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Status epilepticus

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150213/targeted-electroconvulsive-therapy-for-super-refractory-status-epilepticus-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#1
Dana M Pinchotti, Christopher Abbott, Davin K Quinn
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 16, 2017: Psychosomatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144992/intracerebroventricular-injection-of-mir-146a-relieves-seizures-in-an-immature-rat-model-of-lithium-pilocarpine-induced-status-epilepticus
#2
Xiaole Wang, Fei Yin, Linhong Li, Huimin Kong, Baiyang You, Weixi Zhang, Shuyuan Chen, Jing Peng
OBJECTIVE: Status epilepticus (SE) is a common, life-threatening neurological emergency that confers a high degree of morbidity and mortality. Increasing evidence indicates that neuroinflammation plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of SE. MicroRNA-146a (miR-146a) has been reported to be an important posttranscriptional inflammation-associated microRNA. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of miR-146a in SE and the mechanism by which it operates. METHODS: To study the effect of miR-146a in SE, we chose intracerebroventricular injection for rat at 21-28days old, and made a lithium-pilocarpine-induced SE rat model...
November 4, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142081/genetic-and-molecular-regulation-of-extrasynaptic-gaba-a-receptors-in-the-brain-therapeutic-insights-for-epilepsy
#3
Shu-Hui Chuang, Doodipala Samba Reddy
GABA-A receptors play a pivotal role in many brain diseases. Epilepsy is caused by acquired conditions and genetic defects in GABA receptor channels regulating neuronal excitability in the brain. The latter is referred to as GABA channelopathies. In the last two decades, major advances have been made in the genetics of epilepsy. The presence of specific GABAergic genetic abnormalities leading to some of the classical epileptic syndromes has been identified. Advances in molecular cloning and recombinant systems have helped characterize mutations in GABA-A receptor subunit genes in clinical neurology...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138358/epileptic-pilocarpine-treated-rats-exhibit-aberrant-hippocampal-epsp-spike-potentiation-but-retain-long-term-potentiation
#4
Ezekiel Carpenter-Hyland, Edyta K Bichler, Mathew Smith, Robert S Sloviter, Morris Benveniste
Hippocampal neuron plasticity is strongly associated with learning, memory, and cognition. In addition to modification of synaptic function and connectivity, the capacity of hippocampal neurons to undergo plasticity involves the ability to change nonsynaptic excitability. This includes altering the probability that EPSPs will generate action potentials (E-S plasticity). Epilepsy is a prevalent neurological disorder commonly associated with neuronal hyperexcitability and cognitive dysfunction. We examined E-S plasticity in chronically epileptic Sprague-Dawley rats 3-10 weeks after pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus CA1 neurons in hippocampal slices were assayed by whole-cell current clamp to measure EPSPs evoked by Schaffer collateral stimulation...
November 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137682/cefepime-induced-neurotoxicity-a-systematic-review
#5
Lauren E Payne, David J Gagnon, Richard R Riker, David B Seder, Elizabeth K Glisic, Jane G Morris, Gilles L Fraser
BACKGROUND: Cefepime is a widely used antibiotic with neurotoxicity attributed to its ability to cross the blood-brain barrier and exhibit concentration-dependent ϒ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) antagonism. Neurotoxic symptoms include depressed consciousness, encephalopathy, aphasia, myoclonus, seizures, and coma. Data suggest that up to 15% of ICU patients treated with cefepime may experience these adverse effects. Risk factors include renal dysfunction, excessive dosing, preexisting brain injury, and elevated serum cefepime concentrations...
November 14, 2017: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131354/effect-of-status-epilepticus-on-expression-of-brain-udp-glucuronosyltransferase-1a-in-rats
#6
Yuki Asai, Hatsuna Tanaka, Masayuki Nadai, Miki Katoh
Status epilepticus (SE) involves severe epileptic seizures that cause oxidative stress in the brain. Oxidative stress is known to influence uridine 5'-diposphate-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 1A expression. The present study aimed at elucidating the effect of SE on Ugt1a1, Ugt1a6, and Ugt1a7 expression in the rat brain. Kainic acid was used to create an animal model of SE. Sprague-Dawley rats were treated intraperitoneally with 10 mg/kg kainic acid. Ugt1a1 and Ugt1a7 mRNA levels were increased by SE in the cortex and hippocampus (Ugt1a1: 4...
November 13, 2017: Biopharmaceutics & Drug Disposition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130506/animal-models-of-acquired-epilepsy-insights-into-mechanisms-of-human-epileptogenesis
#7
Albert J Becker
In many patients who suffer from epilepsies, recurrent epileptic seizures do not start at birth but develop later in life. This holds particularly true for epilepsies with a focal seizure origin including focal cortical dysplasias (FCDs) and temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). TLE most frequently has its seizure onset in the hippocampal formation. Hippocampal biopsies of pharmacoresistant TLE patients undergoing epilepsy surgery for seizure control most frequently reveal the damage pattern of hippocampal sclerosis, i...
