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Status epilepticus

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355816/does-status-epilepticus-modify-the-effect-of-ifenprodil-on-cortical-epileptic-afterdischarges-in-immature-rats
#1
Kenul Abbasova, Hana Kubová, Pavel Mareš
BACKGROUND: Ifenprodil as a specific antagonist of NMDA receptors containing a dominant NR2B subunit exhibits age-dependent anticonvulsant action. Possible changes of this action due to status epilepticus (SE) elicited at early stage of development were studied using cortical epileptic afterdischarges (ADs) as a model. METHODS: Lithium-pilocarpine SE was induced at postnatal day 12 and effects of ifenprodil were studied 3, 6, 9, and 13 days after SE in rat pups with implanted epidural electrodes...
August 26, 2017: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349290/a-novel-neuroprotective-mechanism-for-lithium-that-prevents-association-of-the-p75ntr-sortilin-receptor-complex-and-attenuates-prongf-induced-neuronal-death-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#2
Shayri G Greenwood, Laura Montroull, Marta Volosin, Helen E Scharfman, Kenneth K Teng, Matthew Light, Risa Torkin, Fredrick Maxfield, Barbara L Hempstead, Wilma J Friedman
Neurotrophins play critical roles in the survival, maintenance and death of neurons. In particular, proneurotrophins have been shown to mediate cell death following brain injury induced by status epilepticus (SE) in rats. Previous studies have shown that pilocarpine-induced seizures lead to increased levels of proNGF, which binds to the p75NTR-sortilin receptor complex to elicit apoptosis. A screen to identify compounds that block proNGF binding and uptake into cells expressing p75 and sortilin identified lithium citrate as a potential inhibitor of proNGF and p75NTR-mediated cell death...
January 2018: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344472/status-epilepticus-as-an-unusual-manifestation-of-heat-stroke
#3
Won Gu Lee, So-Young Huh, Jin-Hyung Lee, Bong Goo Yoo, Meyung Kug Kim
Heat stroke (HS) is a medical emergency and life threatening condition, characterized by body temperature over 40°C. This can lead to dysfunction of multiple organs such as the heart, liver, kidneys, lungs, blood coagulation system, and central nervous system. Neurological complications include change in consciousness, cerebellar dysfunction, convulsions, aphasia, muscular weakness, and parkinsonism. Cerebellar syndrome is the most common neurological finding in HS. We report a case of HS presenting with status epilepticus, without any other neurological manifestations...
December 2017: Journal of Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344471/a-6-month-old-girl-with-incontinentia-pigmenti-presenting-as-status-epilepticus
#4
Moon Young Seo, Su Jeong You, Soung Hee Kim, Woo Ho Cho, Jong Hee Chae
Incontinentia pigmenti (IP) is an uncommon neurocutaneous syndrome. Its initial diagnosis is based primarily on characteristic papulovesicular skin lesions and early-onset neonatal seizures. In contrast to typical early neurologic manifestations, we encountered a normally developed 6-month-old female patient with hyperpigmented whorls on her body. Following respiratory syncytial virus infection and fever, the patient exhibited status epilepticus. Brain magnetic resonance imaging studies of the patient were compatible with the findings of acute encephalopathy in IP...
December 2017: Journal of Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344470/aphasic-status-epilepticus-associated-with-uremia
#5
Min-Surk Kye, Jung-Ju Lee, Byung-Kun Kim, Ohyun Kwon, Jong Moo Park, Kyusik Kang, Woong-Woo Lee
Aphasic status epilepticus (ASE) is a rare disorder characterized by recurrent aphasia without impairment of other cognitive functions. A 76-year-old woman with chronic kidney disease developed ASE after neglecting peritoneal dialysis. Magnetic resonance imaging failed to demonstrate an appropriate lesion. Electroencephalography demonstrated ictal discharges in the left frontotemporal leads. ASE disappeared after intravenous valproic acid and correction of uremia. This is the first case report of ASE in a patient with acute aggravation of uremia...
