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Cholestyramine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288854/irinotecan-induced-bile-acid-malabsorption-is-associated-with-down-regulation-of-ileal-asbt-slc10a2-in-mice
#1
A-Xi Shi, Yan Zhou, Xiao-Yi Zhang, Yan-Shu Zhao, Hong-Yan Qin, Yan-Ping Wang, Xin-An Wu
Irinotecan, (CPT-11), an antitumor agent primarily used for the treatment of solid tumors, has often compromised clinical application due to the inducement of severe delay-onset diarrhea. Bile acid malabsorption (BAM) is widely accepted as the common cause of diarrhea. However, whether CPT-11-induced diarrhea has correlation with BAM is unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of CPT-11 on the bile acid homeostasis in mice. The mice were administrated with CPT-11 intravenously for four consecutive days...
March 10, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275691/targeting-the-enterohepatic-bile-acid-signaling-induces-hepatic-autophagy-via-a-cyp7a1-akt-mtor-axis-in-mice
#2
Yifeng Wang, Yifeng Ding, Jibiao Li, Hemantkumar Chavan, David Matye, Hong-Min Ni, John Y L Chiang, Partha Krishnamurthy, Wen-Xing Ding, Tiangang Li
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Hepatic cholesterol accumulation and autophagy defects contribute to hepatocyte injury in fatty liver disease. Bile acid synthesis is a major pathway for cholesterol catabolism in the liver. This study aims to understand the molecular link between cholesterol and bile acid metabolism and hepatic autophagy activity. METHODS: The effects of cholesterol and cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) expression on autophagy and lysosome function were studied in cell models...
March 2017: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270045/evaluation-of-the-efficacy-of-octreotide-lar-in-the-treatment-of-crohn-s-disease-associated-refractory-diarrhea
#3
Laura Martelli, Arnaud Colard, Fernand Fontaine, Jacques Deflandre, Boris Bastens, Edouard Louis
OBJECTIVES: Diarrhea is one of the main symptoms of Crohn's disease (CD). It is usually significantly improved with specific CD treatments, loperamide or cholestyramine. However, in some cases, diarrhea becomes refractory. The aim of this study was to assess the safety and efficacy of octreotide in this situation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifteen patients with CD refractory diarrhea defined by at least an average of five smooth or liquid stools per day despite an optimized CD treatment were included from three Belgian centers...
May 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238692/management-of-pruritus-in-primary-biliary-cholangitis-a-narrative-review
#4
REVIEW
Hirsh D Trivedi, Blanca Lizaola, Elliot B Tapper, Alan Bonder
Primary biliary cholangitis is an autoimmune condition characterized by destruction of intrahepatic bile ducts. It causes debilitating symptoms, which dramatically affect the patient's quality of life. Pruritus affects 60% to 70% of individuals with primary biliary cholangitis and leads to sleep disturbances, fatigue, depression and suicidal ideation. A complete search was done with studies from PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, Cochrane database, Countway library and CINAHL with specific search terms. This narrative review was prepared after a comprehensive literature review...
February 23, 2017: American Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199789/cholesterol-lowering-activity-of-tartary-buckwheat-protein
#5
Chengnan Zhang, Rui Zhang, Yuk Man Li, Ning Liang, Yimin Zhao, Hanyue Zhu, Zouyan He, Jianhui Liu, Wangjun Hao, Rui Jiao, Ka Ying Ma, Zhen-Yu Chen
Previous research has shown that Tartary buckwheat flour is capable of reducing plasma cholesterol. The present study was to examine the effect of rutin and Tartary buckwheat protein on plasma total cholesterol (TC) in hypercholesterolemia hamsters. In the first animal experiment, 40 male hamsters were divided into four groups fed either the control diet or one of the three experimental diets containing 8.2 mmol rutin, 8.2 mmol quercetin, or 2.5 g kg(-1) cholestyramine, respectively. Results showed that only cholestyramine but not rutin and its aglycone quercetin decreased plasma TC, which suggested that rutin was not the active ingredient responsible for plasma TC-lowering activity of Tartary buckwheat flour...
February 24, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153426/factors-affecting-gastrointestinal-absorption-of-levothyroxine-a-review
#6
REVIEW
Marko Skelin, Tomo Lucijanić, Daniela Amidžić Klarić, Arnes Rešić, Miro Bakula, Ana-Marija Liberati-Čizmek, Hossein Gharib, Dario Rahelić
PURPOSE: Levothyroxine (LT4) is a drug with a narrow therapeutic index, applied in small amounts (micrograms), which makes interactions in the absorption phase clinically significant. The main aim of this article was to review and present the latest information on factors that affect the gastrointestinal absorption of this drug. METHODS: Relevant data were collected by using the MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, Science Direct, and Scopus databases with the key words levothyroxine and absorption...
