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Status epilepticus

Jana Tchekalarova, Keylla da Conceição Machado, Antonio Luiz Gomes Júnior, Ana Amélia de Carvalho Melo Cavalcante, Albena Momchilova, Rumyana Tzoneva
PURPOSE: Activation of CB1 receptors, produces anticonvulsant effect accompanied by memory disturbance both in animal seizure tests and in patients with epilepsy. Few reports considered the role of CB2 receptor on seizure susceptibility and cognitive functions. The aim of the present study was to explore the effect of a selective CB2 receptor agonist β-caryophyllene (BCP) in models of seizures and cognition in mice. METHODS: Dose-dependent effects of BCP was studied in maximal electroshock seizure (MES) test, subcutaneous pentylenetetrazole (scPTZ) test and Morris water maze test...
March 12, 2018: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
Aruna Vashishta, Lukasz P Slomnicki, Maciej Pietrzak, Scott C Smith, Murali Kolikonda, Shivani P Naik, Rosanna Parlato, Michal Hetman
Ribosome biogenesis, including the RNA polymerase 1 (Pol1)-mediated transcription of rRNA, is regulated by the pro-epileptogenic mTOR pathway. Therefore, hippocampal Pol1 activity was examined in mouse models of epilepsy including kainic acid- and pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE) as well as a single seizure in response to pentylenetetrazole (PTZ). Elevated 47S pre-rRNA levels were present acutely after induction of SE suggesting activation of Pol1. Conversely, after a single seizure, 47S pre-rRNA was transiently downregulated with increased levels of unprocessed 18S rRNA precursors in the cornu Ammonis (CA) region...
March 15, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
Kamila Cagliari Zenki, Eduardo Kalinine, Eduardo R Zimmer, Thainá Garbino Dos Santos, Ben Hur Marins Mussulini, Luis Valmor Cruz Portela, Diogo Lösch de Oliveira
Several works have demonstrated that status epilepticus (SE) induced-neurodegeneration appears to involve an overactivation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors and treatment with high-affinity NMDAR antagonists is neuroprotective against this brain damage. However, these compounds display undesirable side effects for patients since they block physiological NMDA receptor dependent-activity. In this context, memantine (MN), a well tolerable low-affinity NMDAR channel blocker, will be a promising alternative, since it does not compromise the physiological role of NMDA receptors on synaptic transmission...
March 12, 2018: Neurotoxicology
Doodipala Samba Reddy
Neurosteroids like allopregnanolone (AP) are positive allosteric modulators of synaptic and extrasynaptic GABA-A receptors. AP and related neurosteroids exhibit a greater potency for δ-containing extrasynaptic receptors. The δGABA-A receptors, which are expressed extrasynaptically in the dentate gyrus and other regions, contribute to tonic inhibition, promoting network shunting as well as reducing seizure susceptibility. Levels of endogenous neurosteroids fluctuate with ovarian cycle. Natural and synthetic neurosteroids maximally potentiate tonic inhibition in the hippocampus and provide robust protection against a variety of limbic seizures and status epilepticus...
2018: Vitamins and Hormones
Tawfeeq Shekh-Ahmad, Ramona Eckel, Sharadha Dayalan Naidu, Maureen Higgins, Masayuki Yamamoto, Albena T Dinkova-Kostova, Stjepana Kovac, Andrey Y Abramov, Matthew C Walker
Hippocampal sclerosis is a common acquired disease that is a major cause of drug-resistant epilepsy. A mechanism that has been proposed to lead from brain insult to hippocampal sclerosis is the excessive generation of reactive oxygen species, and consequent mitochondrial failure. Here we use a novel strategy to increase endogenous antioxidant defences using RTA 408, which we show activates nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2, encoded by NFE2L2) through inhibition of kelch like ECH associated protein 1 (KEAP1) through its primary sensor C151...
March 12, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Shalendra Singh, Ankur Khandelwal, Rashmi Datta, Ashutosh Kaushal, Gyaninder Pal Singh
High-dose continuous midazolam therapy has been used successfully for control of refractory status epilepticus. However, normal anion gap (AG) metabolic acidosis, a deleterious complication of this therapy is underrecognized. Even though previously reported in an isolated case report in a pediatric patient, we observed similar complication in an adult patient. Stereotyped normal AG metabolic acidosis along with hypotension developed on two occasions during high-dose continuous midazolam hydrochloride infusion that reverted rapidly following cessation of the infusion...