December 2017: Journal of Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344469/successful-use-of-therapeutic-hypothermia-for-refractory-nonconvulsive-status-epilepticus
#6
Do-Hyung Kim, Hye-Hoon Kang, Minjung Kim, Tae-Won Yang, Oh-Young Kwon, Jung Sook Yeom, Bong Su Kang, Yong Hwan Kim, Young-Soo Kim
Therapeutic hypothermia (TH) has rarely been utilized as an adjunct to anticonvulsants in treating patients with refractory convulsive status epilepticus (CSE). However, determining the effectiveness of TH in CSE is difficult due to the unavoidable use of sedative drugs to manage hypothermia. Additionally, the effectiveness of TH has not been studied in patients with refractory non-convulsive status epilepticus (NCSE). Here, we report the successful use of TH without additional sedative drugs in a patient with temporal lobe epilepsy and refractory NCSE...
December 2017: Journal of Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343030/-expression-of-high-mobility-group-box-%C3%A2-and-n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor-in-status-epilepticus
#7
D Wu, X Han, J Feng, Y J Song
Objective: To investigate the expression changes of high mobility group box-1 (HMGB1) and the 2B receptor of N- methyl -D- aspartate receptor (NR2B) in status epilepticus (SE). Methods: (1) Primary hippocampal neurons from SD rats with 16 to 18 days of fetal age were cultured in vitro for 7 days, and exposed to Mg(2+) free media for 3 hours. Those cultured neurons were randomly divided into control group and intermittent hypoxia group. (2) SD rats with similar weight were selected and randomly divided into control group and SE model group...
January 2, 2018: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336839/effect-of-thymectomy-on-refractory-autoimmune-status-epilepticus
#8
Alberto Vogrig, Giada Pauletto, Enrico Belgrado, Enrico Pegolo, Carla Di Loreto, Veronique Rogemond, Jerome Honnorat, Roberto Eleopra
Refractory status epilepticus (RSE) is an increasingly recognized manifestation of autoimmune encephalitis, which can occur either as a paraneoplastic or non-paraneoplastic disorder. The effect of tumor removal in paraneoplastic status epilepticus has never been explored systematically, although early tumor treatment is usually recommended. In this study, we report clinical, pathological and EEG findings of a patient who developed RSE as one of multiple paraneoplastic manifestations of thymoma and the effect of thymectomy on seizure outcome...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333611/cognitive-dysfunction-after-generalized-tonic-clonic-status-epilepticus-in-adults
#9
K N Power, A Gramstad, N E Gilhus, K O Hufthammer, B A Engelsen
OBJECTIVES: Generalized tonic-clonic status epilepticus (GTC-SE) is considered a risk for cognitive impairment. Research with standardized tools is scarce and non-conclusive. We systematically assessed short-term and long-term cognitive function after GTC-SE. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-three patients were tested after the clinical post-ictal phase of GTC-SE (timepoint 1) and again after 1 year (timepoint 2). Twenty controls were examined with the same tests...
January 14, 2018: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333566/principles-of-management-of-central-nervous-system-infections
#10
REVIEW
Sunit Singhi, Suresh Kumar Angurana
CNS infections in children are medical emergency and are associated with high mortality and morbidity. For diagnosis, a high index of suspicion is required. Clinical assessment should be supplemented by laboratory investigations including CSF Gram stain and cultures, blood culture, PCR on CSF, serological tests, and imaging. Commonly associated life threatening complications include coma, seizure, raised intracranial pressure (ICP), focal deficits, shock, respiratory failure, and fluid and electrolyte abnormalities...
January 15, 2018: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327152/the-prevalence-and-impact-of-status-epilepticus-secondary-to-intracerebral-hemorrhage-results-from-the-us-nationwide-inpatient-sample
#11
Amol Mehta, Benjamin E Zusman, Lori A Shutter, Ravi Choxi, Ahmed Yassin, Arun Antony, Parthasarathy D Thirumala
BACKGROUND: Status epilepticus (SE) has been identified as a predictor of morbidity and mortality in many acute brain injury patient populations. We aimed to assess the prevalence and impact of SE after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) in a large patient sample to overcome limitations in previous small patient sample studies. METHODS: We queried the Nationwide Inpatient Sample for patients admitted for ICH from 1999 to 2011, excluding patients with other acute brain injuries...