February 2017: Clinical Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067465/cholestyramine-alters%C3%A2-bile-acid%C3%A2-amounts-and-the-expression-of-cholesterol-related-genes-in-rabbit-intestinal-and-hepatic-tissues
#7
Dong Ni Qiu, Quan Shang, Da Yu Sun, Wei Qun Ding, Zhong Guang Luo, Jian Chen, Wei Ru Jiang, Jian Ping Huang, Xiao Yun Jiang
OBJECTIVE: Cholestyramine, as a bile acid sequestering exchange resin, has been wildly used to treat hypercholesterolemia. The aim of this study was to explore how cholestyramine regulated serum cholesterol amounts and bile acid levels in animal models. METHODS: The New Zealand White rabbits were randomly assigned to the control (given distilled water) and cholestyramine (CHO)-treated (given cholestyramine 1 g/kg/day for 2 weeks) groups. To assess bile acid pool size, bile fistulas were generated in five rabbits in each group...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Digestive Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039331/hepatic-deletion-of-x-box-binding-protein-1-impairs-bile-acid-metabolism-in-mice
#8
Xiaoying Liu, Anne S Henkel, Brian E LeCuyer, Susan C Hubchak, Matthew J Schipma, Eric Zhang, Richard M Green
The unfolded protein response (UPR) is an adaptive response to endoplasmic reticulum stress and the inositol-requiring enzyme 1α/X-box binding protein 1 (IRE1α/XBP1) pathway of the UPR is important in lipid metabolism. However, its role in bile acid metabolism remains unknown. We demonstrate that liver-specific Xbp1 knockout (LS-Xbp1(-/-)) mice had a 45% reduction in total bile acid pool. LS-Xbp1(-/-) mice had lower serum 7α-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one (C4) levels compared with Xbp1(fl/fl) mice, indicating reduced cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) synthetic activity...
March 2017: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028430/a-child-with-debilitating-pruritus
#9
Nikhil Sonthalia, Samit S Jain, Vinay B Pawar, Vinay G Zanwar, Ravindra G Surude, Pravin M Rathi, Kshitij K Munde, Sandeep Bavdekar
We describe a case of two-year-old boy presenting with debilitating pruritus, patchy alopecia and jaundice since the age of 6 months. On evaluation he had intrahepatic cholestasis with persistently raised serum alkaline phosphatase, normal Gamma glutamyl transferase and raised serum bile acid levels. His liver biopsy showed bland cholestasis and electron microscopy showed granular bile suggestive of progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis type I. Medical therapy with ursodeoxycholic acid, cholestyramine, rifampicin with nutritional modification was successful in alleviating the symptoms and correcting the nutritional status...
October 24, 2016: Clinics and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921051/systemic-mastocytosis-causing-refractory-pruritus-in-a-liver-disease-patient
#10
Naga S Addepally, Jagpal S Klair, Mohit Girotra, Johnny Jones, Farshad Aduli
Systemic mastocytosis (SM) results from clonal, neoplastic proliferation of abnormal mast cells. Patients become susceptible to itching, urticaria, and anaphylactic shock, which occurs due to histamine release from mast cells. SM may coexist alongside other systemic diseases, thus confounding the overall clinical presentation. We discuss a 23-year-old woman with refractory pruritus, which was initially attributed to primary sclerosing cholangitis but had a nonresponse to antihistaminics, ursodiol, and cholestyramine...
August 2016: ACG Case Reports Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888342/putting-recommendations-into-practice-australian-rheumatologists-opinions-on-leflunomide-use-in-rheumatoid-arthritis
#11
Ashley M Hopkins, Michael D Wiese, Catherine E O'Doherty, Susanna M Proudman
Leflunomide is the most recently introduced conventional disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs in Australia. It has several unique methods for initiation, unique monitoring recommendations and a distinctive cessation protocol in the event of serious toxicity. The aim of this study was to evaluate initiation and monitoring practices of Australian rheumatologists using leflunomide. A survey was emailed twice, approximately 3 months apart to 332 rheumatologist members of the Australian Rheumatology Association...
November 25, 2016: Clinical Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884451/cholesterol-lowering-pattern-affects-the-progression-of-atherosclerosis-in-apolipoprotein-e-deficient-mice
#12
Yusuke Masuda, Shinji Yamaguchi, Tomohiro Nishizawa
Although the importance of LDL cholesterol lowering is widely recognized, the impact of the cholesterol-lowering pattern on the atherosclerosis remains unclear. Here, we used cholestyramine in apolipoprotein E deficient mice in two different regimens to induce a see-saw shaped or a sustained cholesterol reduction, with the trough of cholesterol comparable. After 12 weeks-treatment, a sustained cholesterol reduction exhibited a smaller atherosclerotic area. Moreover, we observed a correlation between the area under the curve of plasma cholesterol and the atherosclerotic area...
December 2016: Journal of Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872940/cholestyramine-as-monotherapy-for-graves-hyperthyroidism
#13
Chaozer Er, Ashish Anil Sule
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Singapore Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806795/-infantile-cholestasis-caused-by-cftr-mutation-case-report-and-literature-review
#14
L Li, N L Wang, J Y Gong, J S Wang
Objective: To study the clinical presentation, biochemical features and genetic analysis of an infant with cholestasis related to the CFTR mutations. Method: The clinical presentation, laboratory investigations and management of a case with infantile cholestasis caused by CFTR mutations were summarized and the relevant literature was reviewed. Result: (1) The patient was a 5 months old boy with cholestasis which developed in neonatal period with delayed meconium exclusion.The laparoscopic exploration was performed to exclude biliary atresia because of acholic stool when he was two months old...
