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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127772/interventions-for-treating-collagenous-colitis
#1
REVIEW
Tahir S Kafil, Tran M Nguyen, Petrease H Patton, John K MacDonald, Nilesh Chande, John Wd McDonald
BACKGROUND: Collagenous colitis is a cause of chronic diarrhea. This updated review was performed to identify therapies for collagenous colitis that have been assessed in randomized controlled trials (RCTs). OBJECTIVES: The primary objective was to assess the benefits and harms of treatments for collagenous colitis. SEARCH METHODS: We searched CENTRAL, the Cochrane IBD Group Specialized Register, MEDLINE and EMBASE from inception to 7 November 2016...
November 11, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076071/bile-salt-hydrolase-mediated-inhibitory-effect-of-bacteroides-ovatus-on-growth-of-clostridium-difficile
#2
Soobin Yoon, Junsun Yu, Andrea McDowell, Sung Ho Kim, Hyun Ju You, GwangPyo Ko
Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is one of the most common nosocomial infections. Dysbiosis of the gut microbiota due to consumption of antibiotics is a major contributor to CDI. Recently, fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has been applied to treat CDI. However, FMT has important limitations including uncontrolled exposure to pathogens and standardization issues. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate alternative treatment methods, such as bacteriotherapy, as well as the mechanism through which beneficial bacteria inhibit the growth of C...
November 2017: Journal of Microbiology / the Microbiological Society of Korea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064296/tolerability-and-efficacy-of-colestipol-hydrochloride-for-accelerated-elimination-of-teriflunomide
#3
Derrick Robertson, Crystal Dixon, Angela Aungst, Bradlee McCoy, Natalie Moreo, Lise Casady, Janice Maldonado
BACKGROUND: Teriflunomide is an oral disease modifying therapy approved for the treatment of relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis. Teriflunomide' s pharmacokinetics (PK) contribute to its slow elimination, on average taking 6-8 months, though it can take up to 2 years in some instances. This slow elimination can become problematic in certain clinical situations - such as during pregnancy, when teriflunomide has potential teratogenic effects. In such scenarios, an accelerated elimination procedure (AEP) is recommended...
October 24, 2017: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980064/anti-hcv-treatment-with-ombitasvir-paritaprevir-ritonavir%C3%A2-%C3%A2-dasabuvir-is-associated-with-increased-bile-acid-levels-and-pruritus
#4
Rudolf E Stauber, Günter Fauler, Florian Rainer, Bettina Leber, Andreas Posch, Andrea Streit, Walter Spindelboeck, Vanessa Stadlbauer, Harald H Kessler, Harald Mangge
BACKGROUND: Direct acting antiviral (DAA)-based treatment with ombitasvir/paritaprevir/ritonavir ± dasabuvir (OBV/PTV/r ± DSV) is highly effective in HCV genotype 1 or 4 infection and well-tolerated with only few side effects. However, pruritus has been observed in several trials in up to 20% of patients and seems to be unique for this DAA combination. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this preliminary study was to investigate the effect of OBV/PTV/r ± DSV on bile acid levels and to correlate them to the emergence of pruritus during treatment...
November 2017: Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939923/-thyroid-emergencies-thyroid-storm-and-myxedema-coma
#5
REVIEW
C Spitzweg, M Reincke, R Gärtner
Thyroid emergencies are rare life-threatening endocrine conditions resulting from either decompensated thyrotoxicosis (thyroid storm) or severe thyroid hormone deficiency (myxedema coma). Both conditions develop out of a long-standing undiagnosed or untreated hyper- or hypothyroidism, respectively, precipitated by an acute stress-associated event, such as infection, trauma, or surgery. Cardinal features of thyroid storm are myasthenia, cardiovascular symptoms, in particular tachycardia, as well as hyperthermia and central nervous system dysfunction...
