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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913959/reaction-of-complement-factors-and-proteasomes-in-experimental-encephalitis
#1
Stefan Lange, Tomas Bergström, Ewa Johansson, Merna Oshalim, Ivar Lönnroth
Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) encephalitis causes a deleterious inflammation and elevated intracranial pressure. As a step towards examining the origin of the inflammation, we here report the response of circulating proteasomes and complement factors in blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in rats infected with HSV-1. Infection was via the nasal route, with 1.1 × 10(4) plaque-forming units of HSV-1 strain 2762 given in one or both nostrils. A sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to study the level of 26S proteasomes and their complex formation with complement factors 3 and 4...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913261/typical-symptoms-of-normal-pressure-hydrocephalus-caused-by-choroid-plexus-papilloma-in-the-cerebellopontine-angle-a-case-report
#2
Hiroshi Ito, Yukiko Nakahara, Masatou Kawashima, Jun Masuoka, Tatsuya Abe, Toshio Matsushima
BACKGROUND: Choroid plexus papillomas (CPPs) are rare benign intracranial tumors. Here, we report a rare case of CPP presenting with typical symptoms of normal-pressure hydrocephalus not with obstructive hydrocephalus. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 45-year-old female presented with a 6-year history of headache and typical symptoms of normal-pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) such as gait disturbance, urinary incontinence, and cognitive dysfunction in addition to the more common symptoms of choroid plexus papillomas (CPP), such as lower cranial nerve dysfunctions and ataxia...
November 29, 2016: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909013/comparison-of-cerebrospinal-fluid-opening-pressure-in-children-with-demyelinating-disease-to-children-with-primary-intracranial-hypertension
#3
Bethanie Morgan-Followell, Shawn C Aylward
The authors aimed to compare the opening pressures of children with demyelinating disease to children with primary intracranial hypertension. Medical records were reviewed for a primary diagnosis of demyelinating disease, or primary intracranial hypertension. Diagnosis of demyelinating disease was made according to either the 2007 or 2012 International Pediatric Multiple Sclerosis Study Group criteria. Primary intracranial hypertension diagnosis was confirmed by presence of elevated opening pressure, normal cerebrospinal fluid composition and neuroimaging...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907969/neuroprotection-in-critical-care-neurology
#4
Menno R Germans, Hieronymus D Boogaarts, R Loch Macdonald
Ischemic stroke, intracerebral hemorrhage, subarachnoid hemorrhage, and traumatic brain injury-all have in common early brain injury due to brain tissue destruction, reduced cerebral blood flow and oxygen delivery, and overall substantial morbidity and mortality. The pathophysiology of brain tissue damage likely includes common cellular mechanisms. Neuroprotection has seldom, if ever, been shown to reduce early brain injury. Secondary brain injury develops after these conditions due to macroscopic events such as increased intracranial pressure and reduced cerebral blood flow, as well as cellular processes including vascular damage, inflammation, and apoptotic/necrotic cell death...
December 2016: Seminars in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907960/multimodality-monitoring-illuminating-the-comatose-human-brain
#5
Charles L Francoeur, Margaret Pain, Stephan A Mayer
The field of neurocritical care has evolved tremendously in recent years, a development explained vastly by the advent of neurophysiological monitoring. From basic intracranial pressure measurements to brain tissue oxygenation, microdialysis, cerebral blood flow (CBF), and surface and intracortical electroencephalography (EEG), our ability to detect and control physiologic endpoints of brain function in comatose patients has grown substantially. The integration of these data gave birth to the concept of multimodality monitoring (MMM)...
December 2016: Seminars in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907158/effects-of-exposure-to-blast-overpressure-on-intracranial-pressure-and-blood-brain-barrier-permeability-in-a-rat-model
#6
Usmah Kawoos, Ming Gu, Jason Lankasky, Richard M McCarron, Mikulas Chavko
Exposure to blast overpressure (BOP) activates a cascade of pathological processes including changes in intracranial pressure (ICP) and blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability resulting in traumatic brain injury (TBI). In this study the effect of single and multiple exposures at two intensities of BOP on changes in ICP and BBB permeability in Sprague-Dawley rats was evaluated. Animals were exposed to a single or three repetitive (separated by 0.5 h) BOPs at 72 kPa or 110 kPa. ICP was monitored continuously via telemetry for 6 days after exposure to BOP...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906948/cervical-interlaminar-epidural-injections-at-high-doses-do-not-increase-optic-nerve-sheath-diameter-on-a-long-term-basis
#7
Hyunzu Kim, Joo Hyeon O, Sung-Jun Hong, Keun Man Shin, JungChan Park, Sang Soo Kang
BACKGROUND: Cervical epidural injection (CEI) is widely performed on patients with pain originating from the cervical spine. Studies have shown a good relationship between the optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD) and the intracranial pressure (ICP). OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes in the ONSD as a non-invasive surrogate marker of ICP after CEI. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective observational study. SETTING: Hospital and ambulatory pain clinic...
