela Aragno, Maarten Braspenning, Wim Van Criekinge, Miles J De Blasio, Rebecca H Ritchie, Germana Zaccagnini, Fabio Martelli, Antonella Farsetti, Ingrid Fleming, Thomas Braun, Andres Beiras-Fernandez, Bruno Botta, Massimo Collino, Massimo Bertinaria, Andreas M Zeiher, Carlo Gaetano
Rationale: Human cardiac mesenchymal cells (CMSCs) are a therapeutically-relevant primary cell population. Diabetes compromises CMSC function as consequence of metabolic alterations and incorporation of stable epigenetic changes. Objective: To investigate the role of α-ketoglutarate (αKG) in the epi-metabolic control of DNA demethylation in CMSCs. Methods and Results: Quantitative global analysis, methylated and hydroxymethylated DNA sequencing and gene specific GC methylation detection revealed an accumulation of 5mC, 5hmC and 5fC in the genomic DNA of human CMSCs isolated from diabetic (D) donors (D-CMSCs)...
November 20, 2017: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157186/a-high-caloric-diet-rich-in-soy-oil-alleviates-oxidative-damage-of-skeletal-muscles-induced-by-dexamethasone-in-chickens
#19
Hongchao Jiao, Kaifeng Zhou, Jingpeng Zhao, Xiaojuan Wang, Hai Lin
Objective Glucocorticoids (GCs) can induce oxidative damage in skeletal muscles. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate a high caloric (HC) diet rich in soy oil would change the oxidative stress induced by a GC. Methods The effect of dexamethasone (DEX) and HC diet on oxidative stress in plasma, skeletal muscles (M. pectoralis major, PM; M. biceps femoris, BF), and mitochondria were determined. The biomarkers of oxidative damage and antioxidative enzyme activity were determined. The fatty acid profile of muscles and the activities of complex I and II in mitochondria were measured...
November 20, 2017: Redox Report: Communications in Free Radical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156979/determination-of-lignans-phenolic-acids-and-antioxidant-capacity-in-transformed-hairy-root-culture-of-linum-usitatissimum
#20
Ahmed M M Gabr, Hoda B Mabrok, Emam A Abdel-Rahim, Mohamed K El-Bahr, Iryna Smetanska
Hairy root culture is a promising alternative method for the production of secondary metabolites. In this study, transformed root of Linum usitatissimum was established using Agrobacterium rhizogenes A4 strain from root cultures for lignans, phenolic acids and antioxidant capacity determination. Total lignin content (secoisolariciresinol diglucoside, secoisolariciresinol and matairesinol) was 55.5% higher in transformed root cultures than in the non-transformed root culture. Secoisolariciresinol was detected in higher concentration (2...
November 20, 2017: Natural Product Research
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