September 22, 2017: Der Internist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924483/thyroidectomy-for-the-treatment-of-graves-thyrotoxicosis-in-thioamide-induced-agranulocytosis-and-sepsis
#6
Colin L Knight, Shamil D Cooray, Jaideep Kulkarni, Michael Borschmann, Mark Kotowicz
A 51 year old man presented with sepsis in the setting of thioamide-induced agranulocytosis. Empiric broad-spectrum antibiotics was followed by directed narrow-spectrum antibiotics, and his neutrophil count recovered with support from granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) analogue transfusions. After a brief period of multi-modal therapy for nine days including potassium iodide (Lugol's iodine), cholestyramine, propanolol and lithium to temper his persisting hyperthyroidism, a total thyroidectomy was performed while thyroid hormone levels remained at thyrotoxic levels...
2017: Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855818/combined-efficacy-of-vigna-radiata-l-r-wilczek-and-amorphophallus-paeoniifolius-dennst-nicolson-on-serum-lipids-in-albino-rats
#7
P B Benil, R Lekshmi, N Viswanathan, E Jollykutty, R Rajakrishnan, J Thomas, A H Alfarhan
Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) is a major killer disease throughout the world. Dyslipidemia is a major contributor to the risk of CAD. Several dietary articles traditionally used in India and other South Asian countries reduced dyslipidemia. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the combined effect of Mung bean (Vigna radiata) and Elephant foot yam (Amorphophallus paeoniifolius) on serum lipids and atherogenic indices in albino rats and to compare it with a standard drug Cholestyramine. Thirty healthy albino rats of both sexes (150-200 g) were randomized to 5 groups of 6 animals each...
September 2017: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807458/caveolin-3-deficiency-myopathy-associated-with-dyslipidemia-treatment-challenges-and-possible-pathophysiological-association
#8
Daiana Ibarretxe, Joan Pellejà, Nicolau Ortiz, Luis Masana
We report the case of a patient treated at the lipid clinic because of high cholesterol levels with consistently elevated creatine kinase concentrations that precluded statin treatment. Electromyography showed a rippling muscle disease pattern. A muscle biopsy confirmed caveolin 3 deficiency, and a missense mutation in the CAV3 gene was identified. The patient could be properly managed with ezetimibe and cholestyramine, which reduced the low-density lipoprotein cholesterol by 30%. He remains asymptomatic after 10 years of follow-up...
September 2017: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725183/bile-acid-mediated-sphingosine-1-phosphate-receptor-2-signaling-promotes-neuroinflammation-during-hepatic-encephalopathy-in-mice
#9
Matthew McMillin, Gabriel Frampton, Stephanie Grant, Shamyal Khan, Juan Diocares, Anca Petrescu, Amy Wyatt, Jessica Kain, Brandi Jefferson, Sharon DeMorrow
Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a neuropsychiatric complication that occurs due to deteriorating hepatic function and this syndrome influences patient quality of life, clinical management strategies and survival. During acute liver failure, circulating bile acids increase due to a disruption of the enterohepatic circulation. We previously identified that bile acid-mediated signaling occurs in the brain during HE and contributes to cognitive impairment. However, the influences of bile acids and their downstream signaling pathways on HE-induced neuroinflammation have not been assessed...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702956/interventions-for-treating-lymphocytic-colitis
#10
REVIEW
Nilesh Chande, Noor Al Yatama, Tania Bhanji, Tran M Nguyen, John Wd McDonald, John K MacDonald
BACKGROUND: Lymphocytic colitis is a cause of chronic diarrhea. It is a subtype of microscopic colitis characterized by chronic, watery, non-bloody diarrhea and normal endoscopic and radiologic findings. The etiology of this disorder is unknown.Therapy is based mainly on case series and uncontrolled trials, or by extrapolation of data for treating collagenous colitis, a related disorder. This review is an update of a previously published Cochrane review. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of treatments for clinically active lymphocytic colitis...
July 13, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685504/statins-for-children-with-familial-hypercholesterolemia
#11
REVIEW
Alpo Vuorio, Jaana Kuoppala, Petri T Kovanen, Steve E Humphries, Serena Tonstad, Albert Wiegman, Euridiki Drogari, Uma Ramaswami
BACKGROUND: Familial hypercholesterolemia is one of the most common inherited metabolic diseases and is an autosomal dominant disorder meaning heterozygotes, or carriers, are affected. Those who are homozygous have severe disease. The average worldwide prevalence of heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia is at least 1 in 500, although recent genetic epidemiological data from Denmark and next generation sequencing data suggest the frequency may be closer to 1 in 250. Diagnosis of familial hypercholesterolemia in children is based on elevated total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels or DNA-based analysis, or both...