November 2016: Pain Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906426/continuous-monitoring-of-intracranial-pressure-for-prediction-of-postoperative-complications-of-hypertensive-intracerebral-hemorrhage
#8
S-X Yu, Q-S Zhang, Y Yin, Z Liu, J-M Wu, M-X Yang
OBJECTIVE: This study evaluates the value of continuous dynamic monitoring of intracranial pressure (ICP) in patients with hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage to predict early postoperative complications. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Data from 80 patients treated in our hospital from February 2014 to February 2015 were analyzed. The patients all underwent decompressive craniectomies, and their ICP changes were monitored invasively and continuously for 1 to 7 days after surgery...
November 2016: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906037/integrated-therapy-for-hiv-and-cryptococcosis
#9
REVIEW
Sirawat Srichatrapimuk, Somnuek Sungkanuparph
Cryptococcosis has been one of the most common opportunistic infections and causes of mortality among HIV-infected patients, especially in resource-limited countries. Cryptococcal meningitis is the most common form of cryptococcosis. Laboratory diagnosis of cryptococcosis includes direct microscopic examination, isolation of Cryptococcus from a clinical specimen, and detection of cryptococcal antigen. Without appropriate treatment, cryptococcosis is fatal. Early diagnosis and treatment is the key to treatment success...
November 29, 2016: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903844/therapeutic-approaches-to-pediatric-pseudotumor-cerebri-new-insights-from-literature-data
#10
Giovanna Vitaliti, Piero Pavone, Nassim Matin, Omidreza Tabatabaie, Salvatore Cocuzza, Michele Vecchio, Luigi Maiolino, Paola Di Mauro, Angelo Conti, Riccardo Lubrano, Agostino Serra, Raffaele Falsaperla
The pseudotumor cerebri syndrome (PTCS), also known as idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH), is characterized by signs and symptoms of increased intracranial pressure such as headache and cranial nerve palsies, in the absence of any space-occupying mass. This condition commonly affects overweight women of childbearing age, even if it is also frequent in men and children. Children with PTCS may present with atypical signs and symptoms, with a different prognosis compared to adults. However, the treatment is the same for both children and adults, even if there are no strict treatment guidelines in regards...
November 30, 2016: International Journal of Immunopathology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903020/dynamic-decompressive-craniotomy-with-a-novel-reversibly-expandable-plate
#11
Rohit Khanna
Objective To assess the feasibility of a dynamic craniotomy procedure with the use of a novel reversibly expandable cranial bone flap fixation plate. The expandable plate allows outward bone flap migration with an increase in intracranial volume or intracranial pressure (ICP). Methods Dynamic craniotomy intracranial hypertension compliance was evaluated in a skull model with progressive increase in intracranial volume and compared with the standard craniotomy with fixed plates. Results Dynamic craniotomy provided significant control of ICP with increasing intracranial volume compared with the standard craniotomy...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Neurological Surgery. Part A, Central European Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903014/effects-of-meteorological-variables-on-the-incidence-of-rupture-of-intracranial-aneurysms-in-central-new-jersey
#12
Marissa Kellogg, Dimitriy Petrov, Nitin Agarwal, Nitesh V Patel, David Richard Hansberry, Prateek Agarwal, Michael Brimacombe, Chirag D Gandhi, Charles Prestigiacomo
Introduction Previous studies have suggested relationships between the rupture of intracranial aneurysms and meteorological variables such as season, barometric pressure, and temperature. Our objective was to examine the relationship between the incidence of hospital admissions secondary to aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) and meteorological variables in central New Jersey. Methods The study population consisted of 312 patients who presented to University Hospital in Newark, New Jersey, between January 1, 2003, and December 31, 2008, with aSAH...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Neurological Surgery. Part A, Central European Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903013/isoflurane-associated-mydriasis-mimicking-blown-pupils-in-a-patient-treated-in-a-neurointensive-care-unit
#13
Eva Magdalena Korf, Volker Martin Tronnier, Jan Gliemroth, Jan Nils Küchler
We report a misinterpretation of bilateral mydriasis as blown pupils related to elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) under volatile sedation with isoflurane (Anesthetic Conserving Device [AnaConDa], Hudson RCI, Uppland Vasby, Sweden) in a 59-year-old patient with a severe traumatic brain injury with frontal contusion. The patient showed bilateral mydriasis and a missing light reflex 8 hours after changing sedation from intravenous treatment with midazolam and esketamine to volatile administration of isoflurane...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Neurological Surgery. Part A, Central European Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900232/vanishing-pituitary-macroadenoma-a-case-report
#14
Emily P Sieg, Hayk Stepanyan, Russell Payne, Tao Ouyang, Brad E Zacharia
Pituitary macroadenomas are the most common suprasellar lesions in adults and are typically managed surgically through transsphenoidal resection when symptomatic. Due to their close proximity to the optic chiasm, pituitary macroadenomas often present with signs of bitemporal hemianopsia. Alternatively, these tumors can cause mass effect, thus presenting with signs of elevated intracranial pressure or can present with signs and symptoms of endocrine dysfunction. Here, we discuss a 55-year-old male diagnosed with a non-functioning pituitary macroadenoma (NFPA) based on cranial imaging, ophthalmologic exam, and endocrine evaluation...