January 11, 2018: Neurocritical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324357/a-pilot-study-of-the-role-of-the-claustrum-in-attention-and-seizures-in-rats
#12
Arezou Bayat, Sweta Joshi, Sahar Jahan, Phillip Connell, Komei Tsuchiya, David Chau, Tanvir Syed, Patrick Forcelli, Mohamad Z Koubeissi
OBJECTIVE: The claustrum has been implicated in consciousness, and MRIs of patients with status epilepticus have shown increased claustral signal intensity. In an attempt to investigate the role of claustrum in cognition and seizures, we (1) assessed the effect of high-frequency stimulation (HFS) of the claustrum on performance in the operant chamber; (2) studied interclaustral and claustrohippocampal connectivity through cerebro-cerebral evoked potentials (CCEPs); and (3) investigated the role of claustrum in kainate-induced (KA) seizures...
January 5, 2018: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322820/reevaluation-of-the-critically-ill-patients-with-nonconvulsive-status-epilepticus-by-using-salzburg-consensus-criteria
#13
Ozlem Gungor Tuncer, Ebru Altindag, Sevda Ozel Yildiz, Mecbure Nalbantoglu, Mehmet Eren Acik, Sedef Tavukcu Ozkan, Betul Baykan
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to assess the usefulness of the Salzburg Consensus Criteria (SCC) for determining the prognosis of critically ill patients with nonconvulsive status epilepticus (NCSE). METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed consecutive patients with unconsciousness followed up in the intensive care unit (ICU). Three clinical neurophysiologists, one of them blinded to clinical and laboratory data, reevaluated all EEG data independently and determined NCSE according to SCC...
January 1, 2018: Clinical EEG and Neuroscience: Official Journal of the EEG and Clinical Neuroscience Society (ENCS)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320603/drug-management-for-acute-tonic-clonic-convulsions-including-convulsive-status-epilepticus-in-children
#14
REVIEW
Amy McTague, Timothy Martland, Richard Appleton
BACKGROUND: Tonic-clonic convulsions and convulsive status epilepticus (currently defined as a tonic-clonic convulsion lasting at least 30 minutes) are medical emergencies and require urgent and appropriate anticonvulsant treatment. International consensus is that an anticonvulsant drug should be administered for any tonic-clonic convulsion that has been continuing for at least five minutes. Benzodiazepines (diazepam, lorazepam, midazolam) are traditionally regarded as first-line drugs and phenobarbital, phenytoin and paraldehyde as second-line drugs...
January 10, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317669/selective-targeting-of-scn8a-prevents-seizure-development-in-a-mouse-model-of-mesial-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#15
Jennifer C Wong, Christopher D Makinson, Tyra Lamar, Qi Cheng, Jeffrey C Wingard, Ernest F Terwilliger, Andrew Escayg
We previously found that genetic mutants with reduced expression or activity of Scn8a are resistant to induced seizures and that co-segregation of a mutant Scn8a allele can increase survival and seizure resistance of Scn1a mutant mice. In contrast, Scn8a expression is increased in the hippocampus following status epilepticus and amygdala kindling. These findings point to Scn8a as a promising therapeutic target for epilepsy and raise the possibility that aberrant overexpression of Scn8a in limbic structures may contribute to some epilepsies, including temporal lobe epilepsy...
January 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315614/defining-the-phenotypic-spectrum-of-slc6a1-mutations
#16
Katrine M Johannesen, Elena Gardella, Tarja Linnankivi, Carolina Courage, Anne de Saint Martin, Anna-Elina Lehesjoki, Cyril Mignot, Alexandra Afenjar, Gaetan Lesca, Marie-Thérèse Abi-Warde, Jamel Chelly, Amélie Piton, J Lawrence Merritt, Lance H Rodan, Wen-Hann Tan, Lynne M Bird, Mark Nespeca, Joseph G Gleeson, Yongjin Yoo, Murim Choi, Jong-Hee Chae, Desiree Czapansky-Beilman, Sara Chadwick Reichert, Manuela Pendziwiat, Judith S Verhoeven, Helenius J Schelhaas, Orrin Devinsky, Jakob Christensen, Nicola Specchio, Marina Trivisano, Yvonne G Weber, Caroline Nava, Boris Keren, Diane Doummar, Elise Schaefer, Sarah Hopkins, Holly Dubbs, Jessica E Shaw, Laura Pisani, Candace T Myers, Sha Tang, Shan Tang, Deb K Pal, John J Millichap, Gemma L Carvill, Kathrine L Helbig, Oriano Mecarelli, Pasquale Striano, Ingo Helbig, Guido Rubboli, Heather C Mefford, Rikke S Møller
OBJECTIVE: Pathogenic SLC6A1 variants were recently described in patients with myoclonic atonic epilepsy (MAE) and intellectual disability (ID). We set out to define the phenotypic spectrum in a larger cohort of SCL6A1-mutated patients. METHODS: We collected 24 SLC6A1 probands and 6 affected family members. Four previously published cases were included for further electroclinical description. In total, we reviewed the electroclinical data of 34 subjects. RESULTS: Cognitive development was impaired in 33/34 (97%) subjects; 28/34 had mild to moderate ID, with language impairment being the most common feature...