February 2018: Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine
Taichi Ishiguro, Masayuki Nitta, Takashi Komori, Takashi Maruyama, Yoshihiro Muragaki, Takakazu Kawamata
BACKGROUND: Transient focal MRI abnormalities after status epilepticus (SE) are rarely seen in patients with benign brain tumors, and the underlying mechanism is still unknown. We report a rare case of cerebral cavernous malformation with transient focal MRI abnormalities around the tumor and accumulation of 11C-methionine on PET after SE. These findings mimicked those of a glioma because the MRI and methionine PET findings were similar. We also speculate about the cause of this phenomenon in relation to pathological findings of this case...
March 9, 2018: World Neurosurgery
William Szurhaj, Nicolas Engrand
About half of status epilepticus (SE) occur in patients without epilepsy. An EEG has to be performed quickly in any patient who remains unconscious after the end of convulsions with the aim to detect a subtle status. An EEG should be performed as soon as possible in case of suspicion of non-convulsive status epilepticus, or in case of a confusional state whose origin remains unknown. The realization of a cerebral imaging is very often necessary in case of inaugural SE, as soon as the patient's condition allow it...
March 8, 2018: La Presse Médicale
Wolfgang Muhlhofer, Jerzy P Szaflarski
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This paper aims to review and summarize the key contributions of EEG to prognostication after cardiac arrest (CA). RECENT FINDINGS: While there are more EEG patterns predicting poor than good outcome, even EEG patterns previously considered to be "very malignant" may result in survival with a meaningful neurological outcome depending on their underlying etiology as well as the continuity and reactivity of the EEG background. Regardless of the potentially confounding factors, EEG patterns are highly specific with a relatively low false-positive rate...
March 10, 2018: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
Kun Zhu, Bo Yuan, Ming Hu, Cheng-Jun Li, Jie-Hua Xu, Gai-Feng Feng, Yong Liu, Jian-Xin Liu
Pilocarpine-induced acute seizures strongly induce aberrant hippocampal neurogenesis, characterized by increased proliferation of neural progenitors and abnormal integrations of newly generated granule cells - hilar ectopic granule cells (EGCs), mossy fibre sprouting (MFS), and hilar basal dendrites (HBDs), which may disturb hippocampal neuronal circuits and thus contribute to cognitive impairment in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) patients and animal models. Previous studies via ablating hippocampal neurogenesis after acute seizures produced inconsistent results regarding the development of long-term cognitive impairment...
March 3, 2018: Epilepsy Research
Muhammad Irfan Farooque
Training in Emergency medicine for nearly 5 years, I thought the finish line was getting near and becoming a consultant was just down the corner. I was enjoying work, getting better every day and well appreciated by peers. But little did I know that life had other plans. I ended up in an emergency department presenting with status epilepticus preceded by vague ongoing symptoms lasting for 2 months. I was intubated and transferred to Intensive care and did not receive a formal diagnosis which still remains a mystery...
March 10, 2018: Academic Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
Keite Lira de Almeida França, Antônio-Carlos Guimarães de Almeida, Stephen E Saddow, Luiz Eduardo Canton Santos, Carla Alessandra Scorza, Fulvio Alexandre Scorza, Antônio Márcio Rodrigues
The role of GABAergic neurotransmission on epileptogenesis has been the subject of speculation according to different approaches. However, it is a very complex task to specifically consider the action of the GABAa neurotransmitter, which, in its dependence on the intracellular level of Cl- , can change its effect from inhibitory to excitatory. We have developed a computational model that represents the dentate gyrus and is composed of three different populations of neurons (granule cells, interneurons and mossy cells) that are mutually interconnected...