July 7, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600665/determination-of-degradation-kinetics-and-effect-of-anion-exchange-resin-on-dissolution-of-novel-anticancer-drug-rigosertib-in-acidic-conditions
#12
Hardikkumar H Patel, Manoj Maniar, Chen Ren, Rutesh H Dave
Rigosertib is a novel anticancer drug in clinical development by Onconova therapeutics, Inc. Currently, it is in pivotal phase III clinical trials for myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) patients. Chemically, it is a sodium salt of weak acid with low solubility in lower pH solutions. In the preliminary studies, it was found that rigosertib is unstable in acidic conditions and forms multiple degradation products. In this research, drug degradation kinetics of rigosertib were studied in acidic conditions. Rigosertib follows pseudo-first-order general acid catalysis reaction...
June 9, 2017: AAPS PharmSciTech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552621/intestinal-epithelial-sirtuin-1-regulates-intestinal-inflammation-during-aging-in-mice-by-altering-the-intestinal-microbiota
#13
Alicia S Wellman, Mallikarjuna R Metukuri, Nevzat Kazgan, Xiaojiang Xu, Qing Xu, Natalie S X Ren, Agnieszka Czopik, Michael T Shanahan, Ashley Kang, Willa Chen, M Andrea Azcarate-Peril, Ajay S Gulati, David C Fargo, Leonard Guarente, Xiaoling Li
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Intestinal epithelial homeostasis is maintained by complex interactions among epithelial cells, commensal gut microorganisms, and immune cells. Disruption of this homeostasis is associated with disorders such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), but the mechanisms of this process are not clear. We investigated how Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), a conserved mammalian NAD(+)-dependent protein deacetylase, senses environmental stress to alter intestinal integrity. METHODS: We performed studies of mice with disruption of Sirt1 specifically in the intestinal epithelium (SIRT1 iKO, villin-Cre+, Sirt1(flox/flox) mice) and control mice (villin-Cre-, Sirt1(flox/flox)) on a C57BL/6 background...
September 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487440/cholestyramine-treatment-of-healthy-humans-rapidly-induces-transient-hypertriglyceridemia-when-treatment-is-initiated
#14
Beatrice G Sjöberg, Sara Straniero, Bo Angelin, Mats Rudling
Bile acid (BA) production in mice is regulated by hepatic farnesoid X receptors and by intestinal fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-15 (in humans, FGF-19), a suppressor of BA synthesis that also reduces serum triglycerides and glucose. Cholestyramine treatment reduces FGF-19 and induces BA synthesis, whereas plasma triglycerides may increase from unclear reasons. We explored whether FGF-19 may suppress BA synthesis and plasma triglycerides in humans by modulation of FGF-19 levels through long-term cholestyramine treatment at increasing doses...
August 1, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474246/pectin-penta-oligogalacturonide-suppresses-intestinal-bile-acids-absorption-and-downregulates-the-fxr-fgf15-axis-in-high-cholesterol-fed-mice
#15
Rugang Zhu, Yuting Hou, Yandi Sun, Tuoping Li, Jungang Fan, Gang Chen, Junxiu Wei
Haw pectin penta-oligogalacturonide (HPPS), purified from the hydrolysates of haw pectin, has important role in decreasing hepatic cholesterol accumulation and promoting bile acids (BA) excretion in the feces of mice fed a high-cholesterol diet (HCD). However, the mechanism is not clear. This study aims to investigate the effects of HPPS on BA reabsorption in ileum and biosynthesis in liver of mice. Results showed that HPPS increased fecal BA output by approximately 110%, but decreased ileal BA and the total BA pool size by approximately 47 and 36%, respectively, compared to HCD...