November 2, 2016: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27800600/cholestyramine-as-a-promising-strong-anion-exchange-resin-for-direct-capture-of-genetic-biomarkers-from-raw-pancreatic-fluids
#15
Andrew J Hilmer, R Brooke Jeffrey, Walter G Park, Chaitan Khosla
The ability to capture cell-free DNA from the gastrointestinal tract, in a minimally invasive manner, could enhance our ability to diagnose gastrointestinal disease, or gain a better understanding of the spatial mapping of the intestinal microbiota. We, therefore, sought to identify a class of capture agents that could directly and efficiently sequester genetic material from intestinal fluids. As a particular case study, we examined the ability to capture DNA from pancreatic secretions, for potential application in enabling the sequestration of early, genetic biomarkers of pancreatic disease...
November 1, 2016: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27788700/-progress-in-diagnosis-and-therapy-of-extrahepatic-manifestations-of-cholestatic-liver-diseases
#16
L G Lu
Extra-hepatic complications of cholestasis mainly include pruritus, fatigue and metabolic bone diseases, and their molecular mechanisms have not yet been fully identified so far. Though therapeutic regimens targeted at the pathogenesis alleviate the symptoms temporarily, the therapeutic effects are limited, and therefore expounding the pathogenesis will help find more appropriate therapeutic approaches. Pruritus may be caused by nerve conduction block resulting from accumulation of some substances in the accumulated bile, existing recommended methods like drug therapy with cholestyramine and blood purification can markedly alleviate cholestasis-induced pruritus...
August 20, 2016: Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing za Zhi, Zhonghua Ganzangbing Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27774647/bile-acid-excess-induces-cardiomyopathy-and-metabolic-dysfunctions-in-the-heart
#17
Moreshwar S Desai, Bhoomika Mathur, Zeena Eblimit, Hernan Vasquez, Heinrich Taegtmeyer, Saul J Karpen, Daniel J Penny, David D Moore, Sayeepriyadarshini Anakk
Cardiac dysfunction in patients with liver cirrhosis is strongly associated with increased serum bile acid concentrations. Here we show that excess bile acids decrease fatty acid oxidation in cardiomyocytes and can cause heart dysfunction, a cardiac syndrome that we term cholecardia. Farnesoid X receptor; Small Heterodimer Partner double knockout mice, a model for bile acid overload, display cardiac hypertrophy, bradycardia, and exercise intolerance. In addition, double knockout mice exhibit an impaired cardiac response to catecholamine challenge...
January 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27765536/-75-sehcat-scan-in-bile-acid-malabsorption-in-chronic-diarrhoea
#18
L M Mena Bares, E Carmona Asenjo, M V García Sánchez, E Moreno Ortega, F R Maza Muret, M V Guiote Moreno, A M Santos Bueno, E Iglesias Flores, J M Benítez Cantero, J A Vallejo Casas
Chronic diarrhoea is a common entity in daily clinical practice and it leads to a loss in these patients quality of life. It may be the main symptom of multiple ethiologies including bile acid malabsorption (BAM) which has a comparable prevalence to celiac disease. The BAM results from imbalances in the homeostasis of bile acids in the enterohepatic circulation. It can be a consequence of ileal disease or ileal dysfunction (BAM type i), it can be considered idiopathic or primary (BAM type ii) or associated with other gastrointestinal entities (BAM type iii)...
January 2017: Revista Española de Medicina Nuclear e Imagen Molecular
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27747512/chronic-diarrhea-associated-with-high-teriflunomide-blood-concentration
#19
André Duquette, Anne Julie Frenette, Maxime Doré
OBJECTIVE: To report the case of a patient treated with leflunomide that presented with chronic diarrhea associated with high teriflunomide blood concentration. An 84-year-old woman taking leflunomide 20 mg once daily for the past 2 years to treat rheumatoid arthritis (RA) was investigated for severe chronic diarrhea that had been worsening for the past 5 months. The patient's general condition progressively deteriorated and included electrolyte imbalances and a transient loss of consciousness...
June 2016: Rheumatology and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27642742/-chronic-non-infectious-diarrhea-diagnostics-and-therapy
#20
Korinna Ulbricht, Peter Layer, Viola Andresen
Chronic, non-infectious diarrhea can be caused by a variety of gastrointestinal diseases. In anamnesis, it is important to take accompanying warning symptoms and specific triggers into account. The fecal inflammatory marker calprotectin may help differentiating between organic and functional gastrointestinal disorders, but it is not specific. Among other options, gelling fibres, Loperamide and Cholestyramine as well as probiotics are available for the symptomatic treatment of chronic diarrhea. For long-term treatment of chronic diarrhea with the enkephalinase inhibitor racecadotril, which is approved for acute diarrhea, only limited data are available...
September 2016: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
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