November 12, 2017: Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128194/treatment-of-electrical-status-epilepticus-in-sleep-clinical-and-eeg-characteristics-and-response-to-147-treatments-in-47-patients
#8
Bart van den Munckhof, Christian Alderweireld, Susanne Davelaar, Heleen C van Teeseling, Stavros Nikolakopoulos, Kees P J Braun, Floor E Jansen
OBJECTIVE: Electrical status epilepticus in sleep (ESES) syndrome is characterized by near-continuous sleep-induced epileptiform activity and acquired cognitive deficits. Treatment is assumed mandatory to improve cognitive outcome. We aimed to compare EEG characteristics, subjective evaluation and objective neuropsychological assessment as measures to evaluate treatment efficacy, and to analyze possible predictors. METHODS: We retrospectively included patients with ESES syndrome treated in our center...
October 26, 2017: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127224/clinical-prediction-rule-for-neurological-sequelae-due-to-acute-encephalopathy-a-medical-community-based-validation-study-in-harima-japan
#9
Kaori Sasaki, Hiroaki Nagase, Azusa Maruyama, Kyoko Fujita, Masahiro Nishiyama, Tsukasa Tanaka, Sadayuki Nukina, Toru Takumi, Kanae Takenaka, Yoshinobu Oyazato, Atsushi Nishiyama, Tomoko Kawata, Keisuke Saeki, Yuichi Takami, Eriko Satake-Inoue, Kazumoto Iijima, Ichiro Morioka, Yoshiyuki Uetani
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to verify the screening performance of our clinical prediction rule for neurological sequelae due to acute encephalopathy (NSAE-CPR), which previously identified the following three variables as predictive of poor outcomes: (1) refractory status epilepticus; (2) consciousness disturbance and/or hemiplegia at 6 hours from onset and (3) aspartate aminotransferase >90 IU/L within 6 hours of onset. DESIGN: Medical community-based multicentre retrospective cohort study...
November 9, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125945/periodic-eeg-patterns-in-sporadic-creutzfeld-jakob-disease-can-be-benzodiazepine-responsive-and-be-difficult-to-distinguish-from-non-convulsive-status-epilepticus
#10
Justus Marquetand, Susanne Knake, Adam Strzelczyk, Bernhard J Steinhoff, Holger Lerche, Matthis Synofzik, Niels K Focke
PURPOSE: Periodic discharges in EEG and a history of rapidly progressive dementia are known to be associated with sporadic Creutzfeld-Jakob Disease (sCJD). Doubts regarding this rare but fatal diagnosis can arise, when episodic symptoms (seizures, psychiatric features, speech disturbances) are present and the EEG shows epileptiform discharges within this periodicity. This scenario may indicate non-convulsive status epilepticus (NCSE), which is - in contrast to sCJD - a treatable and frequent condition...
November 4, 2017: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125184/hepatic-and-hippocampal-cytochrome-p450-enzyme-overexpression-during-spontaneous-recurrent-seizures
#11
Leonie Runtz, Benoit Girard, Marion Toussenot, Julie Espallergues, Alexis Fayd'Herbe De Maudave, Alexandre Milman, Frederic deBock, Chaitali Ghosh, Nathalie C Guérineau, Jean-Marc Pascussi, Federica Bertaso, Nicola Marchi
OBJECTIVE: Available evidence points to a role of cytochrome P450 (Cyp) drug biotransformation enzymes in central nervous system diseases, including epilepsy. Deviations in drug pharmacokinetic profiles may impact therapeutic outcomes. Here, we ask whether spontaneous recurrent seizure (SRS) activity is sufficient to modulate the expression of major Cyp enzymes in the liver and brain. METHODS: Unilateral intrahippocampal (IH) kainic acid (KA) injections were used to elicit nonconvulsive status epilepticus (SE), epileptogenesis, and SRS, as monitored by video-electroencephalography...
November 10, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123833/clinical-characteristics-of-non-convulsive-status-epilepticus-diagnosed-by-simplified-continuous-electroencephalogram-monitoring-at-an-emergency-intensive-care-unit
#12
Satoshi Egawa, Toru Hifumi, Kenya Kawakita, Arisa Manabe, Ryuta Nakashima, Hikari Matsumura, Tomoya Okazaki, Hideyuki Hamaya, Natsuyo Shinohara, Hajime Shishido, Koshiro Takano, Yuko Abe, Masanobu Hagiike, Yuichi Kubota, Yasuhiro Kuroda
Aim: The present study aimed to elucidate the clinical characteristics of non-convulsive status epilepticus (NCSE) in patients with altered mental status (AMS). Methods: This single-center retrospective study comprised 149 patients who were hospitalized between March 1, 2015 and September 30, 2015 at the emergency intensive care unit (ICU) of the Kagawa University Hospital (Kagawa, Japan). The primary outcome was NCSE incidence. The secondary outcome was the comparison of duration of ICU stay, hospital stay, and a favorable neurological outcome, as assessed using the modified Rankin Scale score, at discharge from our hospital between patients with and without NCSE...