January 8, 2018: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313881/stiripentol-for-the-treatment-of-super-refractory-status-epilepticus-with-cross-sensitivity
#17
Y Uchida, K Terada, Y Madokoro, T Fujioka, M Mizuno, T Toyoda, D Kato, N Matsukawa
BACKGROUND: Cross-sensitivity of rash has been reported between various antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). However, few studies have determined the frequency and management of cross-sensitivity in patients with super-refractory status epilepticus (SRSE). AIMS OF THE STUDY: To examine the optimal AED for treating SRSE with cross-sensitivity. METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of adult patients with SRSE treated at Nagoya City University Hospital, in which we investigated the frequency of cross-sensitivity among patients with SRSE and their clinical and medical profiles...
January 3, 2018: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307885/methylene-blue-exerts-anticonvulsant-and-neuroprotective-effects-on-self-sustaining-status-epilepticus-ssse-induced-by-prolonged-basolateral-amygdala-stimulation-in-wistar-rats
#18
Zhi-Qiang Cui, Wen-Ling Li, Yan Luo, Ji-Peng Yang, Zhen-Zhen Qu, Wen-Qing Zhao
BACKGROUND This study was designed to investigate the potential anticonvulsant and neuroprotective effects of methylene blue (MB) on self-sustaining status epilepticus (SSSE) induced by prolonged basolateral amygdala stimulation (BLA) in Wistar rats. MATERIAL AND METHODS The rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: (1) the Control group (rats without any treatment); (2) the Sham group (rats received electrode implantation but without electrical stimulation); (3) the SSSE group (rats received electrode implantation and additional electrical stimulation); and (4) the SSSE+MB group (rats received 1 mg/kg MB intraperitoneal injection 5 min after SSSE)...
January 8, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306558/high-dose-phenobarbitone-coma-in-pediatric-refractory-status-epilepticus-a-retrospective-case-record-analysis-a-proposed-protocol-and-review-of-literature
#19
Sheffali Gulati, Vishal Sondhi, Biswaroop Chakrabarty, Prashant Jauhari, Rakesh Lodha, Jhuma Sankar
BACKGROUND: Ongoing refractory status epilepticus is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Therapeutic coma induction with midazolam, thiopentone, phenobarbitone or propofol is indicated when conventional antiepileptics fail to abort seizure. Of these, the most extensively studied is midazolam. Amongst the remaining three, phenobarbitone has the most favourable pharmacological profile, but has not been studied adequately, more so in the pediatric age group. The current retrospective case records analysis is an attempt to describe use of phenobarbitone coma in pediatric refractory status epilepticus...
January 3, 2018: Brain & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306399/clinical-characterization-of-unknown-cryptogenic-status-epilepticus-suspected-as-encephalitis-a-multicenter-cohort-study
#20
Jung-Won Shin, Yong Seo Koo, Young-Soo Kim, Dong Wook Kim, Kwang Ki Kim, Seo-Young Lee, Hyun Kyung Kim, Hye-Jin Moon, Jung-Ah Lim, Jung-Ick Byun, Jun-Sang Sunwoo, Jangsup Moon, Soon-Tae Lee, Keun-Hwa Jung, Kyung-Il Park, Kon Chu, Jae Moon Kim, Yong-Won Cho, Ki-Young Jung, Sang Kun Lee
Autoimmune and unknown/cryptogenic encephalitis have been increasingly noted in the inflammatory etiology of new-onset status epilepticus (SE). We aimed to investigate clinical characteristics and the potential role of immunotherapy in encephalitis-related adult SE through our multicenter prospective SE registry. Among the 274 patients with SE, 35 (12.8%) patients demonstrated an inflammatory etiology and 19 out of 35 (54.3%) patients demonstrated unknown/cryptogenic cause. Patients with autoimmune and unknown/cryptogenic encephalitis shared similar clinical features...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Neuroimmunology
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