October 20, 2016: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894887/ultrasound-tissue-pulsatility-imaging-suggests-impairment-in-global-brain-pulsatility-and-small-vessels-in-elderly-patients-with-orthostatic-hypotension
#15
Julie Biogeau, Thomas Desmidt, Paul-Armand Dujardin, Redouane Ternifi, Charlotte Eudo, Emilie Vierron, Jean-Pierre Remenieras, Frédéric Patat, Vincent Camus, Thierry Constans
BACKGROUND: Orthostatic hypotension (OH) is highly prevalent in the elderly, and this population can be exposed to serious complications, including falls and cognitive disorders, as well as overall mortality. However, the pathophysiology of OH is still poorly understood, and innovative methods of cerebral blood flow (CBF) assessment have been required to accurately investigate cerebrovascular reactivity in OH. OBJECTIVES: We want to compare brain tissue pulsatility (BTP) changes during an orthostatic challenge in elderly patients over 80 with and without OH...
November 25, 2016: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890762/the-clinical-value-of-intraoperative-mobile-computed-tomography-in-managing-high-risk-surgical-patients-with-traumatic-brain-injury-a-single-tertiary-trauma-center-experience
#16
Ko-Ting Chen, Shih-Tseng Lee, Chieh-Tsai Wu
OBJECTS: A subset of surgically-treated traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients cannot be stabilized by initial surgery. Mobile computed tomography (mCT) provides real-time information for diagnosis in these TBI-surgically high risk (TBI-SHR) patients. The objective of this study was to analyze a 5-year series of TBI-SHR patients to evaluate the impact of intraoperative mCT (imCT) on prognosis. METHODS: Out of 1017 surgically-treated TBI patients retrospectively reviewed over a 5-year period (2009-2013), fifty-nine patients required second operations within 72 hours of their initial surgery due to progressive or delayed hematomas (TBI-SHR group)...
November 24, 2016: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890189/diplopia-what-to-double-check-in-radiographic-imaging-of-double-vision
#17
REVIEW
Claudia F E Kirsch, Karen Black
When patients see double with both eyes open, known as "binocular diplopia," this may be a harbinger of underlying life-threatening causes. This article presents pertinent anatomy, critical abnormality, and radiographic features that should be double checked for in diplopia. Key areas requiring a double check using the acronym VISION include Vascular, Infectious and Inflammatory, the Scalp for giant cell arteritis, Sphenoid and Skull base in trauma, Increased intracranial pressure (pseudotumor cerebri), Onset of new headaches or psychosis, and Neoplasm...
January 2017: Radiologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886896/venous-sinus-stenting-for-idiopathic-intracranial-hypertension-where-are-we-now
#18
REVIEW
Marc J Dinkin, Athos Patsalides
Idiopathic intracranial hypertension causes headache, papilledema and visual field loss, typically in obese women of childbearing age. Its anatomical underpinnings remain unclear, but a stenosis at the junction of the transverse and sigmoid sinuses has been recognized in the majority of patients through venography. The stenosis may result from intrinsic dural sinus anatomy or extrinsic compression by increased intracranial pressure, but in either case, its stenting has been shown to lead to an improvement in symptoms of intracranial hypertension and papilledema in multiple retrospective, non-controlled studies...
February 2017: Neurologic Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886895/update-on-idiopathic-intracranial-hypertension
#19
REVIEW
Michael Wall
Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) is a disorder of elevated intracranial pressure of unknown cause occurring predominantly in young women of childbearing age. The typical patient symptom profile is the presence of daily headache, pulse synchronous tinnitus, transient visual obscurations, and papilledema with its associated visual loss. Although surgical procedures are performed for those who fail medical therapy, their relative efficacy remains unclear. The main morbidity of IIH is from visual loss...
February 2017: Neurologic Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884843/traumatic-brain-injury-in-england-and-wales-prospective-audit-of-epidemiology-complications-and-standardised-mortality
#20
T Lawrence, A Helmy, O Bouamra, M Woodford, F Lecky, P J Hutchinson
OBJECTIVES: To provide a comprehensive assessment of the management of traumatic brain injury (TBI) relating to epidemiology, complications and standardised mortality across specialist units. DESIGN: The Trauma Audit and Research Network collects data prospectively on patients suffering trauma across England and Wales. We analysed all data collected on patients with TBI between April 2014 and June 2015. SETTING: Data were collected on patients presenting to emergency departments across 187 hospitals including 26 with specialist neurosurgical services, incorporating factors previously identified in the Ps14 multivariate logistic regression (Ps14(n)) model multivariate TBI outcome prediction model...
November 24, 2016: BMJ Open
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