January 2017: Acute Medicine & Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123561/mortality-prediction-in-status-epilepticus-with-the-apache-ii-score
#13
Jocelyn Y Cheng
A retrospective study was performed of adults admitted to the intensive care unit in order to determine the utility of the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) score in predicting in-hospital mortality in intensive care unit patients with non-cardiac status epilepticus. The cohort consisted of 104 subjects, 50 (48.1%) male, 39 (37.5%) aged ≥65 years, with a mean APACHE II score of 17.88. Four models of the APACHE II system were assessed: numerical score, adjusted score mortality, category, and category mortality...
November 2017: J Intensive Care Soc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122492/d-leucine-evaluation-in-an-epilepsy-model
#14
Kylie Holden, Adam L Hartman
BACKGROUND: Current medicines do not provide sufficient seizure control for nearly one-third of patients with epilepsy. New options are needed to address this treatment gap. We recently found that the atypical amino acid d-leucine protected against acutely-induced seizures in mice, but its effect in chronic seizures has not been explored. We hypothesized that d-leucine would protect against spontaneous recurrent seizures. We also investigated whether mice lacking a previously-described d-leucine receptor (Tas1R2/R3) would be protected against acutely-induced seizures...
November 7, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111385/jnk1-inhibition-by-licochalcone-a-leads-to-neuronal-protection-against-excitotoxic-insults-derived-of-kainic-acid
#15
Oriol Busquets, Miren Ettcheto, Ester Verdaguer, Rubén Dario, Carme Auladell, Carlos Beas-Zarate, Jaume Folch, Antoni Camins
The mitogen-activated protein kinase family (MAPK) is an important group of enzymes involved in cellular responses to diverse external stimuli. One of the members of this family is the c-Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK). The activation of the JNK pathway has been largely associated with the pathogenesis that occurs in epilepsy and neurodegeneration. Kainic acid (KA) administration in rodents is an experimental approach that induces status epilepticus (SE) and replicates many of the phenomenological features of human temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE)...
October 27, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111005/impact-of-non-guideline-based-treatment-of-status-epilepticus
#16
James Braun, Elizabeth Gau, Stacy Revelle, Laurie Byrne, Abhay Kumar
BACKGROUND: This retrospective study analyzed benzodiazepine usage patterns in relation to guideline recommendations for the treatment of generalized convulsive status epilepticus (GCSE) as practiced by emergency medical services (EMS) and the emergency department (ED) of an inner-city hospital. Secondary outcomes of interest were adverse events and admission/discharge outcomes. METHODS: Records of all patients≥18years old diagnosed with GCSE between June 2012 and September 2015 and transported by EMS to our hospital ED were reviewed...
November 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110774/epilepsy
#17
Susanne Fauser, Hayrettin Tumani
Epilepsy is worldwide one of the most common neurologic diseases (prevalence 0.5-1%). The diagnostic procedure following a first epileptic seizure includes cerebral imaging, blood examinations, electroencephalography, and an investigation of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in patients seen soon after a seizure in order to exclude dangerous causes which require immediate treatment. Basic CSF investigation comprises the determination of cell counts, glucose, and lactate levels in serum and CSF and of albumin, immunoglobulins, and their quotients...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108660/usefulness-of-electroencephalography-for-the-management-of-epilepsy-in-emergency-departments
#18
A Viloria Alebesque, A López Bravo, E Bellosta Diago, S Santos Lasaosa, J A Mauri Llerda
INTRODUCTION: Electroencephalography (EEG) is an essential diagnostic tool in epilepsy. Its use in emergency departments (ED) is usually restricted to the diagnosis and management of non-convulsive status epilepticus (NCSE). However, EDs may also benefit from EEG in the context of other situations in epilepsy. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective observational study using the clinical histories of patients treated at our hospital's ED for epileptic seizures and suspicion of NCSE and undergoing EEG studies in 2015 and 2016...
November 3, 2017: Neurología: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Neurología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108409/post-anoxic-status-epilepticus-the-prognosis-is-not-always-hopeless
#19
Claudio Sandroni, Fabio S Taccone
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 6, 2017: Minerva Anestesiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108398/blockade-of-p75-neurotrophin-receptor-reverses-irritability-and-anxiety-related-behaviors-in-a-rat-model-of-status-epilepticus
#20
Soraya Mehrabi, Mahyar Janahamdi, Mohammad Taghi Joghataie, Mahmood Barati, Mohsen Marzban, Mahmoudreza Hadjighassem, Maryam Farahmandfar
Background: Many recent epidemiological studies have shown that epileptic patients are more likely suffer from depression, anxiety, and irritability. However, the cellular mechanisms of epilepsy-induced psychotic behaviors are not fully elucidated. Neurotrophin receptors have been suggested to be involved in epilepsy and also in psychiatric disorders. Up-regulation of p75NTR expression and activation of p75NTR signalling cascades after the seizure have been shown, but the role of the p75 receptor in epilepsy-induced psychotic behaviors has not been documented so far...
November 7, 2017: Iranian Biomedical Journal
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