March 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
P Peng, X L Deng, L F Yang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2, 2018: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
Zamzam Mahamud, Joachim Burman, Johan Zelano
BACKGROUND: The 2014 ILAE clinical definition of epilepsy allows diagnosis after a single unprovoked seizure if the 10-year recurrence risk exceeds 60%. Multiple sclerosis (MS) carries an increased risk of epilepsy, but the risk after a first seizure is unknown. We aimed to investigate the risk of epilepsy in patients with MS who had suffered a first seizure. METHODS: We cross-referenced data from the Swedish MS-register with the national patient register for 15810 MS patients and 43635 controls and included 289 MS patients and 222 controls with a first diagnosis of seizure or status epilepticus (SE) without prior epilepsy or presumed symptomatic aetiology...
March 7, 2018: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
Morgayn I Read, Rebecca N Millen, Dominic M McCann, Joanne C Harrison, Douglas S Kerr, Ivan A Sammut
OBJECTIVE: Altered autonomic activity has been implicated in the development of cardiac dysfunction during seizures. This study investigates whether intervening in seizure progression with diazepam will reduce seizure-induced cardiomyopathy. Second, this study examines the hypothesis that combining atenolol with diazepam, as an intervention after seizure onset, will combat cardiac injury during status epilepticus. METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were implanted with electroencephalographic/electrocardiographic electrodes to allow simultaneous recordings during seizures induced by intrahippocampal (2 nmol, 1 μL) kainic acid (KA)...
March 7, 2018: Epilepsia
Tian-Tian Liu, Yi Li, Yi Shu, Bo Xiao, Li Feng
Ephrin‑B3 is important in the regulation of cell proliferation, differentiation and migration via cell‑cell contact, and can activate the reelin pathway during brain development. However, the effect of ephrin‑B3 on hippocampal neurogenesis and the reelin pathway in epilepsy remains to be fully elucidated. In the present study, the expression of ephrin‑B3 in pilocarpine‑induced status epilepticus (SE) rats was investigated. SYBR Green‑based reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis, immunohistochemical labeling and western blot analysis were used to detect the gene and protein expression levels of ephrin‑B3 and reelin pathway proteins...
March 7, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
M Brønstad, M Varghese, E W Nielsen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 7, 2018: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
Erika A Scholl, Stephanie M Miller-Smith, Steven L Bealer, Mark J Lehmkuhle, Jeffrey J Ekstrand, F Edward Dudek, John H McDonough
Exposure to nerve agents (NAs) and other organophosphates (OPs) can initiate seizures that rapidly progress to status epilepticus (SE). While the electrographic and neuropathological sequelae of SE evoked by NAs and OPs have been characterized in adult rodents, they have not been adequately investigated in immature animals. In this study postnatal day (PND) 14, 21 and 28 rat pups, along with PND70 animals as adult controls, were exposed to NAs (sarin, VX) or another OP (diisopropylfluorophosphate, DFP). We then evaluated behavioral and electrographic (EEG) correlates of seizure activity, and performed neuropathology using Fluoro-Jade B...
March 3, 2018: Neurotoxicology
Lin Li, Mayur Patel, Joyel Almajano, Jerome Engel, Anatol Bragin
The current study aimed to investigate the spatial and temporal patterns of high-frequency oscillations (HFOs) in the intra-/extrahippocampal areas during epileptogenesis. Local field potentials were bilaterally recorded from hippocampus (CA1), thalamus, motor cortex, and prefrontal cortex in 13 rats before and after intrahippocampal kainic acid (KA) lesions. HFOs in the ripple (100-200 Hz) and fast ripple (250-500 Hz) ranges were detected and their rates were computed during different time periods (1-5 weeks) after KA-induced status epilepticus (SE)...
March 6, 2018: Epilepsia
Naresh Mullaguri, Nakul Katyal, Aarti Sarwal, Jonathan M Beary, Pravin George, Naresh Karthikeyan, Premkumar Nattanamai, Christopher R Newey
Although a neurological examination is fundamental to the evaluation of comatose patients, it is less reliable in a medically induced coma. A commonly misinterpreted finding in patients in a pentobarbital coma is altered pupillary reactivity secondary to an exaggerated ciliospinal reflex. Recognizing an exaggerated ciliospinal reflex in patients in a pentobarbital coma is important and may prevent unnecessary intervention. We present a patient induced in a pentobarbital coma for the treatment of status epilepticus who exhibited a nonreactive pupil secondary to an exaggerated ciliospinal reflex confirmed by pupillometry...
December 30, 2017: Curēus
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