June 2017: Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446519/cationic-polystyrene-resolves-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis-obesity-and-metabolic-disorders-by-promoting-eubiosis-of-gut-microbiota-and-decreasing-endotoxemia
#16
Airu Zhu, Jingjing Chen, Pengfei Wu, Mei Luo, Yilan Zeng, Yong Liu, Han Zheng, Li Zhang, Zishou Chen, Qun Sun, Wenwen Li, Yixiang Duan, Danmei Su, Zhixiong Xiao, Zhongping Duan, Sujun Zheng, Li Bai, Xiaohui Zhang, Zhongyuan Ju, Yan Li, Richard Hu, Stephen J Pandol, Yuan-Ping Han
A pandemic of metabolic diseases, consisting of type 2 diabetes, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and obesity, has imposed critical challenges for societies worldwide, prompting investigation of underlying mechanisms and exploration of low-cost and effective treatment. In this report, we demonstrate that metabolic disorders in mice generated by feeding with a high-fat diet without dietary vitamin D can be prevented by oral administration of polycationic amine resin. Oral administration of cholestyramine, but not the control uncharged polystyrene, was able to sequester negatively charged bacterial endotoxin in the gut, leading to 1) reduced plasma endotoxin levels, 2) resolved systemic inflammation and hepatic steatohepatitis, and 3) improved insulin sensitivity...
August 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407899/in-vitro-evaluation-of-whole-faba-bean-and-its-seed-coat-as-a-potential-source-of-functional-food-components
#17
Selen Çalışkantürk Karataş, Demet Günay, Sedat Sayar
In vitro studies were conducted to evaluate the particular nutritional benefits of whole faba bean seed (WFB) and fava bean seed coat (FBSC). Total dietary fiber contents of WFB and FBSC were 27.5% and 82.3%, respectively. FBSC were contained much higher total phenolic substances, condensed tannins, and total antioxidant activity than WFB. Bile acid (BA)-binding capacities of in vitro digested samples and nutritionally important products produced by in vitro fermentation of digestion residues were also studied...
September 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380377/farnesoid-x-receptor-regulation-of-the-nlrp3-inflammasome-underlies-cholestasis-associated-sepsis
#18
Haiping Hao, Lijuan Cao, Changtao Jiang, Yuan Che, Songyang Zhang, Shogo Takahashi, Guangji Wang, Frank J Gonzalez
Cholestasis is a common complication of sepsis, and the increased plasma levels of bile acids are predictive of sepsis-associated mortality. However, the exact mechanism by which cholestasis aggravates sepsis development remains elusive. Here, we show that bile acids are danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) that can activate both signal 1 and 2 of the NLRP3 inflammasome in inflammatory macrophages. Mechanistically, bile acids induce a prolonged calcium influx and activate the NLRP3 inflammasome synergistically with ATP...
April 4, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376607/statin-utilization-improves-oncologic-and-survival-outcomes-in-patients-with-dyslipidemia-and-surgically-treated-renal-cell-carcinoma
#19
Sean W Berquist, Hak J Lee, Zachary Hamilton, Aditya Bagrodia, Abdelrahman Hassan, Alp T Beksaç, Catherine A Dufour, Song Wang, Reza Mehrazin, Anthony Patterson, Ithaar H Derweesh
BACKGROUND: We evaluated the role of statins in patients who underwent surgery for Renal Cell Carcinoma (RCC) and who had dyslipidemia, as use of statins has been suggested to improve outcomes in RCC. METHODS: Two-center retrospective study of patients with dyslipidemia who underwent surgery for RCC from 7/1995 to 6/2005. Patients were managed by statins or ezetimibe, fibrate agents, or cholestyramine. Analysis was conducted between patients who received statin therapy versus those that did not...
March 30, 2017: Minerva Urologica e Nefrologica, the Italian Journal of Urology and Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348902/atypical-complications-of-graves-disease-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#20
Khaled Ahmed Baagar, Mashhood Ahmed Siddique, Shaimaa Ahmed Arroub, Ahmed Hamdi Ebrahim, Amin Ahmed Jayyousi
Graves' disease (GD) may display uncommon manifestations. We report a patient with rare complications of GD and present a comprehensive literature review. A 35-year-old woman presented with a two-week history of dyspnea, palpitations, and edema. She had a raised jugular venous pressure, goiter, and exophthalmos. Laboratory tests showed pancytopenia, a raised alkaline phosphatase level, hyperbilirubinemia (mainly direct bilirubin), and hyperthyroidism [TSH: <0.01 mIU/L (reference values: 0.45-4.5), fT4: 54...
2017: Case Reports in Endocrinology
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